Criteria

Text:
Topic:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 359
2017-12-08
Paper
SN-0003
Small tactical UAVs (SUAVs) have made their mark in military operations with their ability to gather and provide localized, real-time information. Typical uses include perimeter surveillance of remote military compounds, over-the-horizon surveillance, and remote monitoring of critical logistics routes. However, their potential to take on increased and increasingly complex missions is hampered by their limited endurance. This work explores research done under the auspices of the European Commission’s Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking on a fuel cell and battery hybrid energy storage system that could increase the total amount of onboard energy storage, while continuing to deliver the peak power needs of the SUAV.
2017-10-25
White Paper
WP-0002
The environmental impact of hydrocarbon-burning aircraft, both from the perspective of gas emissions and that of noise, is one of the main motivations for the move to electric propulsion. The added benefit from this shift to electric propulsion is that it has resulted in lowering the costs of electrical components such as motors, power electronic (PE) circuits, and batteries that are essential to this technology. This white paper seeks to explore the history, architecture, electrical components, and future trends of electric flight technology.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2459
Liu Xiaojun, Yu Jinpeng, Yang Xia, Wu Daoming, Jie Zhu
Abstract In the case of electric vehicles, due to the charging current limitation of lithium battery at low temperatures (below -20°C), it has been proposed to heat the battery pack up to a suitable temperature range before charging through a liquid-heating plate with PTC. However, at a low state of charge (SOC), there is a question which one could take the place of battery pack to supply power for PTC when heating. So that off-board charger (OFC) has been considered to supply power for PTC in this paper. In order to control the current charging into the battery pack as less as possible at low temperatures, three control schemes of battery management system (BMS) are proposed and compared. Scheme 1: BMS controls the value of charging current request close to the working current of PTC. Scheme 2: BMS controls the value of charging voltage request to reach a state of relative balance. Scheme 3: BMS disconnects the pack from the charger and keeps the connection between PTC and charger.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2425
Ramit Verma, Ramdas R Ugale
Abstract On two wheelers, magneto/alternator generates either single/three phase AC power and Regulator Rectifier Unit (RRU) does regulated rectification to charge the battery. In order to face the requirements of 2-wheeler engine with respect to upcoming stringent regulations like electronic fuel injection (EFI), anti-lock braking system (ABS), automatic headlamp on (AHO) in emerging markets like India; vehicles demand more electrical power from batteries. This demands higher power from alternator and consequently from RRU. Requirement of higher output power presents challenges on regulator rectifier unit in terms of size, power dissipation management and reliability. In this paper, improved performance of MOSFET based RRU is discussed in comparison to Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) based RRU. The motivation/benefits of MOSFET based design is described along with the thermal behavior and temperature coefficient performance of RRU with test results.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2453
Shuang Liu, Lina Pan, Xin Jiang, Yujiao Wang, Kun Liu, Yang Xia
Abstract Quick drop battery system was the core components of the electric vehicles, the reliability and compatibility of quick drop battery system was directly related to the popularization and application of electric vehicles. In this article, a split type battery management system and a split type high voltage architecture was used to achieve better charging compatibility. Meanwhile the number of fast switching connector’s pin is reduced and the plug life was prolonged to more than 10000 times by using floating structure. For battery management system (BMS), the state of charge (SOC) estimation was based on dynamic voltage correction, and make estimation accuracy reach to less than 5%. Rotary slot limit and fast locking mechanism had been designed for the first time and the precision of battery system assembling could control within 3mm, hence the floating structure’s damage could be reduced and the mechanical life could be enhanced.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2454
Yiqi Jia, Gangfeng Tan, Cenyi Liu, Shengguang Xiong, Zehao Yang, Xingmang Zheng
Abstract In these years, the advantages of using phase change material (PCM) in the thermal management of electric power battery has been wide spread. Because of the thermal conductivity of most phase change material (eg.wax) is low, many researchers choose to add high conductivity materials (such as black lead). However, the solid-liquid change material has large mass, poor flow-ability and corrosively. Therefore, it still stays on experiential stage. In this paper, the Thermal characteristics of power battery firstly be invested and the requirements of thermal management system also be discussed. Then a new PCM thermal management has been designed which uses pure water as liquid phase change material, adopts PCM with a reflux device for thermal management.
2017-09-19
Journal Article
2017-01-2142
Brandon Mahoney, Jamie Marshall, Thomas Black, Dennis Moxley
The supersession of metallic alloys with lightweight, high-strength composites is popular in the aircraft industry. However, aviation electronic enclosures for large format batteries and high power conversion electronics are still primarily made of aluminum alloys. These aluminum enclosures have attractive properties regrading structural integrity for the heavy internal parts, electromagnetic interference (EMI) suppression, electrical bonding for the internal cells, and/or electronics and failure containment. This paper details a lightweight carbon fiber composite chassis developed at Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) Securaplane, with a copper metallic mesh co-cured onto the internal surfaces resulting in a 50% reduction in weight when compared to its aluminum counterpart. In addition to significant weight reduction, it provides equal or improved performance with respect to EMI, structural and flammability performance.
2017-06-22
Technical Paper
2017-36-0047
Felipe Lima dos Reis Marques, Sender Rocha dos Santos, Mauro Fernando Basquera Junior, Thiago Chiachio do Nascimento, Raul Fernando Beck, Maria de Fátima Negreli Campos Rosolem, Ricardo Souza Figueiredo, Rogério Valentim Pereira
Abstract One main feature of the power demand profile is it varies time to time and its price changes accordingly. During the peak the less cost-effective and flexible power supplies must complement the base-load power plants in order to supply the power demand. Conversely, during the off-peak period when less electricity is consumed, those costly power plants can be stopped. This is a scenario which Energy Storage System (ESS) and photovoltaic (PV) generation plants could add flexibility and cost reduction to the customers and utilities. These aspects are only achieved due to the ESS, which enables the optimal use of energy produced by the photovoltaic modules through load management and discharge of the battery in the most convenient times.
2017-06-17
Journal Article
2017-01-9078
Dong Gao, MiaoHua Huang, Jiangang Xie
In order to solve the environmental pollution and energy crisis, Electric Vehicles (EVs) have been developed rapidly. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is the key power supply equipment for EVs, and the scientific and accurate prediction of its Remaining Useful Life (RUL) has become a hot topic in the field of new energy research. The internal resistance and capacity are often used to characterize the Li-ion battery State of Health (SOH) from which RUL is obtained. However, in practical applications, it is difficult to obtain internal resistance and capacity information by using the non-intrusive measurement method. Therefore, it is necessary to extract the measurable parameters to characterize the degradation of Li-ion battery. At present, the methods of extracting health indicators based on measurable parameters have gained preliminary results, but most of them are derived from the Li-ion battery discharging data.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0001
Ming Cheng, Bo Chen
Abstract This paper studies the hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) design of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) for the research of HEV lithiumion battery aging. In this paper, an electrochemical model of a lithium-ion battery pack with the characteristics of battery aging is built and integrated into the vehicle model of Autonomie® software from Argonne National Laboratory. The vehicle model, together with the electrochemical battery model, is designed to run in a dSPACE real-time simulator while the powertrain power distribution is managed by a dSPACE MicroAutoBoxII hardware controller. The control interface is designed using dSPACE ControlDesk to monitor the real-time simulation results. The HiL simulation results with the performance of vehicle dynamics and the thermal aging of the battery are presented and analyzed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1182
Xin Guo, Xu Peng, Sichuan Xu
Abstract Startup from subzero temperature is one of the major challenges for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) to realize commercialization. Below the freezing point (0°C), water will freeze easily, which blocks the reactant gases into the reaction sites, thus leading to the start failure and material degradation. Therefore, for PEMFC in vehicle application, finding suitable ways to reach successful startup from subfreezing environment is a prerequisite. As it’s difficult and complex for experimental studies to measure the internal quantities, mathematical models are the effective ways to study the detailed transport process and physical phenomenon, which make it possible to achieve detailed prediction of the inner life of the cell. However, review papers only on cold start numerical models are not available. In this study, an extensive review on cold start models is summarized featuring the states and phase changes of water, heat and mass transfer.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1183
Kenneth Johnson, Michael J. Veenstra, David Gotthold, Kevin Simmons, Kyle Alvine, Bert Hobein, Daniel Houston, Norman Newhouse, Brian Yeggy, Alex Vaipan, Thomas Steinhausler, Anand Rau
Abstract Fuel cell vehicles are entering the automotive market with significant potential benefits to reduce harmful greenhouse emissions, facilitate energy security, and increase vehicle efficiency while providing customer expected driving range and fill times when compared to conventional vehicles. One of the challenges for successful commercialization of fuel cell vehicles is transitioning the on-board fuel system from liquid gasoline to compressed hydrogen gas. Storing high pressurized hydrogen requires a specialized structural pressure vessel, significantly different in function, size, and construction from a gasoline container. In comparison to a gasoline tank at near ambient pressures, OEMs have aligned to a nominal working pressure of 700 bar for hydrogen tanks in order to achieve the customer expected driving range of 300 miles.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1184
Kiyoshi Handa, Shigehiro Yamaguchi, Kazuya Minowa, Steven Mathison
Abstract A new hydrogen fueling protocol named MC Formula Moto was developed for fuel cell motorcycles (FCM) with a smaller hydrogen storage capacity than those of light duty FC vehicles (FCV) currently covered in the SAE J2601 standard (over than 2kg storage). Building on the MC Formula based protocol from the 2016 SAE J2601 standard, numerous new techniques were developed and tested to accommodate the smaller storage capacity: an initial pressure estimation using the connection pulse, a fueling time counter which begins the main fueling time prior to the connection pulse, a pressure ramp rate fallback control, and other techniques. The MC Formula Moto fueling protocol has the potential to be implemented at current hydrogen stations intended for fueling of FCVs using protocols such as SAE J2601. This will allow FCMs to use the existing and rapidly growing hydrogen infrastructure, precluding the need for exclusive dispensers or stations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1187
Tatsuya Sugawara, Takuma Kanazawa, Naoki Imai, Yu Tachibana
Abstract This paper describes the motorized turbo compressor, which is a key technology for reducing the size of the fuel cell system for the Clarity Fuel Cell. The oxygen needed for fuel cell power generation is sent into the fuel cell by compressing the air from the atmosphere by a compressor. The conventionally used Lysholm compressor needed numerous sound absorbers, such as silencers and covers, to help achieve quietness when driving. Therefore, changing to a turbo compressor enhanced quietness and helped to eliminate or reduce the size of these auxiliary sound absorbers. Furthermore, a two-stage supercharging structure was used and the air pressure supplied to the fuel cell was increased to 1.7 times the previous air pressure. This increased the fuel cell power, which enabled to reduce the number of cells needed, and reduced the needed humidification amount which enabled to reduce the size of the humidifier. These enhancements helped to reduce the system size.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1188
Daisuke Hayashi, Atsushi Ida, Shota Magome, Takahisa Suzuki, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Ryosuke Hori
Abstract The key challenge in designing a high power density fuel cell is to reduce oxygen transport loss due to liquid water. However, liquid water transport from catalyst layers to channels under operating conditions is not completely understood. Toyota developed a high resolution space and time liquid water visualization technique using synchrotron x-ray (Spring-8) radiography. In addition, a simulation method was created based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to identify the cell performance relationship to water distribution. The relationship among gas diffusion layer (GDL) parameters, water distribution, and fuel cell performance was clarified by combining the techniques Toyota developed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1190
Patrick Maguire, Hyung Baek, Stephen Liptak, Olivia Lomax, Rodolfo Palma, Yi Zhang
Abstract As electrified powertrains proliferate through original equipment manufacturer vehicle offerings, the focus on system cost and weight reduction intensifies. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a High Voltage (HV) battery system enclosure molded from High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) to deliver substantial cost and weight opportunities. While previous HV battery system enclosure alternatives to steel and aluminum focus on thermoset composites and glass filled polypropylene, this solution leverages select HDPE design techniques established for fuel tanks and applies them to an HV battery system. The result is a tough, energy absorbing structure, capable of hermetic sealing, which simplifies manufacturing by eliminating nearly all fasteners.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1189
Tsuyoshi Maruo, Masashi Toida, Tomohiro Ogawa, Yuji Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Imanishi, Nada Mitsuhiro, Yoshihiro Ikogi
Abstract Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) has been developing fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) since 1992. As part of a demonstration program, TMC launched the FCHV-adv in 2008, which established major technical improvements in key performance areas such as efficiency, driving range, durability, and operation in sub-zero conditions. However, to encourage commercialization and widespread adoption of FCVs, further improvements in performance were required. During sub-zero operating conditions, the FC system output power was lower than under normal operating conditions. The FC stack in the FCHV-adv needed to dry the electrolyte membrane to remove unneeded water from the stack. This increased the stack resistance and caused low output power. In December 2014, TMC launched the world’s first commercially available FCV named the Mirai, which greatly improved output power even after start-up in sub-zero conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1191
Patrick Wesskamp, Simon Reitemeyer, Joachim Melbert
Abstract This work provides a new method for estimating the capacity of an automotive Lithium-Ion cell under real application conditions present in Hybrid and Electrical vehicles. Reliable online capacity estimation is needed for accurate prediction of the remaining electrical driving range. This is a crucial criterion for customer acceptance of Electrical vehicles. Dynamic excitations of real driving cycles, temperature variation as well as the variation of electrical battery behavior with capacity and resistance degradation are challenges that need to be overcome. For this paper, a long-term aging study on 120 automotive Lithium-Ion cells is evaluated with respect to the correlation between electrical cell behavior, temperature and the cell capacity over the complete cell lifetime. The results are used for a dynamic state-space model which provides the current-voltage relationship valid for all aging states of the battery.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1192
Amardeep Sidhu, Afshin Izadian, Sohel Anwar
In this paper, multiple-model adaptive estimation techniques have been successfully applied to fault detection and identification in lithium-ion batteries. The diagnostic performance of a battery depends greatly on the modeling technique used in representing the system and the associated faults under investigation. Here, both linear and non-linear battery modeling techniques are evaluated and the effects of battery model and noise estimation on the over-charge and over-discharge fault diagnosis performance are studied. Based on the experimental data obtained under the same fault scenarios for a single cell, the non-linear model based detection method is found to perform much better in accurately detecting the faults in real time when compared to those using linear model based method.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1193
Yongcai Wang, Rajaram Subramanian, Sarav Paramasivam, George Garfinkel
Abstract Mechanical shock tests for lithium metal and lithium-ion batteries often require that each cell or battery pack be subjected to multiple shocks in the positive and negative directions, of three mutually perpendicular orientations. This paper focuses on the no-disassembly requirement of those testing conditions and on the CAE methodology specifically developed to perform this assessment. Ford Motor Company developed a CAE analysis method to simulate this type of test and assess the possibility of cell dislodging. This CAE method helps identify and diagnose potential failure modes, thus guiding the Design Team in developing a strategy to meet the required performance under shock test loads. The final CAE-driven design focuses on the structural requirement and optimization, and leads to cost savings without compromising cell or pack mechanical performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1195
Masahiro Kimoto
Abstract SAE standards require the function of a Manual Service Disconnect (MSD), when open, to remove any voltage between positive and negative Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) output terminals. Another SAE standard specifies that measured voltage across all external battery terminal sets shall be less than 60 VDC within 5 seconds after the manual disconnect is actuated with the automatic disconnect (e.g., contactors) closed. In this paper, the location of the manual service disconnect is reviewed to meet isolation requirement of the battery pack system (i.e., RESS). Battery architectures with manual service disconnect located at the most positive side, most negative side, and center of the array or the pack were studied. Voltage measurement points and single point failure modes were considered. It was found that MSD location for a single contactor pack is most effective in reducing voltage potential at the terminals when placed on the other side of the contactor.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1194
Qiaohua Fang, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
Abstract Parallel-connected modules have been widely used in battery packs for electric vehicles nowadays. Unlike series-connected modules, the direct state inconsistency caused by parameter inconsistency in parallel modules is current and temperature non-uniformity, thus resulting in the inconsistency in the speed of aging among cells. Consequently, the evolution pattern of parameter inconsistency is different from that of series-connected modules. Since it’s practically impossible to monitor each cell’s current and temperature information in battery packs, considering cost and energy efficiency, it’s necessary to study how the parameter inconsistency evolves in parallel modules considering the initial parameter distribution, topology design and working condition. In this study, we assigned cells of 18650 format into several groups regarding the degree of capacity and resistance inconsistency. Then all groups are cycled under different environmental temperature and current profile.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1197
Aziz Abdellahi, Saeed Khaleghi Rahimian, Berislav Blizanac, Brian Sisk
Abstract 48V battery packs, with rated power capabilities on the order of 8-16kW, are rapidly becoming a new standard in the automotive industry. Improving on their 12V counterparts (2-5kW), 48V Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles (MHEV) allow for extended start-stop and regenerative braking functionalities, providing fuel economy benefits of up to 10-15% in standard passenger vehicles. New and relatively unexplored opportunities exist to further increase the fuel economy and performance of 48V systems. Improvement in battery power (to ~25kW) would further enable hybridization to near-HEV levels as well as engine downsizing, thus paving the way to fuel economy improvements beyond the current 10-15% MHEV limit. Additionally, new electrified features may be added, such as electric turbo/supercharging, electric traction, electric power steering, electric suspension and electric air conditioning.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1198
Po Hong, Hongliang Jiang, Jian qiu Li, Liangfei Xu, Minggao Ouyang
Abstract The lithium-ion battery plays an important role in saving energy and lowering emissions. Many parameters like temperature have an influence on the characteristic of the battery and this phenomenon becomes more serious in an electric vehicle. In this paper, the application of a boost DC/DC converter to the battery system of high power for online AC impedance identification is proposed. The function of the converter is to inject a current excitation signal into the battery at work and the normal output current is drawn by a load. Through analyzing the average state space equations and deriving the small signal model of the converter, the gain function is deduced of the fluctuated current signal against the fluctuated duty cycle which controls the converter. The control algorithm is designed and the system model is verified using Matlab/Simulink with respect to the disturbance current signal generation, the gain function and its variation with frequency range.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1200
Vijay Saharan, Kenji Nakai
Abstract Electric vehicles have a strong potential to reduce a continued dependence on fossil fuels and help the environment by reducing pollution. Despite the desirable advantage, the introduction of electrified vehicles into the market place continues to be a challenge due to cost, safety, and life of the batteries. General Motors continues to bring vehicles to market with varying level of hybrid functionality. Since the introduction of Li-ion batteries by Sony Corporation in 1991 for the consumer market, significant progress has been made over the past 25 years. Due to market pull for consumer electronic products, power and energy densities have significantly increased, while costs have dropped. As a result, Li-ion batteries have become the technology of choice for automotive applications considering space and mass is very critical for the vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1199
Khalid Khan, Bin Zhou, Amir Rezaei
Abstract A high voltage battery is an essential part of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). It is imperative to precisely estimate the state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) of battery in real time to maintain reliable vehicle operating conditions. This paper presents a method of estimating SOC and SOH through the incorporation of current integration, voltage translation, and Ah-throughput. SOC estimation utilizing current integration is inadequate due to the accumulation of errors over the period of usage. Thus voltage translation of SOC is applied to rectify current integration method which improves the accuracy of estimation. Voltage translation data is obtained by subjecting the battery to hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) test. The Battery State of Health was determined by semi-empirical model combined with accumulated Ah-throughput method. Battery state of charge was employed as an input to estimate damages accumulated to battery aging through a real-time model.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1202
Ben Tabatowski-Bush
Abstract The Battery Monitoring Integrated Circuit (BMIC) is a key technology for Battery Electronics in the electrification of vehicles. Generally speaking, every production hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicle uses some type of BMIC to monitor the voltage of each lithium battery cell. In order to achieve Functional Safety for the traction battery packs for these electrified vehicles, most designs require higher ASIL ratings for the BMIC such as C or D. For the entire market of available BMIC’s, there is a generic feature set that can be found on almost every IC on the market, such as a front end multiplexer, one or more precision references, one or more Analog to Digital (A/D) converters, a power supply, communications circuits, and window comparators. There is also a fairly consistent suite of self-diagnostics, available on just about every available BMIC, to detect failures and enable achievement of the appropriate ASIL rating.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1201
Zhenli Zhang, Zhihong Jin, Perry Wyatt
Abstract Lithium plating is an important failure factor for lithium ion battery with carbon-based anodes and therefore preventing lithium plating has been a critical consideration in designs of lithium ion battery and battery management system. The challenges are: How to determine the charging current limits which may vary with temperature, state of charge, state of health, and battery operations? Where are the optimization rooms in battery design and management system without raising plating risks? Due to the complex nature of lithium plating dynamics it is hard to detect and measure the plating by any of experimental means. In this work we developed an electrochemical model that explicitly includes lithium plating reaction. It enables both determination of plating onset and quantification of plated lithium. We have studied the effects of charging pulses on homogenous plating in order to provide guidance for lithium ion battery design in hybrid applications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1204
Xiao Yang, Ted Miller
Abstract We try to understand the fast recharge capability of automotive lithium-ion batteries and its effect of fast charge on capacity degradation. We find out that 5 Ah prismatic Li-ion cells can be fully recharged in 3 minutes under a constant rate of 20C, or in 2 min (25.5C) from 0% to 85% state of charge (SOC) without undue stresses. We cycle the battery at 16C charge rate from 0 to 100%SOC and do not see any unexpected battery capacity loss in 50 cycles, where half of the cycles are charged at1C-rate as a reference capacity check. We realize that the batteries under the fast charge tests do not experience any negative impacts related to mass transport in either solid electrodes or the electrolyte system. In the paper, we propose a new procedure to measure the ac and dc resistances of the battery under continuous operation. Electrochemical impedance analyses on the whole battery and the individual electrodes are also conducted.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1203
Takashi Inamoto, Lawrence Alger
Abstract Recent electric vehicles use Li-ion batteries to power the main electric motor. To maintain the safety of the main electric motor battery using Li-ion cells, it is necessary to monitor the voltage of each cell. DENSO has developed a battery Electronic Control Unit (ECU) that contributes greatly to the reduction of the cost and the improvement of the reliability of the system. Each manufacturer has been developing a dedicated IC for monitoring the voltages of each cell of a battery. However, since the number of cells that can be monitored is limited, more than one IC is required to measure the voltages of a large number of cells. The increase in the number of ICs and the amount of insulator leads to the rise in system cost. DENSO has developed a dedicated IC that uses a proprietary high-breakdown voltage process, and which enables monitoring up to 24 cells with a single IC chip.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 359