The environmental impact of hydrocarbon-burning aircraft is one of the main motivations for the move to electric propulsion in aerospace. Also, cars, buses, and trucks are incorporating electric or hybrid-electric propulsion systems, reducing the pressure on hydrocarbons and lowering the costs of electrical components. The economies of scale necessitated by the automotive industry will help contain costs in the aviation sector as well. The use of electric propulsion in airplanes is not a new phenomenon. However, it is only recently that it has taken off in a concrete manner with a viable commercial future. The Electric Flight Technology: Unfolding of a New Future reviews the history of this field, discusses the key underlying technologies, and describes how the future for these technologies will likely unfold, distinguishing between all-electric (AE) and hybrid-electric (HE) architectures. Written by Dr.
Larger airframes drove the development of electrical systems, capable of quickly and reliably starting the new higher power engines. These soon gave rise to the need for engine-mounted electrical generators as the primary source of in-flight power for the electrical loads and onboard recharging of the aircraft battery system. Of all the backup power sources, batteries represent the most common means of storing energy for auxiliary or emergency power requirements. It is not unusual for a typical commercial airliner, such as a B-737 or A-320, to have dozens of batteries on board. Over time, multiple battery chemistries were put to the test and the industry is still working on the optimal option. The lithium-ion technology has been gaining acceptance, with some important aspects to be considered: the application type, basic safety requirements and the presence or absence of humans on the vehicle.
Battery Fires: Why They Happen and How They Happen was written to assist those interested in this type of incident understand how automotive fires develop, spread and the damage they cause, using both deductive and inductive reasoning. The main focus of the book resides in looking at differences in failure modes between DC and AC systems, general types of battery and electrical failure modes leading to fire, how to interpret electrical fire, determination of the primary failed part, and other skills the investigating engineer will require to perform technical failure mode analysis. However, some fires have consumed the evidence to the point where a determination cannot be made with any degree of certainty. In this instance, evidence will be quite limited, and the analysis will have its limitations and should be included in the discussion as such. In some cases, a “cause undetermined” report is all the evidence will support.
Modeling and simulation of batteries, in conjunction with theory and experiment, are important research tools that offer opportunities for advancement of technologies that are critical to electric motors. The development of data from the application of these tools can provide the basis for managerial and technical decision-making. Together, these will continue to transform batteries for electric vehicles.
This research focuses on the technical issues that are critical to the adoption of high-energy-producing lithium Ion batteries. In addition to high energy density / high power density, this publication considers performance requirements that are necessary to assure lithium ion technology as the battery format of choice for electrified vehicles. Presentation of prime topics includes: • Long calendar life (greater than 10 years) • Sufficient cycle life • Reliable operation under hot and cold temperatures • Safe performance under extreme conditions • End-of-life recycling To achieve aggressive fuel economy standards, carmakers are developing technologies to reduce fuel consumption, including hybridization and electrification. Cost and affordability factors will be determined by these relevant technical issues which will provide for the successful implementation of lithium ion batteries for application in future generations of electrified vehicles.
In “Dynamic Wireless Charging Technology”, NextEnergy in Detroit, Michigan explains the difference between static and dynamic electric vehicle charging, and a professor from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology describes their experience with dynamically charging buses already in use in their campus. This episode highlights: • The technology allowing vehicles to be charged while in motion, through wireless power transfer • Why this type of technology will help make vehicles more efficient and easier to charge, as they will require smaller batteries • How the OLEV (Online Electric Vehicle) works following the trail of power transmitting coils
“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case studies, focusing on technology breakthroughs, hands-on testimonials, and the importance of fundamentals. Viewers are virtually taken to industry labs and research centers to learn how design engineers solve real-life problems. These challenges include enhancing product performance, reducing cost, improving quality and safety, while decreasing environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. In the episode “Automotive Charging Infrastructure: Vehicle and Grid Integration” (21:00), engineers from NextEnergy and an infrastructure expert from General Motors explain how technologies are rapidly converging to power electric vehicles and support the overall electric grid.
Development of higher-voltage electrical systems in vehicles has been slowly progressing over the past few decades. However, tightening vehicle efficiency and emissions regulations and increasing demand for onboard electrical power means that higher voltages, in the form of supplemental 48 V subsystems, may soon be nearing production as the most cost-effective way to meet regulations. The displacement of high-wattage loads to more efficient 48 V networks is expected to be the next step in the development of a new generation of mild hybrid vehicles. In addition to improved fuel economy and reduced emissions, 48 V systems could potentially save costs on new electrical features and help better address the emerging needs of future drivers. Challenges to 48 V system implementation remain, leading to discussions by experts from leading car makers and suppliers on the need for an international 48 V standard. Initial steps toward a proposed standard have already been taken.
Hydrogen, energy vector for the future? Or, on the contrary, limited to its current applications in the field of chemistry and refining for decades to come, possibly even until the end of the century? There is much controversy over this issue and two sides to the argument. Advocates of the hydrogen civilization consider that, following a technological revolution hydrogen will play a universal role alongside electricity as a substitute for fossil fuels, especially (but not only) in transport, leading to radical elimination of CO2 emissions. For the skeptics, and even outspoken opponents, hydrogen will remain restricted to its current applications due to the insoluble problems inherent to its generalized use, especially in transport. This book highlights the increasing and inevitable role of "energy" hydrogen – as opposed to chemical hydrogen – in the key sectors of transport and "clean" electricity production.
Based on extensive research conducted throughout 2011 by ABOUT Automotive, including many senior-level interviews at the major sector companies, this first edition study provides fresh, unbiased insight in a number of areas, including: • The market for EV/hybrid batteries and battery material suppliers, determining the trends and topical issues, as well as providing valuable market sector data; • The main manufacturers in both the battery and battery material supplier sectors; • Vehicle manufacturer strategy analysis of the major players involved with EV/hybrid batteries; and • A statistical appendix including model-level sales data for EV/hybrid vehicles. The report also includes an authoritative analysis of the following leading vehicle manufacturer strategies: • Toyota • Honda • Mitsubishi • Nissan • Suzuki, Mazda and other Japanese manufacturers • Japanese bus and truck manufacturers • North American OEMs • European OEMs • Asia OEMs
Giving unique insight into Toyota's 2011 technical developments, this book includes 18 papers that chronicle the Japanese OEM's R&D activities in a variety of technologies during that year. This volume has a special focus on next-generation electric storage, and 10 of the papers highlight developments in such things as batteries, fuel cells and next-generation energy. Title highlights include: Next Generation Electric Storage and Its Applications • Secondary Battery Development for Hybrid Vehicles at Toyota • Development Trends and Popularization Trends for Fuel Cell Vehicles • Renewable Energy and Its Effective Usage Other Technical Areas • Drivetrain Development for the Lexus LFA • Development of Scratch-Resistant Universal Clear Coat • Development of Environmentally Friendly Machining Process for Aluminum Parts
With production and planning for new electric vehicles gaining momentum worldwide, this book – the second in a series of five volumes on this subject – provides engineers and researchers with perspectives on the most current and innovative developments regarding electric and hybrid-electric vehicle technology, design considerations, and components. This book features 15 SAE technical papers, published from 2008 through 2010, that provide an overview of research on electric vehicle batteries. Topics include: Charging strategy studies for PHEV batteries Electric vehicle and hybrid-electric vehicle rechargeable energy storage systems Strategies for reducing plug-in battery costs Cold temperature performance Lithium-ion battery power capability testing, crash safety, and modeling
This timely book provides you with a solid understanding of battery management systems (BMS) in large Li-Ion battery packs, describing the important technical challenges in this field and exploring the most effective solutions. You find in-depth discussions on BMS topologies, functions, and complexities, helping you determine which permutation is right for your application. Packed with numerous graphics, tables, and images, the book explains the “whys” and “hows” of Li-Ion BMS design, installation, configuration and troubleshooting. This hands-on resource includes an unbiased description and comparison of all the off-the-shelf Li-Ion BMSs available today. Moreover, it explains how using the correct one for a given application can help to get a Li-Ion pack up and running in little time at low cost.
The Battery Reference Book guides the reader through the subject in a logical sequence, covering electrochemical theory as it applies to batteries; battery selection; and the theory and practice of battery charging. The book also includes comprehensive information from battery manufacturers about the performance characteristics of the batteries they supply. Among the battery types covered are: Lead-acid; Nickle; Silver; Alkaline manganese; Carbon-zinc and carbon-zinc chloride; Mercury; Lithium; Manganese dioxide-magnesium perchlorate; Metal-air; High-temperature thermally activated; Zinc-chlorine; Zinc-air; Water-activated; Sodium-sulphur; and Electric vehicle.