Virtual integration of an all-electric flight control system architecture and the aircraft electrical power distribution network
The aviation industry is facing major challenges due to increased environmental requirements that are driven by economic constraints. For this reason, guidelines like "Flightpath 2050", the official guide of European aviation, call for significant reductions in pollutant emissions. The concept of the "More Electric Aircraft" offers promising perspectives to meet these demands. A key-enabler for this concept is the integration of new technologies on board of the next generation of civil transportation aircraft. Examples are electro-mechanical actuators for primary flight controls or the fuel cell technology as innovative electrical energy supply system. Due to the high complexity and interdisciplinary, the development of such systems is an equally challenging and time-consuming process. To support the classical development process, a continuous model-based approach for the design and test of complex aircraft systems is currently developed at the Hamburg University of Technology.
The application of a communication infrastructure for hybrid test systems is currently a topic in the aerospace and automotive industries. The demand for such a communication infrastructure is driven by the users’ need to run tests on hybrid test systems. These consist of individual, coupled test systems, each dedicated to different, even diverse needs. In the aerospace industry, there is a growing demand for modularity. Future laboratory tests means (LTM) must be scalable and exchangeable for maximum flexibility. Due to their very nature, hybrid test systems are used as integration test systems for large portions of the electronics of an aircraft (e.g., avionics, cabin) or even the complete aircraft electronics. Thus, these integration test systems need to handle high numbers of I/O channels and bus data. In order to make such test systems manageable and to enable a flexible use (e.g., to use only parts of such a system for dedicated tasks), using modular test systems makes sense.
This paper presents an overview of a project called “Modelling and Simulation Tools for Systems Integration on Aircraft (MISSION)”. This is a collaborative project being developed under the European Union Clean Sky 2 Program, a public-private partnership bringing together aeronautics industrial leaders and public research organizations based in Europe. The provision of integrated modelling, simulation, and optimization tools to effectively support all stages of aircraft design remains a critical challenge in the aerospace industry. In particular the high level of system integration that is characteristic of new aircraft designs is dramatically increasing the complexity of both design and verification. Simultaneously, the multiphysics interactions between structural, electrical, thermal, and hydraulic components have become more significant as the systems become increasingly interconnected.
A Lightweight Spatio-temporally Partitioned Multicore Architecture for Concurrent Execution of Safety Critical Workloads
Modern aircraft systems employ numerous processors to achieve system functionality. In particular engine controls and power distribution subsystems rely heavily on software to provide safety-critical functionality and are expected to move towards multicore architectures. The computing hardware-layer of avionic systems must be able to execute many concurrent workloads under tight deterministic execution guarantees to meet the safety standards. Single-chip multicores are attractive for safety-critical embedded systems due to their lightweight form factor. However, multicores aggressively share hardware resources, leading to interference that in turn creates non-deterministic execution for multiple concurrent workloads. We propose an approach to remove on-chip interference via a set of methods to spatio-temporally partition shared multicore resources.
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) supplies information on the flight control systems incorporated on various current and historic fixed wing, rotary wing, and tilt rotor aircraft. A brief description of the aircraft is followed by a description of the flight control system, some specific components, drawings of the internal arrangement, block diagrams, and schematics. System operation redundancy management is also presented.
The scope of this document is to provide review of recent history of loss-of-control accidents during airline revenue operations.
The information contained in this document is based on line experience with current systems. It should be used as a basis for ongoing research and development including the human factors aspects of future flight management systems and their interaction with the ATC environment.
This recommended practice is intended as a guide for the specification of electrohydraulic mechanical feedback servoactuators used for position control. It provides performance definitions and capabilities that are specific to mechanical-feedback servoactuators and different from those applicable to electrical-feedback servoactuators.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies minimum performance requirements for pressure altimeter systems other than air data computers. This document covers altimeter systems that measure and display altitude as a function of atmospheric pressure. The pressure transducer may be contained within the instrument display case or located remotely. Requirements for air data computers are specified in AS8002. Some requirements for nontransducing servoed altitude indicators are included in AS791. This document does not address RVSM requirements because general RVSM requirements cannot be independently detailed at the component level. The instrument system specified herein does not include aircraft pressure lines. Unless otherwise specified, whenever the term “instrument” is used, it is to be understood to be the complete system of pressure transducer components, any auxiliary equipment, and display components.
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) was created to help industry deal with existing barriers to the successful implementation of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) technology in the aerospace and automotive sectors. That is,given the common barriers that exist, this ARP can be applied not only to aerospace but also to the automotive, commercial and military vehicle sectors. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) in all of these sectors are heavily dependant upon a large number of component suppliers in order to design and build their products. The advent of IVHM technology has accentuated the need for improved coordination and communication between the OEM and its suppliers –to ensure that suppliers design health ready capabilities into their particular components.
This standard defines implementation requirements for the electrical interface between: a. aircraft carried miniature store carriage systems and miniature stores b. aircraft parent carriage and miniature stores c. surface based launch systems and miniature stores The interface provides a common interfacing capability for the initialization and employment of smart miniature munitions and other miniature stores from the host systems. Physical, electrical, and logical (functional) aspects of the interface are addressed.
This data dictionary provides a mathematically coherent set of definitions for quantity types used in data models for unmanned systems. In this data dictionary, a quantity is defined as a property of a phenomenon, substance, or body whose value has magnitude.
This document, the JAUS Automated Behaviors and Diagnostics Service Set, defines a message-passing interface for services commonly found in mobile unmanned systems. These services represent the platform-independent capabilities common across all domains. Additional capabilities are specified in the JAUS Core Service Set (AS5710) and are frequently referenced herein.
In order to realize the benefits of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) within the aerospace and defense industry there is a need to address five critical elements of data interoperability within and across the aircraft maintenance ecosystem, namely • Approach • Trust • Context • Value • Security In Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) data interoperability is the ability of different authorized components, systems, IT, software, applications and organizations to securely communicate, exchange data, interpret data, use the information and derive consistent insight from the data that has been exchanged to derive value.
A review of droplet sizing instruments used for icing research is presented. These instruments include the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe, the Optical Array Probe, the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer, the Malvern Particule Size Analyzer, the oil slid technique, and the rotating multicylinder. The report focuses on the theory of operation of these instruments and practical considerations when using them in icing facilities.
The report shows how the methodology of measurement uncertainty can usefully be applied to test programs in order to optimize resources and save money. In doing so, it stresses the importance of integrating the generation of the Defined Measurement Process into more conventional project management techniques to create a Test Plan that allows accurate estimation of resources and trouble-free execution of the actual test. Finally, the report describes the need for post-test review and the importance of recycling lessons learned for the next project.
(1) This standard defines a language for describing both the software architecture and the execution platform architectures of performance-critical, embedded, real-time systems; the language is known as the SAE Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL). An AADL model describes a system as a hierarchy of components with their interfaces and their interconnections. Properties are associated to these constructions. AADL components fall into two major categories: those that represent the physical hardware and those representing the application software. The former is typified by processors, buses, memory, and devices, the latter by application software functions, data, threads, and processes. The model describes how these components interact and are integrated to form complete systems. It describes both functional interfaces and aspects critical for performance of individual components and assemblies of components.
Software's role continues to expand Design teams use different technologies to create new software and link systems together. Emissions regulations and engine complexity With the European Commission announcing a Stage V criteria emissions regulation for off-highway, scheduled to phase-in as earlly as 2019, there will be an end to a brief era of harmonized new-vehicle regulations. Will this affect an already complex engine development process? Evaluating thermal design of construction vehicles CFD simulation is used to evaluate two critical areas that address challenging thermal issues: electronic control units and hot air recirculation.
Mechanical Behavior of Lithium-Ion Battery Component Materials and Error Sources Analysis for Test Results
Abstract As mechanical damage induced thermal runaway of lithium-ion batteries has become one of the research hotspots, it is quite crucial to understand the mechanical behavior of component materials of lithium battery. This study focuses on the mechanical performance of separators and electrodes under different loading conditions and the error sources analysis for test results. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. The strain was acquired through the combination of high speed camera and digital image correlation (DIC) method while the force was obtained with a customized load cell. Noticeable anisotropy and strain rate effect were observed for separators. The fracture mode of separators is highly correlated to the microscopic fiber orientation. To demonstrate the correlation microscopic images of separator material were obtained through SEM to match the facture edges of tensile tests at different loading directions.
This SAE Recommended Practice specifies recommendations for rear view mirror systems to provide the operator with a clear view to the rear. It is intended as a supplement to the requirements for motorcycle mirrors given in 49 CFR 571.111.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes minimum performance standards for new equipment anticollision light systems.
This Aerospace Recommended Practice is intended as a guide toward standard practices for the determination of surface cleanliness that are applicable to field operation. Some of these methods can also be used to determine quality assurance that a surface has been properly prepared and maintained. The instrumental methods are: Wettabaility, Surface Potential Difference (SPD), Ellipsometry, and Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE). Each instrument is described with respect to measurement techniques, limitations, and advantages and types of available instruments. Elementary theoretical prinicples and examples of the use of each instrument are also given.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies minimum performance standards for Electronic Flight Information System (EFIS) displays that are head-down and intended for use in the flight deck by the flight crew in all 14 CFR Part 23, 25, 27, and 29 aircraft. This document is expected to be used by multiple regulatory agencies as the basic requirement for a technical standard order for EFIS displays.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the overall requirements applicable to oxygen flow indicating devices intended to operate in conjunction with an oxygen regulator and mask system. Flow indicators covered by this document are for use with pressure demand, diluter-demand and continuous flow oxygen systems.
A beast of its own kind The University of Michigan Solar Car Team falls a bit short in 2015 Bridgestone World Solar Challenge, but distinguishes itself nonetheless. Finding career inspiration via algorithm Participation in collegiate engineering competitions can reveal untapped talents and interests. Just ask Ohio State student Katherine Bovee. SAE 2016 World Congress preview Powering Possibilities is Toyota's goal at SAE 2016 World Congress.
This ARP document defines a comprehensive and widely-accepted set of guidelines for use or design of fiber optic sensors on aerospace applications.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance to achieve the optimum integration of new aircraft systems which have an impact on the cockpit layout or crew operating procedures. This process may also be used for modification of existing cockpits.