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2015-09-20
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2482
Riko Bornholdt, Tobias Kreitz, Frank Thielecke
Abstract For the shift to more-electric aircraft systems, the system specific design paradigm has to be dissolved and the allocation of functions has to be reconsidered. Including more degrees of freedom within the architecture design process for aircraft systems could lead to beneficial architecture concepts. However, new methods for conceptual systems design are required, to cope with the significantly increasing number of potential architecture variations to be evaluated. Within this paper, the GENESYS methodology enabling the design and evaluation of numerous architecture variations will proposed. The methodology consists of several modules, each dedicated to a specific process step of conceptual aircraft system design. Initially, a method for the design-independent analysis of the aircraft level functions and the identification of requirements for the aircraft systems will be illustrated.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2522
Mirko Jakovljevic, Jan Radke, Perry Rucker
Abstract VPX, as a switched fabric, supports the design of advanced integrated systems using technologies such as deterministic Ethernet. Deterministic Ethernet can be used in backplane and backbone applications. In cases where functional interrelationships and Ethernet network bandwidth sharing is deterministic and all logical links among critical function have configurable quality of service with guaranteed timing, the complexity challenges in design of advanced integrated architectures can be much simpler to handle and mitigate. VPX switches in 3/6U format with ARINC664 and SAE AS6802 services enable deterministic integration of many critical functions hosted on common embedded computing and networking resources. Both ARINC664 (asynchronous real-time) and SAE AS6802 (synchronous hard real-time), as Layer 2 enhancements, do not affect existing Ethernet services.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2527
Mirko Jakovljevic, Jan Radke
Abstract Integrated modular architectures and IMA reduce the physical complexity of electronic architecture by integrating many functions on common embedded resources. As the reduction of physical complexity means that the embedded resources are shared by many functions, the logical complexity of system configuration, functional alignment and resource sharing increases significantly. Modern integrated embedded platforms are designed for parameter-based architecture design and integration. IMA is not only a set of platform components, networking and computing devices and configurable middleware and platform abstraction layers. Integrated Architectures and IMA require mature design and verification tools, and a well-defined design and integration methodology are required to avoid expensive and error-prone manual analyses and configuration tasks. Therefore, integrated architectures cannot be separated from design methodologies and processes.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2528
Srikanth Gururajan
Abstract In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the civilian sector for various purposes. As these platforms are constrained in terms of payload and capacity, they are typically equipped with a minimal sensor suite and the use of redundant sensors is uncommon. This research effort describes the design and simulation of a Neural Network (NN) based fault tolerant flight control approach for sensor and actuator failures, implemented on a parallel and distributed computational architecture. The inter process communication is implemented using BSD sockets and Message Passing Interface (MPI). For the purpose of the sensor failure detection, identification and accommodation (SFDIA) task, it is assumed that the pitch, roll and yaw rate gyros onboard the aircraft are without physical redundancy.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2533
Philippe Coni, Frederic Merino, Frederic Renaud
Abstract Projected capacitive touchscreen (PCAP) became popular thanks to the introduction of the Apple iPhone, iPad and iPod. Electrical field generated for touch detection is known to be impaired by external fields, for example Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp, USB charger or AMLCD driving. Commercial product shall live with this issue, but the high intensity radiated field required for avionics application is several orders of magnitude higher than required for commercial product. In such an environment, standard touchscreens could have hazardous behavior. Thanks to the unique 20 years' experience on projected capacitive technology (Aircraft fighter), we designed a new projected capacitive touchscreen, based on a ruggedized touch controller and dedicated ASIC, able to operate in extreme electromagnetic environment.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2535
Steven Donald Ellersick, Bill Reisenauer, Mickey Jacobson, Newel Stephens
Abstract The past twenty years have seen tremendous changes in the Avionics display and flight deck lighting due to the application of solid-state LED (light emitting diode) light sources and LCDs (liquid crystal displays). These advances significantly benefit the customer and pilot users when integrated correctly. This paper discusses recommended practices and guidance given in SAE ARP 4103 for modern Avionics flight deck lighting systems to satisfy the end user and obtain certification. SAE ARP 4103 Flight Deck Lighting for Commercial Transport Aircraft has recently been revised to keep up with the Avionics state-of-the-art and add clarification where needed. ARP 4103 contains recommended Avionics flight deck lighting design and performance criteria to ensure prompt and accurate readability and visibility, color identification and discrimination of needed information under all expected ambient lighting and electrical power conditions. For additional details, see the actual ARP 4103.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2537
Sylvain Hourlier
Abstract The efficiency of the glass cockpit paradigm has faded away with the densification of the aeronautical environment. Today's problem lies with “non-defective aircraft” monitored by “perfectly trained crews” still involved in fatal accidents. One explanation is, at crew level, that we have reached a system complexity that, while acceptable in normal conditions, is hardly compatible with human cognitive abilities in degraded conditions. The current mitigation of such risk still relies on the enforcement through intensive training of an ability to manage extremely rare (off-normal) situations. These are explained by the potential combination of failures of highly complex systems with variable environment & with variable humans.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2542
Alejandro Murrieta-Mendoza, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez, Roberto S Félix Patrón
Abstract Flight trajectory optimization algorithms reduce flight cost and fuel consumption, thereby reducing the polluting emissions released to the atmosphere. Ground teams and avionics equipment such as the Flight Management System evaluate different routes to minimize flight costs. The optimal trajectory represents the flight plan given to the crew. The resulting flight plan contains waypoints and weather information such as the wind speed and direction and the temperature for each waypoint. The flight plan is normally introduced manually into the Flight Management System. In this paper, genetic algorithms were applied to the waypoints available in a flight plan to find the altitudes that minimize total fuel consumption, taking into account the cruise-climb and cruise-descent steps' costs. The genetic algorithms emulate the evolution process through a predefined number of generations.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2541
Alejandro Murrieta-Mendoza, Ruxandra Botez
Abstract This paper describes an optimization algorithm that provides an economical Vertical Navigation profile plan by finding the combinations of climb, cruise and descent speeds, as well as the altitudes for an aircraft to minimize flight costs. The computational algorithm profits from a space search reduction algorithm to reduce the initial number of speed and altitude combinations. Additional search space reductions were performed with the implementation of the branch and cut algorithm. A bounding function that correctly estimates the flight cost considering step climbs was developed to reduce the number of calculations. The full flight fuel burn cost was obtained using a performance database- based method. The fuel flight cost was computed using the cost index. This algorithm used a performance database instead of equations of motion to compute fuel burn. This database was developed and validated by our industrial partner using real flight experimental data.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2554
Kevin Landry, Jean-François Boland, Guy Bois
Abstract The amount of functionalities in modern aircrafts is increasing to satisfy performance, safety and economic benefits. Therefore, the communication needs of avionic systems are growing. Furthermore, the portability and reusability of applications are current challenges of the aerospace industry. The use of the Data Distribution Service (DDS) middleware technology would reduce the complexity of communications and ease the portability and reusability of applications with its standardised interface. Few previous works used a DDS middleware within the aerospace industry and those didn't take into account the impact of this technology on the applications performances. Therefore, this paper presents an impact evaluation of using a DDS middleware on the performances of avionic applications.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2413
Anngwo Wang, Jonathan Davies, Seth Gitnes, Lotfi El-Bayoumy
The instantaneous efficiency of an epicyclic geared rotary actuator is an important factor in sizing flight control systems where compound epicyclic gear trains are typically used. The efficiency variation can be smooth or fluctuating depending on the combination and timing of the teeth of ring gears, planet gears and sun gears. In a previous paper [1], the instantaneous efficiency characteristics of actuators with symmetric planets were investigated. The actuator’s reacting forces on the planets are symmetric and the overall length of the planet gears will not affect the efficiency. In this paper, a cantilever actuator with asymmetric planet gears is studied. The length and location of the reaction forces on the planet gears are key factors in the efficiency calculation.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2544
Subramanian Ramasamy, Roberto Sabatini
Novel Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) systems are currently developed, in line with the roadmap defined by large-scale research initiatives including Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) in Europe, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in US, and other programmes worldwide. The demand for improved safety, integrity and efficiency due to the rapid expansion of global air transport and the growing concern for environmental sustainability issues poses significant challenges on the development of CNS/ATM and Avionics (CNS+A) systems. High-integrity and high-reliability mission- and safety-critical ATM and avionic systems are therefore required in the context of Four Dimensional (4D) Trajectory Based Operations / Intent Based Operations (TBO/IBO).
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2539
Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini, Subramanian Ramasamy, Matthew Marino, Trevor Kistan
The potential benefits offered by advanced aircraft navigation technologies will be ultimately exploited only through the dynamic allocation of resources in a highly automated airspace. In this respect, the deployment of Four Dimensional Trajectory (4DT) functionalities in an Intent Based Operations (IBO) environment is envisaged as a fundamental enabler of future Air Traffic Management (ATM) services. The 4DT-IBO, in turn, are requiring the introduction of novel Communications, Navigation and Surveillance and ATM (CNS/ATM) systems, enabling the migration from traditional voice communications to data-driven negotiation and validation functions. A novel ground-based 4DT Planning, Negotiation and Validation (4-PNV) system is being developed in conjunction with Next Generation Flight Management Systems (NG-FMS) and Mission Management Systems (NG-MMS) for integration into the future air traffic scenario.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2556
Thomas Rousselin, Guillaume Hubert, Didier Regis, Marc Gatti
The changes brought by the increasing integration density and the new technological trends have pushed the reliability at its limit. Safety analysis for critical system such as embedded electronics for avionics systems needs to take into account these changes. In this paper, we present the consequences on the Deep Sub-Micron (DSM) CMOS devices concerning their single event effect (SEE) sensitivity. We also propose a new modeling method in order to address these issues.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2458
Giuseppe Sirigu, Manuela Battipede, Piero Gili, Mario Cassaro
Abstract The future revolution of the air traffic system imposes the development of a new class of Flight Management Systems (FMS), capable of providing the aircraft with real-time reference flight parameters, necessary to fly the aircraft through a predefined sequence of waypoints, while minimizing fuel consumption, noise and pollution emissions. The main goal is to guarantee safety operations while reducing the aircraft environmental impact, according to the main international research programs. This policy is expected to affect also the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs), as soon as they will be allowed to fly beyond the restricted portions of the aerospace where they are currently confined. In the future, in fact, UASs are expected to fly within the whole civilian airspace, under the same requirements deriving from the adoption of the Performance Based Navigation (PBN).
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2558
Jörg Brauer, Markus Dahlweid, Jan Peleska
Abstract Software developed according to DO-178C Level A has to undergo extremely rigorous structural coverage analysis to ensure that the code has been adequately exercised during requirements-based testing. The goal of structural coverage analysis is either to show that the requirements-based tests are adequate, or to provide analysis data, which leads to a refinement of the tests. This paper focuses on two particular issues of structural coverage analysis, namely source-code-to-object-code traceability analysis and data coupling and control coupling analysis, both of which have been challenging in the past due to little tool support. We present details of two tools: the RT-Tester Source-Code-To-Object-Code Traceability Analyzer (RTT-STO) and the RT-Tester Data & Control Coupling Analyzer (RTT-DCC), which we have developed for the low-level verification of an Airbus avionic control system, and discuss our practical experiences with tool-supported structural coverage analysis.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2471
Alessandro Ceruti, Simone Curatolo, Alessandro Bevilacqua, Piergiovanni Marzocca
Abstract The maturity reached in the development of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) systems is making them more and more attractive for a vast number of civil missions. Clearly, the introduction of UAVs in the civil airspace requiring practical and effective regulation is one of the most critical issues being currently discussed. As several civil air authorities report in their regulations “Sense and Avoid” or “Detect and Avoid” capabilities are critical to the successful integration of UAV into the civil airspace. One possible approach to achieve this capability, specifically for operations beyond the Line-of-Sight, would be to equip air vehicles with a vision-based system using cameras to monitor the surrounding air space and to classify other air vehicles flying in close proximity. This paper presents an image-based application for the supervised classification of air vehicles.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2478
Tobias Kreitz, Riko Bornholdt, Matthias Krings, Karsten Henning, Frank Thielecke
Abstract The paradigm shift to focus on an enhancement of existing aircraft systems raises the question which of the many possible incremental improvements results in an advantageous solution still considering all existing requirements. Hence, new methodologies for aircraft system design are a prerequisite to cope with such huge and complex design spaces. In the case of flight control system optimization, major design variables are the control surface configuration and actuation as well as their functional allocation. Possible architecture topologies have to be verified inter alia with respect to system safety requirements. In this context, flight dynamic characteristics and handling qualities of the fully operational as well as of several degraded system states of each topology have to be evaluated and checked against common specifications. A model-based verification of the requirements is favorable, resulting in a rapid reduction of the design space.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2479
Stefan Benischke, Frank Thielecke
Abstract The continuous need for improved high lift performance motivates the evaluation of innovative high lift systems. Single flap drive systems are possible solutions to implement novel functionalities for aerodynamic performance optimization. The previously mechanical coupling needs to be replaced by approved equivalent means. This directly results in high demands on control and monitoring of the multiple single drive systems in order to preserve a safe operation. In the context of the national German research project SysTAvio, strategies for a new concept of a multifunctional high lift system are investigated and presented in this paper. The conceptual system comprises four single flap surfaces, each driven by a local transmission system and powered by a local power control unit. This architecture requires an innovative control strategy for a safe operation of a single drive system as well as synchronous movement of multiple systems.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2481
Rudolf Neydorf
Abstract The solution of the both synthesis and implementation problems of high-rapid rates control laws is extremely important for the development of automatic control systems of the aircraft. This is due to the high speed of such vehicles. Along with this, it is imperative that control laws provide that system is asymptotically stable, as the basis for the reliability of their controlled motion. Another important objective of the method of synthesis of control laws for aircraft is compulsory compliance with strict limitations on the values of control inputs at the actuation devices. It is equally important that the control laws provides limitations on the state variables of aircraft, such as velocity, acceleration, etc. Pontryagin's maximum principle is aimed at solving such a time-optimal problem with the limited command variable.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2445
Hartmut Hintze, Ralf God
Abstract The increasing functionality associated with the rising complexity of aircraft cabin systems which are used by cabin crew, passengers, maintenance staff and other stakeholders, requires a reconsideration of the methods for the development of aircraft cabin systems. This paper deals with a model-based security engineering approach based on the so called Three-V-Model as an appropriate process model, which represents the governing system engineering process (SEP) associated with the safety engineering process (SafEP) and the security engineering process (SecEP). All three processes are pursued concurrently and are interacting reciprocally by working within the same system model on each development level. We describe in detail the involved model-based security engineering activities of the SecEP and the integration of the CORAS risk analysis method in a consistent System Modeling Language (SysML) approach.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2440
Robert Moehle, Jason Clauss
Abstract Labor costs rank second only to fuel in expenses for commercial air transports. Labor issues are a growing concern in the airline industry, with an impending worldwide pilot shortage. One solution proposed and requested by some of the industry leaders is to allow a single flight crew member to operate the aircraft. Safety concerns represent the dominant barrier to single-pilot Part 121 operations. The FAA and Congress consistently demonstrate a bias toward conservatism in their regulation of airlines and commercial aircraft. Bureaucrats and the general public fall prey to isolated news stories that highlight pilot error and anchor their viewpoint on further regulating a two-person crew. Yet, in an alarming spate of recent airline accidents, the presence of multiple crewmembers did nothing to prevent, and actually may have contributed to, the crash. Technology is not the problem.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2523
Pierre Coustal, Franck Tailliez
Abstract In the Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) domain, THALES developed a high performance communication network named SAEN (Self Adaptive Embedded Network). SAEN is a switchless network solution, fully embedded in a single Network Component Interface (NCI), aimed to interconnect easily several modules of a system, in any mesh network topology. Once each module is equipped with its network component, just connect them together to realize the wanted topology and switch ‘on’ the modules power supplies. At power-on, all the nodes of the network aggregate to form a complete global and coherent network, autonomously managing its configuration and the optimal static routing between any emitter and receiver. The constituted network is deterministic, autonomous, self-discovering, and auto-adapting to the network variations and guarantees an optimal routing in any situation of the graph, as long as a path exists.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2532
Sylvain Hourlier, Sandra Guérard, Jean Luc BAROU, Xavier Servantie
Abstract As touch screens are everywhere in the consumer market Thales has launched in depth evaluations on their introduction in the cockpit. One of the challenges is to verify its compatibility with in flight use under turbulence conditions, including light, moderate and severe. In flight accelerometer collections were performed to provide us with a baseline for choosing between possible simulation solutions. Thales recognized early on the need for such a tool as it would enable us to define recommendations for our HMI designs. The objectives were first to validate specific complex touch/gestures using all the potential of touch interactions for novel cockpit Human Machine Interfaces and second to look into the various physical anchoring solutions capable of facilitating touch screens interactions in aeronautical turbulent environments.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2538
Yixiang Lim, Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini
Abstract Contrails and aircraft-induced cirrus clouds are reputed being the largest components of aviation-induced global warming, even greater than carbon dioxide (CO2) exhaust emissions by aircraft. This article presents a contrail model algorithm specifically developed to be integrated within a multi-objective flight trajectory optimization software framework. The purpose of the algorithm is to supply to the optimizer a measure of the estimated radiative forcing from the contrails generated by the aircraft while flying a specific trajectory. In order to determine the precise measure, a comprehensive model is employed exploiting the Schmidt-Appleman criterion and ice-supersaturation regions. Additional parameters such as the solar zenith angle, contrail lifetime and spread are also considered.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2531
Lin Bao, Guy Bois, Jean-François Boland, Julien Savard
Abstract In the aerospace industry, as the modern avionics systems became more and more complex, the Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architecture has been proposed as a replacement of the federated architecture, in order to offer better solutions on SWaP constraints (Size, Weigh and Power). However, the development process of IMA avionics systems is much more difficult. This paper aims to propose to the aerospace industry a set of time-effective and cost-effective solutions for the integration and functional validation of IMA systems. Based on MBE methodology, which is considered as an interesting solution for the IMA systems development [8], this paper proposes a design flow, that integrates three steps of refinement, for the configuration and the validation of IMA platforms. In the first step of the design flow, the modeling language AADL is used to describe the IMA architecture.
2015-08-24
Book
Robert Kyle Schmidt
The aircraft landing gear system is relatively unique on board an aircraft—it is both structure and machine, supporting the aircraft on the ground, yet providing functions such as energy absorption during landing, retraction, steering, and braking. Advances in Aircraft Landing Gear is a collection of eleven hand-picked technical papers focusing on the significant advancements that have occurred in this field concerning numeric modeling, electric actuation, and composite materials. Additionally, papers discussing self-powered landing gear and more electrical overall aircraft architectures have been included. The content of Advances in Aircraft Landing Gear is divided into two sections: Analysis and Design Methods; and Electric Actuation, Control, and Taxi.
2015-08-20
WIP Standard
AS8034C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies minimum performance standards for all types of Electronic Displays and Electronic Display Systems that are intended for use in the flight deck by the flightcrew in all 14 CFR Part 23, 25, 27, and 29 aircraft. The requirements and recommendations in this document are intended to apply to all installed electronic displays and electronic display systems within the flight deck, regardless of intended function, criticality, or location within the flight deck, but may also be used for non-installed electronic displays. This document provides baseline requirements and recommendations (see section 2.3 for definitions of “shall” and “should”). This document primarily addresses hardware requirements, such as electrical, mechanical, optical, and environmental. It does not address system specific functions.
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