While all-electric aircraft remain at the bleeding edge of the aviation industry, incorporating technologies like proton exchange membrane fuel cells into existing aircraft can result in considerable auxiliary capability with low environmental impact. However, proper consideration must be given to supporting systems to achieve a reliable balance of plant-especially when those systems interface with existing aircraft architectures. The scope of the BoP is to manage and condition the reactant flows to and from the fuel-cell module and to provide power to system components.
Abstract The closed cabin temperature is anticipated to be cooled down when it is a bit hot inside the driving car. The traditional air-condition lowers the cabin temperature by frequently switching the status of the compressor, which increases the engine’s parasitic power and shortens the compressor’s service-life. The semiconductor auxiliary cooling system with the properties of no moving parts, high control precision and quick response has the potential to assist the on-board air-condition in modulating the cabin temperature with relative small ranges. Little temperature differences between the cabin and the outside environment means that the system energy consumption to ensure the occupant comfort is relatively low and the inefficiency could be made up by the renewable energy source.
Abstract This paper addresses the implementation of electric taxiing without the use of main engines by using electric propulsion of the landing gears. Substantial progress in this area has been achieved by Honeywell Aerospace and Safran in a joint initiative for developing an electric green taxiing system (eTaxi). Considerable analysis, design, fabrication, and testing have already been completed, which culminated in a demonstration at the Paris Air Show (PAS) in 2013. The eTaxi system has been installed on an A320 airplane that uses the auxiliary power unit (APU) to generate electric power to provide propulsion to two wheels of the main landing gear. The main advantages of such a system are reduction of fuel consumption and audio noise, reduction of CO2 , carbon and nitrous emissions, reduced engine foreign object damage (FOD) exposure and fast-turn time savings by elimination of the ground tractor for pushback operation.
Development of a Low Cost Production Automotive Engine for Range Extender Application for Electric Vehicles
Abstract Range Extended Electric Vehicles (REEVs) are gaining popularity due to their simplicity, reduced emissions and fuel consumption when compared to parallel or series/parallel hybrid vehicles. The range extender internal combustion engine (ICE) can be optimised to a number of steady state points which offers significant improvement in overall exhaust emissions. One of the key challenges in such vehicles is to reduce the overall powertrain costs, and OEMs providing REEVs such as the BMW i3 have included the range extender as an optional extra due to increasing costs on the overall vehicle price. This paper discusses the development of a low cost Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) of c.25 kW for a range extender application utilising a 624 cc two cylinder automotive gasoline engine.
Abstract A range extended electric vehicle (REEV) has the benefit of zero pipeline emission for most of the daily commute driving using the full electric mode while maintaining the capability for a long-range trip without the requirement of stop-and-charge. This capability is provided by the on-board auxiliary power unit (APU) which is used to maintain the battery state of charge at a minimum limit. Due to the limited APU package size, a small capacity engine with low-cylindercount is normally used which inherently exposes more severe torque pulsation, that arises from a low firing frequency. By using vector control, it is feasible to vary the generator in-cycle torque to counteract the engine torque oscillation dynamically. This allows for a smoother operation of the APU with the possibility of reducing the size of the engine flywheel. In this paper, a series of motor/generator control torque patterns were applied with the aim of cancelling the engine in-cycle torque pulses.
Abstract In recent years, electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle are either on the market or under intensive research and development (R&D). Since the concept of auxiliary power unit (APU) was brought into the automotive industry, the range-extended electric vehicle (ReEV) has become the favor of the worldwide manufacturers. Normally, the APU starts and stops more frequently in response to the control strategy compared with traditional vehicles, which will affect the ride comfort of passengers. Thus, APU start-stop NVH refinement is an important aspect of ReEV R&D. In this paper, a subjective evaluation on a ReEV was performed to quickly diagnose NVH issues firstly. Based on subjective results, the NVH experiment in a semi-anechoic room was carried out to troubleshoot these issues. The accelerations of the APU mounts, the seat track and the steering wheel as well as interior noise level were acquired and analyzed.
Abstract Economy and Emissions are the main concerns for success of any commercial vehicle in the present day automotive market. Electric vehicles are attracting more attention due to their advantages in these two points of view as compared to Conventional fuel based vehicles. However, an important drawback for electric vehicles to be noticed is its range per a single charge. In this paper, an attempt has been made to overcome this drawback by upgrading an electric vehicle. The existing electric vehicle is converted into solar power assisted electric vehicle and the range of the vehicle has been increased further by adding auxiliary power unit (IC engine + alternator). A control unit has been developed for energy management. This paper also discusses the performance characteristics of solar panels and IC engine. Results show that the range of converted electric vehicle has been increased by 1.8 times when compared with existing one.
System Level Modeling and Optimization of Fuel Cell Powered Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) to be used in Commercial Vehicles
Abstract Engines of commercial vehicles deliver significant amount of power (more than 25% of propulsive power) for non-propulsive loads such as air-conditioner, alternator, air compressor, radiator fan, steering oil pump, lights etc. Use of these auxiliaries cause sub-optimal utilization of engine power resulting in increased fuel consumption and emissions. A fuel cell powered auxiliary power unit (FC-APU) is proposed to isolate the auxiliaries from the engine. Use of FC-APU shall help improve load carrying capacity, gradeability, fuel efficiency and emissions of the vehicle. This paper describes a mathematical system level model developed using MATLAB-SIMULINK to estimate auxiliary power consumption and simulate FC-APU system. A statistical analysis is performed on the power consumed by various auxiliaries during different duty cycles. The data is used to propose a FC- APU system. Fuel cell is the most expensive component in the system.
Abstract In modern vehicles, the number of small electrical drive systems is still increasing continuously for blowers, fans and pumps as well as for window lifts, sunroofs and doors. Requirements and operating conditions for such systems varies, hence there are many different solutions available for controlling such motors. In most applications, simple, low-cost DC motors are used. For higher requirements regarding operating time and in stop-start capable systems, the focus turns to highly efficient and durable brushless DC motors with electronic commutation. This paper compares various electronic control concepts from a semiconductor vendor point of view. These concepts include discrete control using relays or MOSFETs. Furthermore integrated motor drivers are discussed, including system-on-chip solutions for specific applications, e.g. specific ICs for window lift motors with LIN interface.
A Study for Fuel Economy Improvement on Applying New Technology for Torsional Vibration Reduction of Crank Pulley
The method of Front End Auxiliary Drive (FEAD) system optimization can be divided into two ways. One is to use a mechanical device that decouples crank pulley from torsional vibration of crank shaft by using characteristics of spring. The other is to control belt tension through auto-tensioner in addition of alternator pulley device. Because the former case has more potential to reduce belt tension than the latter case, the development of mechanically decoupled crank pulley, despite of its difficulty of development, is getting popular among the industry. This paper characterizes latest crank pulley technologies, Crank Decoupler and Isolation Pulley, for torsional vibration reduction through functionality measurement result which composed of irregularity, slip, tensioner movement, belt span vibration, bearing hubload of idler and so on. Also it investigates their potential of belt tension reduction through steady state point fuel consumption test on dynamometer.
The DESTA project, funded by the European Commission under the FCH JU program, is a collaborative effort of AVL List GmbH, Eberspächer Climate Control Systems, Topsoe Fuel Cell (TOFC), Volvo and Forschungszentrum Jülich to bring fuel cell based auxiliary power units (APU) for heavy duty truck idling elimination closer to the market. Within this project Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology is used, which enables the use of conventional diesel fuel. During the project the technology is significantly optimized and around 10 APU systems are thoroughly tested. In 2014 a vehicle demonstration on board of a US type Volvo class 8 truck will be performed.
Control System for a PEM Fuel Cell Powered Heavy Duty Tactical Mobility Truck with Auxiliary Power Generation Capabilities
The incorporation of hydrogen fuel cells into heavy duty tactical mobility vehicles can bring about great opportunities in reducing the pollutant emissions of this kind of platforms (GVW > 30,000 kg). Furthermore the transportation of fuel to operational areas has become a key aspect for any deployment therefore optimal use of this resource is of paramount importance. Finally, it is also quite common for such platforms to serve additional purposes, besides freight delivery, such as powering external equipment (i.e. field hospitals or mobile artillery pieces). This work will describe the intelligent energy management system for a PEM Fuel Cell-Battery-Ultracapacitor Hybrid 8×8 heavy truck of the aforementioned weight class which also contemplates an internal electric/traction power generation unit. It will describe how the system optimizes the use of battery and hydrogen fuel energy while keeping system efficiency and performance at a maximum.
This paper presents the study of a defect warning and control system. The developed system has the following functions: (a) detect possible defects in advance by controlling gas turbine compressors (GTC), (b) warn the user, and (c) ensure necessary intervention to prevent the defect from happening or growing is made. The defect warning and control system is a product with a predicting maintenance approach. It measures the vibration, oil pressure, exhaust exit heat and engine speed parameters via sensors during the performance of the gas turbine compressors. It also monitors the action and warns the user in case of danger. If the evaluated parameters reach critical values which may cause a defect, the system detects this in advance and prevents unexpected defects. The application of this system has verified and demonstrated that its designed functions have been achieved successfully.
This paper presents new concepts for improving management of the electrical load power regeneration of an aircraft. A novel electrical system that allows for load regeneration back to the distribution bus is described. This approach offers the benefits of reduced weight, volume, and cost, as well as improved reliability. Also described is an electrical machine control mechanism that creates motor power to run the prime mover (i.e., the main engine to dissipate the regenerated power). Instead of main engine generation, this approach can be applied to an auxiliary power unit (APU) or power and thermal management system (PTMS). Background information regarding the regeneration concept is presented. The concept definition and the various modes of operation of the improved system are analyzed and described in detail. Results from the dynamic simulation of the system model are included.
This work deals with the modeling and analysis of a phasor-controlled Starter/Generator (S/G) electrical machine during starting either an aircraft Main Engine (ME) or Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). The model can be used to determine how much stator and exciter current is required to be supplied by a controlled power converter to the S/G to meet the start torque profile. In addition to modeling details and simulation results the paper presents a thorough analysis of the S/G machine, its environment and control.
The power and thermal management system (PTMS) developed by Honeywell for aircraft is an integral approach combining the functions of the auxiliary power unit (APU), emergency power unit (EPU), environmental control system (ECS), and thermal management system (TMS). The next generation PTMS discussed in this paper incorporates the new more electric architecture (MEA) and energy efficient aircraft (EEA) initiatives. Advanced system architectures with increased functionality and further integration capabilities with other systems are included. Special emphasis is given to improvements resulting from interactions with the main engine, main electric power generation, and flight actuation. The major drivers for advancement are highlighted, as well as the potential use of new technologies for turbomachinery, heat exchangers, power electronics, and electric machines. More advanced control and protection algorithms are considered.
High Capacity Electric A/C Compressor with Integrated Inverter for Hybrid Automotive and Commercial Vehicles
The market growth for electric-hybrid passenger vehicles has been very significant and is expected to reach nearly 25% of all vehicles sold in the US by 2015. Hybrid commercial vehicles are also being developed by several OEM's. This paper discusses the progress of Delphi Thermal Systems in developing an integrated electric compressor drive with high cooling capacity (9 kW+), sufficient for large hybrid SUV's and commercial vehicles such as Class 8 tractors with sleeper. An important driver for use of the electric compressor in the hybrid truck application is the reduction of engine idling time while maintaining comfort in the cab or sleeper. Design details of a compact 5 kW SPM motor, its inverter drive, and issues related to its integration into the compressor housing are described. Test results are given confirming excellent performance.
Several configurations of truck tractor sleeper cabs were tested and modeled to investigate the potential to reduce heating and cooling loads. Two trucks were tested outdoors and a third was used as a control. Data from the testing were used to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and this model was used to predict reductions in cooling loads during daytime rest periods. The test configurations included the application of standard-equipped sleeper privacy curtain and window shades, an optional insulated or arctic sleeper curtain, and insulated window coverings. The standard curtain reduced sleeper area heating load by 21% in one test truck, while the arctic curtain decreased it by 26%. Insulated window coverings reduced the heating load by 16% in the other test truck and lowered daytime solar temperature gain by 8°C. The lowered temperature resulted in a predicted 34% reduction in cooling load from the model.
A waste heat recovery system composed of a two phase cooling system, an exhaust heat exchanger, and mini-turbine (expander) has been proposed by Henry Works, Inc to generate auxiliary power via harvesting engine cooling and exhaust heat loss from heavy duty vehicles. The objective of this research is to evaluate the two phase cooling system through engine dynamometer testing and obtain initial test data for the development of the waste heat recovery system. Engine dynamometer experimentation for evaluating two phase cooling has been conducted using a Perkins diesel engine. During the two phase cooling phase, the coolant temperature showed less than 1 °C variation in the cooling path and the cylinder head temperature was more uniform than that of single phase cooling. As the saturated vapor pressure increases during two phase cooling, the cylinder head and coolant temperatures also increase.
Global warming concerns have prompted actions to restrict carbon dioxide emissions by a rapidly growing number of nations throughout the world. The aviation community can expect emission limits in the near future, and should become pro-active in this arena. Rapid advances are being made in the automobile industry to research and develop more efficient vehicles. The very successful introduction of gasoline-electric hybrid automobiles has spawned intense research and development of advanced batteries, ultra-capacitors, electric motors and controls. Opportunities for adapting automobile technologies to small general aviation airplanes should be exploited. Over the past few years, several groups have successfully flown experimental airplanes powered by ground-rechargeable batteries.
Data obtained from digital flight data recorders are used to assess the actual operational environment of propellers on a fleet of Beech 1900D aircraft in commuter role. Information is given on various aerodynamic parameters as well as those pertaining to engine and propeller usage. The takeoff rotation has been identified as the most demanding phase of flight in terms of unsteady loads exerted on the propeller blades. Special attention is paid to ground operations.
The study aims at providing more accurate initial conditions for turbulence prior to combustion with the help of a four valve, large bore diesel engine CFD model. Combustion simulations are typically done with a sector mesh and initial turbulence in these simulations is usually taken from relatively inaccurate correlations. This study also aims at developing a more accurate initial turbulence correlation for combustion simulations. A one-dimensional model was first used to provide boundary conditions as well as the initial flow conditions at the beginning of the simulation. Steady state and transient boundary conditions were studied. Also, the standard κ - ε and RNG/κ - ε turbulence models were compared. From the averaged values of turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate over the cylinder volume, a re-tuned correlation for defining the initial turbulent conditions at bottom dead center (BDC) prior to the compression stroke is proposed.
This paper developed a control system for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in off-road series hybrid electric special vehicle. A control system configuration was designed according to the requirements of the high voltage system in series hybrid electric special vehicle. Then optimal engine operating areas were defined. A gain scheduling engine speed PI controller was designed based on these areas. A closed loop voltage regulator was designed for the synchronous generator. The proposed control system was first validated on an APU control test bench. The test results showed the control system guaranteed the diesel APU good dynamic response characteristics while remaining stable output voltage. Finally, the APU control system was implemented on a diesel APU in an off-road series hybrid electric vehicle and a road test was conducted. The road test results showed the APU control system promised good performance in both vehicle dynamics and vehicle high voltage system.
The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), in partnership with private industry, educational institutions and national laboratories, is leading the research, development, and demonstration of high efficiency, fuel flexible solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and coal-based SOFC power generation systems for stationary market large central power plants. The FE Fuel Cell Program has four parts under the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA): cost reduction, coal-based systems, research and development, and manufacturing. The SECA cost reduction goal is to have SOFCs capable of being manufactured at $400 per kilowatt (kW) by 2010. Concurrently, the scale-up, aggregation, and integration of the technology will progress in parallel leading to prototype validation of megawatt (MW) -class fuel flexible products by 2012 with many opportunities for deployment including FutureGen.
In this paper the design of a special auxiliary power unit (APU) will be reported; the APU, made up by a i.c. engine and an electrical generator, will be utilised as on board generator for a series hybrid propulsion system for microcar equipped with an ultracapacitor energy storage system. The special kind of storage system, characterised by high power density and low energy density, has a big influence on the design and the management of the APU. The low amount of energy stored on board avoid to run the APU at a fixed steady state and suggests to perform a more flexible management method of the power output of the APU; as consequence, the APU design have to be performed considering an area of potential work for the i.c. engine. The i.c. engine considered for the design of the APU is derived for the motorcycle market; it is a spark ignition 250 cm3 engine, liquid cooled single cylinder with four valves and electronic injection.
Transport Refrigeration Unit, or TRU, is an example of a diesel emission source that will be regulated in the future. The TRU is used to provide refrigerated space during the transport of fruits, vegetables, meat, pharmaceuticals, beverages, and any other product that needs a temperature controlled environment while being transported. TRUs are used in all modes of transport, on rail cars, on ocean going shipping containers, over the road truck trailers and even on airplane Unit Load Devices. Policy making bodies, understanding the adverse effects of diesel emissions, noise pollution, and fuel consumption have started to pass legislation in an effort to curtail transport diesel emissions. At the local level many states as well as some municipalities have instituted policy designed to eliminate these sources of pollution.
In this paper a model of Trailer Refrigeration Units, TRUs, has been developed to quantify the fuel economy and emissions benefits of alternative power systems. Trailer refrigeration units (TRUs) are refrigeration systems typically powered by a separate diesel engine, and they are used to deliver fresh and frozen food products. The products can be very sensitive to temperature variation and maintaining the proper environment is very important. The diesel engines currently used to power the refrigeration system can contribute to high amount of local emissions at the loading warehouse. A promising future alternative is the use of fuel cell auxiliary power units (APUs). In this paper we have developed a MATLAB/Simulink based modeling of TRUs, and we have used the model to quantify the benefits of alternative power systems. The simulation model consists of an unsteady thermal modeling of TRUs that is coupled to the APU.
Since the 1960s, aerospace research and development (R&D) has been on a quest to eliminate oil lubrication systems from gas turbine engines. Beginning with small solar power dynamic “engines” for space applications, U.S. Government and industry have invested millions of dollars to mature this technology for incorporation into modern aircraft propulsion engines. This paper traces the evolution of oil-free rotor support systems that have actually been tested in advanced demonstrators, and the technology that enables this revolutionary engine configuration. However, this technology has yet to be fielded in aerospace products. The key factors of 45 years of Government and industry R&D and a vision to mature oil-free gas turbine engines are presented herein.
Power deficiencies have developed and presently continue to exist in numerous remote applications thus limiting mission effectiveness. The warfighter, first responder, personnel stationed in remote locations, shelters, and command posts have been burdened with exhaustive amounts of electronics. The demand for power has increased beyond the capability of supply and re-supply. The only viable solution to this problem is to equip the user with advanced battery technology, specifically high energy lithium-ion batteries, designed for this application. This paper will discuss the development of a man portable auxiliary power unit designed specifically to address these issues.
Real Time Platform for Rapid Prototyping and On-line Simulation of Digital Controllers for Electrical Drives
This paper presents a concept and an implementation example of a rapid prototyping platform, which permits to run simulation models on real-time hardware. The key components of the presented platform are a very powerful floating-point digital signal processor and a field programmable gate array. Furthermore the system includes analog inputs and outputs and a high-speed IEEE1394 communications interface. Using the proposed setup the developer has a proprietary real-time operating system, various hardware drivers and motor drive peripherals at one's disposal. A hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test plant for integrated electrical drives is shown as an implementation example for automotive applications. Such applications may be electrical drives for hybrid electric vehicles or electrified auxiliary power units.