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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1669
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9132
Husain Kanchwala, Harutoshi Ogai
Abstract Japan is suffering from the problem of an ageing society. In Kitakyushu city more than a quarter of people are aged above 65 years. The roads in this region are narrow with steep gradient and vulnerable roadbed. A big ratio of elderly people are living on their own. These characteristics make driving unsuitable. The problem is magnified by infrequent public transportation. A need-assessment survey for an autonomous vehicle at a community event suggested the applicability of small electric vehicle Toyota COMS. The vehicle is then equipped with features like automatic driving and platooning. The autonomous drive system is built to develop an intelligent transport system (ITS) using various sensors and actuators. Stereo camera and ultrasonic sensors were used to get a judgment of obstacle. Google earth and GPS were used to generate the target path using the Bezier curve method and optimized route is chosen.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0059
Christopher Quigley, Paul Faithfull, Simon Saunders, Neil Yates
The paper discusses the development and implementation of an innovative form of in-vehicle communications for the body control in an Ariel Atom niche sports car. A Local Interconnect Network (LIN) bus has been developed that runs the LIN signals over the power lines of the vehicle wiring harness. The LIN system has one master and up to 15 slave ECUs. LIN is normally run at a maximum bit rate of 20 Kbit/s, however this system has been implemented at 57.6 Kbit/s by modulating over the power lines. Benefits of this approach include weight reduction, reduction in the number wires, ease in retro-fitting to existing vehicle architectures as only requires a connection to power lines and the ability to monitor the signals via the battery pins of the OBD connector of the vehicle. The approach has resulted in a reduction in weight due to wiring and electronic control unit reduction.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0069
Dae-Kyoo Kim, Eunjee Song, Huafeng Yu
Cyber security concerns in the automotive industry have been constantly increasing as automobiles are more computerized and networked. AUTOSAR is the standard architecture for automotive software, addressing various aspects of software development including security. The current version of AUTOSAR is concerned with only cryptography-based security for secure authentication at the communication level. However, there has been an increasing need for security on authorization to control access to software resources in the automobile. In this paper, we introduce attribute-based access control (ABAC) to AUTOSAR to address access control concerns in automotive software.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0060
Holger Zeltwanger
The CAN FD protocol now internationally standardized in ISO 11898:2015 just describes how to implement it into silicon. The design of CAN FD networks is not in the scope of this standard. Different parties standardize the software design, for example ISO for on-board diagnostic, ASAM for calibration, etc. The physical layer design of CAN FD networks requires more attention compared with Classical CAN networks. The paper will discuss the necessary additional parameters for the data-phase bit-timing settings. Additionally, hints are given how to calculate the oscillator tolerance and to deal with the phase margin. Some of these topics derive from the CiA 601 series of recommendations. The paper summarizes the content of this specification series and will also consider other requirements from the OEMs. In particular, the design requirements for ECUs providing a CAN FD interface as well as system design requirements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0065
Xinyu Du, Shengbing Jiang, Atul Nagose, Yilu Zhang, Natalie Wienckowski
Wire shorts on an in-vehicle controller area network (CAN) impact the communication between electrical control units (ECUs), and negatively affects the vehicle control. The fault, especially the intermittent fault, is difficult to locate. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model for in-vehicle CAN bus is developed under the wire short fault scenario. The bus resistance is estimated and a resistance-distance mapping approach is proposed to locate the fault. The proposed approach is implemented in an Arduino-based embedded system and validated on a vehicle frame. The experimental results are promising. The approach presented in this paper may reduce trouble shooting time for CAN wire short faults and may enable early detection before the customer is inconvenienced.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0081
Husein Dakroub, Adnan Shaout, Arafat Awajan
Connectivity has become an essential need for daily device users. With the car projected to be the "ultimate mobile device", connectivity modules will eventually be mainstream in every car. Network providers are expanding their infrastructure and technology to accommodate the connected cars. Besides making voice and emergency calls the connected car will be sharing data with telematics service providers, back end systems and other vehicles. This trend will increase vehicle modules, complexity, entry points and vulnerabilities. This paper will present the current connected car architectures. The paper will present current architectural issues of the connected car and its vulnerabilities. The paper will present a suggested architecture for the future connected car that enhances efficiency and security.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0016
Jörg Schäuffele
Agenda: - Trends - Challenges - PREEvision approach - A practical example - Summary and outlook
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0163
Thomas Rothermel, Jürgen Pitz, Hans-Christian Reuss
In the field of electric mobility, one of the key issues is to improve the safety for pedestrians in urban areas with help of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Due to cruising range restrictions, nowadays electric vehicles are mainly operated in urban areas where risk potential for pedestrian collision is increased. Furthermore low noise emissions, in comparison to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, lead to a reduced acoustic perception through pedestrians. The paper proposes a framework for semi-autonomous longitudinal guidance for electric vehicles. To lower the risk for pedestrian collisions in urban areas, a velocity reference trajectory which is given by the driver is optimized with respect to safety aspects by means of Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC). The velocity reference trajectory is determined from accelerator pedal input.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0078
Eric DiBiaso, Bert Bergner, Jens Wuelfing, Robert Wuerker, Carlos Almeida
Ethernet technology utilizing a single unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is considered to have a promising future in the automotive industry. While 100Mbps transmission speeds can be achieved with standard connector platforms, 1Gbps requires specific design rules in order to ensure error free transmissions. This paper will explain the specific challenges for high speed UTP solutions in automotive environments. Connector limits relating to signal integrity and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are also discussed in detail. Through simulations and testing, connector design criteria are established to fulfill all electrical and mechanical requirements. These design rules are followed by the introduction of a modular and scalable Ethernet connection system utilizing an optimum cable termination technology. Lastly, the electrical performance of this connection hardware will be demonstrated through both component and link level test results.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0156
Pavel Steinbauer, Jan Macek, Josef Morkus, Petr Denk, Zbynek Sika, Adam Barak
Nowadays vehicles, especially the electric ones, are complex mechatronic devices. The pickup vehicles of small sizes are currently used in transport considerably. They often operate within a repeating scheme of a limited variety of tracks and bigger fleets. Thanks to mechatronic design of the vehicles and their components, there are many means of optimizing their performance. The paper shows an approach developed to increase the range of e-vehicle operation substantially. It is based on prior information about the route profile, traffic density, road conditions, past behaviour, mathematical models of the route and vehicle and dynamic optimization. The a-priori knowledge is taken into account. The most important part of the procedure is performed in the cloud, using both computational power and rich information resources. Suitable route discretization into sections is most important part of the algorithm. The various information resources are used.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0061
Anders Kallerdahl, Mohammad Salah
Increasingly, Ethernet is being used in areas such as vehicle network backbones, Audio Video Bridging (AVB) systems, and Diagnostic communication over Internet Protocol (DoIP) diagnostics - areas in which high-bandwidth and reliable performance are essential. Designers are accustomed to network communication systems CAN, LIN, and FlexRay, but how will the timing performance be verified in an Ethernet network? This talk looks at network-wide timing analysis challenges where a mixture of CAN, FlexRay, and Ethernet-based network busses co-exist. The AUTOSAR standard supports timing definition for all elements in a mixed-topology network, but accounting for many different timing paths is a non-trivial process. A real-life example based on a Freescale electronic control unit (ECU) evaluation board will be used to illustrate this talk, along with a COTS network analysis tools.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0037
Hariharan Venkitachalam, Dirk von Wissel, Johannes Richenhagen
Powertrain software development for series production faces multi-faceted challenges related to high functional complexity, high quality requirements, reduced time to market and high development costs. Software architecture tackles the above mentioned challenges by breaking down the complexity of application software into modular components. Hence, design errors introduced during that phase cause significant cost and time deviations. Early and quickly repeated analysis of new and modified architecture artefacts is required to detect design errors and the impact of the subsequent changes in the software architecture. Existing methods like scenario-based analysis of software architecture are rather designed for fundamental analysis of design guidelines. Hence, they involve various stake holders and are time consuming. New design methods are required to trade-off evaluation precision and error detection with short development cycles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0035
Amey Zare, Advaita Datar, R Venkatesh, Miwako Hasegawa
Finite State Machines (FSM) commonly act as a foundation in the design of modern day embedded systems. However, FSMs are also used at various stages of software development, from the initial overall concept to the lowest level coding phase. Often, the implementation of these FSMs includes non-deterministic communication with other FSMs and the environment of the underlying system. Inappropriate handling of such communications across multiple FSMs may lead to unexpected behavior of the underlying system during execution. Detecting root cause of such unexpected behavior, is hard and time consuming. In this paper we present an automated technique for detecting and reviewing communicating FSMs. We propose a two-step approach which consists of: a) identification of all possible communicating FSMs in the code, and b) impact of external entities (events, timers etc.) on the state transitions of the identified communicating FSMs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1170
George Dixon, Thomas Steffen, Richard Stobart
The TC48 project is developing a beyond state-of-the-art, exceptionally low cost, 48V Plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) demonstration drivetrain suitable for electrically powered urban driving, hybrid operation, and internal combustion engine powered high speed motoring. This paper explains the motivation for the project, and presents the layout options considered and the rationale by which these were reduced. The vehicle simulation model used to evaluate the layout options is described and discussed. The design of the vehicle's control systems is discussed, presenting simulation results. The paper describes analysis of small vehicles in the marketplace, including aspects of range and cost, leading to the justification for the specification of the TC48 system. The design aspects of the TC48 powertrain system are discussed, particularly the sizing of the motor and battery pack.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0152
Pierre Michel, Dominik Karbowski, Aymeric Rousseau
Connectivity and automation are increasingly being developed for cars and trucks, aiming to provide better safety and better driving experience. As these technology mature and reach higher adoption rates, they will also have an impact on the energy consumption: connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) may drive more smoothly, stop less and move at faster speeds, thanks to overall improvements to traffic flows. These potential impacts are not well studied and their study tend to focus solely on conventional engine-powered cars, leaving on the side electrified vehicles such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This work intends to address this issue by analyzing the energy impact of various CAV scenarios on different types of electric vehicles using high-fidelity models. The vehicles, all midsize, one HEV, one BEV and a conventional are modeled in Autonomie, a high-fidelity forward-looking vehicle simulation tool.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0170
Vidya Nariyambut Murali, Ashley Micks
Camera data generated in a 3D virtual environment has been used to train object detection and identification algorithms. 40 common US road traffic signs were used as the objects of interest during the investigation of these methods. Traffic signs were placed randomly alongside the road in front of a camera in a virtual driving environment, after the camera itself was randomly placed along the road at an appropriate height for a camera located on a vehicle’s rear view mirror. In order to best represent the real world, effects such as shadows, occlusions, washout/fade, skew, rotations, reflections, fog, rain, snow and varied illumination were randomly included in the generated data. Images were generated at a rate of approximately one thousand per minute, and the image data was automatically annotated with the true location of each sign within each image, to facilitate supervised learning as well as testing of the trained algorithms.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0063
Karsten Schmidt, Harald Zweck, Udo Dannebaum
The introduction of Ethernet and Gigabit-Ethernet as the main in- vehicle network infrastructure is the foundation for different new functionalities such as piloted driving, minimizing the CO2-footprint and others. The high data rate of such systems influence also the used microcontrollers due the fact, that the big amount of data has to be transferred, encrypted, etc. The usage of Ethernet as the in vehicle network enable the possibility that future road vehicles are going to be connected with other vehicles and information systems to improve system functionality. These previously closed automotive systems will be opened up for external access. Such accesses can be Car2X connectivity or connection to personal devices. This may result in new vulnerabilities that could be exploited by malicious attackers. Any external access to the system must be authorized and firewalled, so that only trustworthy users and services can make use of the functionality.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0126
Philip Daian, Shinichi Shiraishi, Akihito Iwai, Bhargava Manja, Grigore Rosu
The Runtime Verification ECU (RV-ECU) is a new development platform for checking and enforcing the safety of automotive bus communications and software systems. RV-ECU uses runtime verification, a dynamic software analysis subfield geared at validating and verifying software systems as they run, to ensure that all manufacturer and third-party safety specifications are complied with during operation of the vehicle. By compiling mathematically formal safety properties into code using a verified compiler, the RV-ECU runs only provably correct code that can check for and detect safety violations as the system runs, ensuring no safety-critical violations. RV-ECU can also work to recover from violations of these properties, either by itself or together with safe message sending libraries implementable on third-party control units and other hardware on the bus.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0132
Haizhen Liu, Weiwen Deng, Rui He, Jian Wu, Bing Zhu
Brake-by-wire (BBW) system has drawn a great attention in recent years as driven by rapidly increasing demands on both active brake controls for intelligent vehicles and regenerative braking controls for electric vehicles. However, unlike conversional brake systems, the reliability of the brake-by-wire systems remains to be challenging due to its lack of physical connection in case system failure. A four-wheeled vehicle is typically an over-actuated system, as it has more actuators than the number of degrees to be controlled in vehicle yaw plane (longitudinal, lateral and yaw motion). Control allocation method has often been utilized as a means for fault-tolerant control. A great deal of researches has been done on fault-tolerant control based on control allocation method. There are basically two methods in fault-tolerant control: an optimization-based approach and a rule-based approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0134
Sagar Behere, Xinhai Zhang, Viacheslav Izosimov, Martin Törngren
Heavy commercial vehicles constitute the dominant form of inland freight transport. There is a strong interest in making such vehicles autonomous (self-driving), in order to improve safety and the economics of fleet operation. Autonomy concerns affect a number of key systems within the vehicle. One such key system is brakes, which need to remain continuously available throughout vehicle operation. This paper presents a fail-operational functional brake architecture for autonomous heavy commercial vehicles. The architecture is based on a reconfiguration of the existing brake systems in a typical vehicle, in order to attain dynamic, diversified redundancy along with desired brake performance. Specifically, the parking brake is modified to act as a secondary brake with capabilities for monitoring and intervention of the primary brake system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0165
Padmanaban Dheenadhayalan
Innovation in the field of intelligent autonomous systems of the automotive sector has been ever increasing. Accurate tracking of vehicles is an important aspect in the design of applications such as smart route planning or collision avoidance systems. In practical applications, tracking of vehicle using radar technology suffers from serious problem due to noisy measurements. It introduces major limit on the accuracy of the tracking system. This paper discusses a case study scenario where the robustness of vehicle tracking can be improved using Extended Kalman Filtering. Noisy radar measurement is simulated through model based design (MBD) using MATLAB. Analysis and design of Extended Kalman Filter to mitigate the noise is discussed. An efficient system architecture to implement the algorithm in autonomous smart vehicle tracking system is also identified.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0095
Qiao Fengying, Vincenzo Sacco, Gilles Delorme, Yevheniy Soloshenko
Over the last decades, the industry has provided a steady improvement in the safety of automobiles. Advances in modern electronics have accelerated the number and features of safety systems. Semiconductor devices, sensors, actuators and computer controlled systems with complex software are integral to these system designs. This increasing complexity drives the need for a systematic process for safety systems development and engineering to achieve their full operation potential. ISO-26262 "Road vehicles — Functional Safety" provides appropriate standardized requirements, processes and an automotive-specific risk-based approach to determine integrity levels, also known as Automotive Safety Integrity Levels or ASILs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0085
Patrick Shelly
More options in automotive hardware along with the arrival of powerful multicore SoC platforms have changed the playing field in designing automotive systems today. The flexibility of open Linux operating systems has also allowed vehicle systems designers to consider hosting multiple complex functions in a single ECU. This paper examines a "proof-of-concept" platform that has integrated a variety of consumer-demanded functions in a secure automotive-grade package. Platform capabilities include: a driver information module (DIM), vehicle infotainment, smartphone and tablet integration, advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) features, and an AUTOSAR-based communication capability that works with existing in-vehicle networks (CAN, FlexRay, Ethernet). This type of reference design allows shorter time-to-market performance with consumer-ready features to address immediate market demands.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0013
Sujit S. Phatak, Heming Chen, Yuan Xiao, Can Wang, Donald McCune, Simon Schliecker, Maurice Sebastian, Victor Reyes, David Balland
Automotive vehicles today consist of very complex network of electronic control units (ECU) connected with each other using different network implementations such as Controller Area Network (CAN), FlexRay, etc. There are several ECUs inside a vehicle targeting specific applications such as engine, transmission, body, steering, brakes, infotainment/navigation, etc. comprising on an average more than 50 ECUs executing more than 50 million lines of software code. It is expected to increase exponentially in the next few years. Such complex electric/electronic (E/E) architecture and software calls for a comprehensive, flexible and systematic development and validation environment especially for a system level or vehicle level development. To achieve this goal, we have built a virtual multi-ECU high fidelity cyber-physical multi-rate co-simulation that closely resembles a realistic hardware based automotive embedded system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1453
I-Hsuan Lee, Bi-Cheng Luan
Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems is one of the functions of the Advanced Driver Assists System to avoid or mitigate vehicle frontal collisions. Most of the previous studies focus on two-car scenario where the host vehicle monitors the distances to the vehicles in front, and automatically applies emergency brake when a collision is imminent. The purpose of this paper is to develop an Advanced-AEB control system that mitigates collisions in a multi-car scenario by computing the Time-to-Collision (TTC) to the vehicles in front as well as those to the vehicles behind using the concept of impedance control. A simple gain-scheduling PI controller was designed for the host vehicle to track the reference inputs generated by the impedance control. The preliminary simulation results demonstrate that the proposed AEB is effective in mitigating the collisions in a 3-car following scenario.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0131
Andre Kohn, Rolf Schneider, Antonio Vilela, Andre Roger, Udo Dannebaum
The trend towards even more sophisticated driver assistance systems and growing automation of driving sets new requirements for the robustness and availability of the involved automotive systems. In case of an error, today it is still sufficient that safety related systems just fail safe or silent to prevent safety related influence of the driving stability resulting in a functional deactivation. But the reliance on mechanical fallbacks and the human driver taking over control, being inevitable in such a scenario, are expected to get more and more insufficient along with a rising degree of driving automation. The intended and proposed advantage of highly or even fully automated driving is that driver as well as passengers can use the travel time to put more or less of their attention on other tasks instead of monitoring the car’s behavior.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0296
Monika Minarcin
Increasing electrification of the vehicle as well as the demands of increased connectivity presents automotive manufacturers with formidable challenges. Automakers and suppliers likely will encounter three practices that will influence how they develop and manufacture highly connected vehicles and future e-mobility platforms: 1) hierarchical production processes in fixed footprints that do not share data freely; 2) lack of real-time, in-line quality inspection and correction processes for complex miniaturized electronic components; and 3) floor to enterprise resource and execution systems that can collect, analyze and respond to rapidly changing production needs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1220
Sinisa Jurkovic, Khwaja M. Rahman, Peter Savagian, Robert Dawsey
The Cadillac CT6 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) power-split transmission architecture utilizes two motors. One is an induction motor type while the other is a permanent magnet AC (PMAC) motor type referred to as motor A and motor B respectively in this paper. Bar-wound stator construction is utilized for both the motors. Induction motor A winding is connected in delta and PMAC motor B winding is connected in wye. The choice of an induction motor for motor A enables a lower overall system cost and a rare earth free design while delivering desired performance. Low spin loss design of an induction rotor as compared to a permanent magnet rotor, especially at higher speeds, is the major enabler for the choice of an induction motor for motor A for this application. This paper presents advantages of induction machines (IMs) in automotive industry in the context of this application and an approach to design a cost-effective electric machine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0058
Jihas Khan
Network Management protocols are implemented in ECUs to provide start-up of the network, node monitoring, to ensure that they go to proper sleep mode when they don’t need the network, , coordination among ECUs, support of diagnosis, reading and setting of network specific parameters and proper wake up of the network. OSEK/VDX based network management protocol is the most widely used among OEMs and the validation of the same has proved to be of utmost importance these days. This paper is proposing a scalable validation framework using model based architecture and relevant hardware to test the conformance of ECUs to specifications of OSEK/VDX NM. OSEK/VDX works mainly through the exchange of network management CAN messages between the ECUs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0167
Hugh Luke Humphreys, Joshua Batterson, David Bevly, Raymond Schubert
The fuel efficiency improvement of a Driver-Assisted-Truck-Platooning (DATP) system was evaluated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The DATP system uses a collection of sensors, integrated active safety systems, and V2V communications to enable regulation of the longitudinal distance between pairs of trucks without acceleration input from the driver in the following truck(s). The V2V linking of active safety systems and synchronized braking promotes increased safety of close following trucks while improving the fuel economy. Different configurations of vehicles, platoon sizes, and separation distances were considered as the relevant parameters. The primary objective of the CFD analysis is to optimize the target separation distance, as well as to determine the overall drag reduction of the platoon. This reduction directly results in fuel economy gains for the vehicles.
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