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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1474
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Demetrio Cortese
Abstract Using a Model-based approach to the embedded software development process contributed significantly in reducing the development time while also supporting a high quality level of the software code implementation. However, based on our experience with CNH Industrial application scenarios, involving multiple suppliers from vehicle ECU to the engine ECU, it only addressed the need of the implementation phase without any consistent influence in other software development life-cycle phases such as requirements and specification. Mandatory functional safety requirements, new complex functionalities, and reducing time to delivery while maintaining high quality level of software are driving factors in our new software development projects. Ideally the adoption of international standards, as for example the ISO 12007, and the safety standards, as the ISO 26262, ISO 25119 and ISO 13849, should represent a consistent guide to develop software. In this approach, the adoption of them should satisfy both the development guidelines and recommendations while at the same time to meeting application scenario requirements.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Pietro Marani
Abstract The new X-by-Wire systems under study for commercial and heavy-duty vehicles, as well as for Agricultural Tractors, are increasingly real autonomous systems, capable to autonomously control a vehicle functionality, actuating the operator's commands, or managing in a complete autonomy a machine function. These application need an higher Performance Level from the functional safety point of view, due to the risk of a malfunction consequence. The paper deals with a new concept hydraulic spool valve that allow the design of new safer and more compacted hydraulic circuit architectures, ensuring higher safety performance levels. The architecture presents advantages both from performance (precision, fastness), both from operational point of view. The paper will focus in particular on safety and control topics. The new patented valve presents a secondary rotary type actuator connected to a sleeve interposed between the spool and the valve body, thus composing a roto-translating valve.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Liang Zhou, Chuqi Su
Abstract Recovering the braking energy and reusing it can significantly improve the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs).The battery ability of recovering electricity limits the improvement of the regenerative braking performance. As one way to solve this problem, the technology of brake-by-wire can be adopted in the HEVs to use the recovery dynamically. The use of high-power electrical equipment, such as electromechanical brake (EMB), is working in the form of brake-by-wire. Due to the nature of EMB, there exists an obvious coupling relationship between the energy flow and brake force distribution. In this paper, a brake force distribution controller is proposed in HEV with EMB, which can maximize braking energy recovery, compared with the conventional distribution control without EMB. Meanwhile, an energy flow strategy working with the distribution controller is designed, which is less limited to the performance of the battery. In this strategy, the recovery transfers to the motor of EMB directly, rather than being stored statically in the battery, so it improves the efficiency of the braking energy recovery.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Kyung-Jung Lee, Jae-Min Kwon, Jae Seung Cheon, Hyun-Sik Ahn
Abstract This paper proposes a design approach for the network configuration of brake-by-wire (BBW) systems using the FlexRay communication protocol. Owing to the absence of mechanical or hydraulic back-ups, the BBW system needs to be highly reliable and fault-tolerant. The FlexRay network is shown to be very effective for such requirements of BBW systems by using hardware in-the-loop simulation (HILS), which allows developing and testing various algorithms and faithfully reproduces the actual system. The FlexRay protocols are designed using the FIBEX configuration tool appropriately for the control of BBW systems, and they are analyzed using the FlexRay communication monitoring tool. The results of HILS illustrate that the braking performance of a controller area network (CAN)-based network and that of a FlexRay-based network for BBW systems are very similar, however, the FlexRay-based network system is more reliable and ensures better fault diagnosis by monitoring more variables.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Jennifer C. Shaw, Patrick Norman, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt
Abstract Radical new electrically propelled aircraft are being considered to meet strict future performance goals. One concept design proposed is a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) aircraft that utilises a number of electrically driven propulsors. Such concepts place a new and significant reliance on an aircraft's electrical system for safe and efficient flight. Accordingly, in addition to providing certainty that supply reliability targets are being met, a contingency analysis, evaluating the probability of component failure within the electrical network and the impact of that failure upon the available thrust must also be undertaken for architecture designs. Solutions that meet specified thrust requirements at a minimum associated weight are desired as these will likely achieve the greatest performance against the proposed emissions targets. This paper presents a Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) based design approach for the electrical system and thrust reliability analysis of TeDP aircraft architectures.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Richard Mourn
Abstract The paper provides an introduction into IEEE-1394, AS5643 and related documents. It then explores the I/O Technology Suitability Study criteria used to originally select IEEE-1394b (Beta) as the Vehicle System Data Bus for the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter and update each criterion with new information based on more than a decade of experience and use in not only the F-35 but several other programs. Based on the suitability study criteria, the reader gains insight into how and why programs like the F-35, which implements dozens of AS5643/IEEE-1394 devices per plane, utilize AS5643/IEEE-1394 for its vehicle system network. This unprecedented use of a high speed (491.52Mb/s) serial interface on an aircraft proves the capability of AS5643/1394, and opens the door for higher bandwidth communication between the Control Computer and remote nodes. While I/O bandwidth is important, system level deterministic behavior is required for most vehicle system networks and AS5643 coupled with 1394 provides the required deterministic behavior.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Riko Bornholdt, Frank Thielecke
Abstract Due to a shift of the major aviation concerns to focus on enhancements of the successful programs instead of pushing their successors, the need for new methodologies for aircraft system architecture design emerges. Challenging the existing requirements and reconsidering the functions and their allocation could help to dissolve the system specific development paradigm and lead to beneficial architecture concepts. To help understand the mechanisms and boundary conditions of developing fault-tolerant systems, the first part of the paper gives an overview of the successive process of architecture design. The significant architectural design decisions and the concurrent safety assessment process are discussed. One crucial step in the design space exploration of future aircraft system architectures is the allocation of the consumers to the available power sources. Within the paper a methodology for the optimization of the power allocation for flight control systems is proposed. With this methodology the evaluation of a large amount of architecture permutations on the basis of a preliminary system safety assessment regarding multiple top failure events is possible in a short time period.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Thierry Cornilleau, Pierre Linard, Paul Moxon, Christopher Nicholas
Abstract ECOA is an active software architecture research programme conducted by the French Republic and United Kingdom. It is one product of the recent Defence and Security Co-operation Treaty signed between the two nations. This paper provides an overview of the programme goals and progress as well as an introduction to the technology being developed and comparison to related initiatives. The goal of the ECOA programme is to define an open software architecture that enables collaborative development of mission system software. The ECOA programme is needed to reduce development and lifecycle costs of future military air programmes. For this reason the programme has a specific focus on combat-air mission systems but the underlying technology is general purpose, applying to multiple military and civil domains. At present, the programme has defined a concept, delivered a set of initial technical standards and produced a joint demonstrator to validate the technology developed.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Evgeni Ganev, William Warr, Keming Chen
Abstract This paper presents a novel method and system for an electric power alternating-current (AC)-to-direct-current (DC) converter employing composite technology. The term composite entails utilization of more than one type of conversion operating in parallel. In addition, background information for the prior art, based on conventional autotransformer rectifier units (ATRUs), and active converters are discussed. The major requirements of AC-to-DC converters from both functional and protection perspectives are provided. The concept of the new approach is defined. Comparative analysis between the new and old methods is documented. The performance features and technical details of the system parameters with respect to AC-to-DC converter system requirements are presented and discussed. Analysis, simulation results, and test data are included. Finally, the advantages of this technology, which nearly doubles power density compared to the state-of-the-art, are summarized and a conclusion included.
Standard
2014-09-05
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses characteristics of data communications for the Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS). This document provides guidance on the aspects of transport media, unmanned systems and the characteristics of JAUS itself that are relevant to the definition of a JAUS transport specification.
Standard
2014-09-05
This document, the JAUS Compliance and Interoperability Policy (ARP6012), recommends an approach to documenting the complete interface of an unmanned system or component in regard to the application of the standard set. While non-SAE AS-4 JAUS documents are referenced in this ARP they are not within the scope of this document and should be viewed as examples only.
Book
2014-09-03
William C. Messner
Over the years, the DARPA Challenges in the United States have galvanized interest in autonomous cars, making them a real possibility in the mind of the public, but autonomous and unmanned vehicles have been increasingly employed in many roles on land, in the water, and in the air. Military applications have received a great deal of attention, with weaponized unmanned aircraft (drones) being the most prominent. However, unmanned vehicles with varying degrees of autonomy already have many civilian applications. Some of these are quite familiar (such as the Roomba autonomous vacuum cleaner), while others remain largely out of the public eye (such as autonomous farm equipment). Additional applications and more capable vehicles are rapidly coming to the markets in the years ahead. This book examines a number of economically important areas in which unmanned and autonomous vehicles, also understood here as autonomous technologies, are already used or soon will be. Co-published by SAE International and AUVSI, Autonomous Technologies: Applications That Matter will assist the reader in identifying profitable opportunities and avoiding costly misconceptions with respect to civilian applications of autonomous vehicle technologies as it brings together chapters on how air, water, and ground vehicles are becoming ever more used and appreciated.
Magazine
2014-08-22
SMACing the automotive industry: from concept to consumer Technology is making a more significant impact on today's auto industry. Perhaps one of the most notable examples is the development of connected technologies coupled with social, mobile, analytics, and cloud (SMAC) technologies. The 3i paradigm: India's story The concept of ideation, incubation, and implementation is enhancing the growth of the Indian automotive industry. Virtualization for automotive IVI systems As the demand for modern in-vehicle infotainment systems grows, automakers are increasingly looking toward virtualization as a solution to bridge the gap between consumer and automotive electronics. Command Center: Securing connected cars of the future automotive An architectural approach to minimize connectivity interfaces acts as a secure, intelligent gateway between the car and external devices/networks to better guard against malicious or sensitive data from being compromised.
Standard
2014-08-21
This SAE Information Report defines a procedure for indicating the severity of narrowband emissions from an electronic system-component.
Standard
2014-08-11
The J1939 Digital Annex The J1939 Digital Annex, introduced in August 2013, offers key J1939 technical data in an Electronic Spreadsheet that can be easily searched, sorted, and adapted to other formats. J1939DA contains all of the SPNs (parameters), PGNs (messages), and other J1939 data previously published in the SAE J1939 top level document. J1939DA also contains all of the SLOTs, Manufacturer ID Codes, NAME Functions, and Preferred Addresses previously published in the SAE J1939 top level and the J1939-71 document. J1939DA contains the complete technical details for all of the SPNs and PGNs previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document. For all other SPNs and PGNs which are published in a document other than SAE J1939-71, J1939DA lists only basic details along with a reference to the document that contains the complete technical details. J1939DA replaces, and expands upon, the 1939 Companion Spreadsheet (CS1939), which was last published through November 2012. The data fields included in J1939DA for PGNs are: PGN Parameter Group Label Acronyn EDP DP PF PGN Length PS PGN Description Multipacket Transmission Rate PGN Data Length Default Priority PGN Reference PGN Document The data fields included in J1939DA for SPNs are: SPN SPN Name SPN Description SPN Length Resolution Offset Data Range Operational Range Units SLOT Identifier SPN Type SPN Reference SPN Document The J1939 Digital Annex is current through Second Quarter 2014 and can be purchased separately or as part of the SAE J1939 Standards Collection on the Web.
Magazine
2014-08-07
Growth in telematics capabilities brings more benefits to more users Broader coverage, more features highlight the potential for increased connectivity and communication from the field
Standard
2014-07-29
This document defines a set of standard application layer interfaces called JAUS Unmanned Ground Vehicle Services. JAUS Services provide the means for software entities in an unmanned system or system of unmanned systems to communicate and coordinate their activities. The Unmanned Ground Vehicle Services represent the platform-specific capabilities commonly found in UGVs, and augment the Mobilty Service Set [AS6009] which is platform-agnostic. At present ten (10) services are defined in this document.
WIP Standard
2014-07-18
The SAE Aerospace Information Report AIR5315 – Generic Open Architecture (GOA) defines “a framework to identify interface classes for applying open systems to the design of a specific hardware/software system.” [sae] JAUS Service (Interface) Definition Language defines an XML schema for the interface definition of services at the Class 4L, or Application Layer, and Class 3L, or System Services Layer, of the Generic Open Architecture stack (See Figure 1 below). The specification of JAUS services shall be defined according to the JAUS Service (Interface) Definition Language document.
Magazine
2014-07-10
Off-highway engines advance beyond Tier 4 With Tier 4 Final/Stage IV needs met, engine OEMs direct their focus and competitive energies toward optimizing competitive solutions. At the same time, they need to keep a weather eye out for future regulations, which many expect. Autonomous vehicle challenges span many fields Many of the challenges faced by military and commercial design teams are similar. Racket busters With a quiet cab at the top of many tractor buyers' wish lists, agricultural equipment manufacturers are pursuing every opportunity possible to shed decibels.
WIP Standard
2014-07-09
This AIR intends to better document and tabulate electrical load dynamics that influence power source capacity, power quality and stabiltiy.
WIP Standard
2014-07-02
This document describes the features and functions of the CXPI protocol. The CXPI protocol provides some selected features of the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol implemented on a UART-based data link for mainly HMI (Human Machine Interface) of road vehicles electric systems. This information report is a description of the CXPI protocol, which is specified in the JASO D015 CXPI document published by JASO. The JASO D015 CXPI specification is the normative reference for the CXPI protocol. The CXPI specification is maintained by JSAE (Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Inc.). This information report does not supersede any information contained in the JASO D015 CXPI specification. It has the sole purpose of providing textual description and graphical illustrations to ease reading and interpretation of the CXPI protocol.
Standard
2014-06-13
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the minimum performance standards for equipment used as secondary alternating current (AC) electrical power sources in aerospace electric power systems.
WIP Standard
2014-06-10
SAE ARP to provide guidance and best practices for demonstrating civil aircraft electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Incorporate EMC guidance for large transport airplanes, business airplanes, small airplanes, small helicopters, and transport helicopters. Provide guidance that considers compliance with aircraft safety requirements, and also considers intended performance of non-required and non-essential aircraft systems. Provide guidance on aircraft equipment EMC qualification, aircraft system and wiring installation, and aircraft EMC tests.
Standard
2014-06-03
This document defines a set of standard application layer interfaces called JAUS Manipulator Services. JAUS Services provide the means for software entities in an unmanned system or system of unmanned systems to communicate and coordinate their activities. The Manipulator Services represent platform-independent capabilities commonly found across domains and types of unmanned systems. At present, twenty-five (25) services are defined in this document.
Standard
2014-05-29
This document describes a physical layer utilizing Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable with extended stub lengths for flexibility in ECU placement and network topology. Also, connectors are not specified. CAN controllers are now available which support the newly introduced CAN Flexible Data Rate Frame format (known as “CAN FD”). These controllers, when used on SAE J1939-15 networks, must be restricted to use only the Classical Frame format compliant to ISO 11989-1 (2003). These SAE Recommended Practices are intended for light- and heavy-duty vehicles on- or off-road as well as appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components (e.g., generator sets). Vehicles of interest include but are not limited to: on- and off-highway trucks and their trailers; construction equipment; and agricultural equipment and implements.
Standard
2014-04-28
The SAE J1939 communications network is developed for use in heavy-duty environments and suitable for horizontally integrated vehicle industries. The SAE J1939 communications network is applicable for light-duty, medium-duty, and heavy- duty vehicles used on-road or off-road, and for appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components (e.g. generator sets). Vehicles of interest include, but are not limited to, on-highway and off-highway trucks and their trailers, construction equipment, and agricultural equipment and implements.   SAE J1939-71 Vehicle Application Layer is the SAE J1939 reference document for the conventions and notations that specify parameter placement in PGN data fields, the conventions for ASCII parameters, and conventions for PGN transmission rates. This document previously contained the majority of the SAE J1939 data parameters and messages for information exchange between the ECU applications connected to the SAE J1939 communications network.
WIP Standard
2014-04-23
Generate an accompanying document to AS-6129 to define the verification method and criteria for all the requirements contained in AS-6129.
WIP Standard
2014-04-22
This standard defines a generic set of electrical interfaces between a host aircraft (“platform”) and an electro-optic/infrared (EO/IR) sensor. This includes connectors, cabling, fiber optics, signals, and power.
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