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Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rodrigo Felix, John Economou, Kevin Knowles
Upon their arrival, Unmanned Autonomous Systems (UAS) brought with them many benefits for those involved in a military campaign. They can use such systems to reconnoitre dangerous areas, provide 24-hr aerial security surveillance for force protection purposes or even attack enemy targets all the while avoiding friendly human losses in the process. Unfortunately, these platforms also carry the inherent risk of being built on inherently vulnerable cybernetic systems. From software which can be tampered with to either steal data, damage or even outright steal the aircraft, to the data networks used for communications which can be jammed or even eavesdropped on to gain access to sensible information. All this has the potential to turn the benefits of UAS into liabilities and although the last decade has seen great advances in the development of protection and countermeasures against the described threats and beyond the risk still endures. With this in mind the present work will describe a monitoring system whose purpose is to monitor UAS mission profile implementation at both high level mission execution and at lower level software code operation to tackle the specific threats of malicious code and possible spurious commands received over the vehicle’s data links.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Thierry Cornilleau, Pierre Linard, Paul Moxon, Christopher Nicholas
UK and French Aerospace industries are currently collaborating, under the Anglo-French Government Memorandum of Understanding, on a programme, named ECOA (European Component Oriented Architecture) which aims to reduce the development and through-life-costs of the increasingly complex software systems within military air platforms. The ECOA programme defines an open real-time software architecture, agreed between the programme partners, that meets these goals. The software architecture is based around a number of key concepts: the use of flexible architectural paradigms which provide event and data distribution, the precise specification of software artefacts, allowing a detailed understanding of functional and non-functional behaviour, a better model of distributed real-time behaviour, the support for Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) and automated code generation to reduce development costs, the ability to support any underlying hardware and software platform ensuring the approach is able to support legacy and new build platforms, and the creation of a market for software artefacts, based on an agreed breakdown of mission systems functionality.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Aurelie Beaugency, Marc Gatti, Didier Regis
Since 2000, avionics is facing several changes, mostly driven by technological improvements in the electronics industry and innovation requirements from aircraft manufacturers. First, it has progressively lost its technological leadership over innovation processes in the economy. Second, the explosion of the electronics consumer industry has contributed to shorten even more its technology life cycles, and promoted the use of COTS. Third, the increasing complexities of avionics systems, which integrate more and more functions, have encouraged new players to enter the market. In this context, firms’ ability to quickly face technological changes provides competitive advantage. The aim of this article is to analyze how technological changes can affect the competitive environment of avionics firms. More precisely, we refer to criticality levels as a determinant of the market competitiveness. According to its criticality, each avionic system is ranked from A (highly critical) to E in the DO 178b standard.
Book
2014-09-04
William C. Messner
Over the years, the DARPA Challenges in the United States have galvanized interest in autonomous cars, making them a real possibility in the mind of the public, but autonomous and unmanned vehicles have been increasingly employed in many roles on land, in the water, and in the air. Military applications have received a great deal of attention, with weaponized unmanned aircraft (drones) being the most prominent. However, unmanned vehicles with varying degrees of autonomy already have many civilian applications. Some of these are quite familiar (such as the Roomba autonomous vacuum cleaner), while others remain largely out of the public eye (such as autonomous farm equipment). Additional applications and more capable vehicles are rapidly coming to the markets in the years ahead. This book examines a number of economically important areas in which unmanned and autonomous vehicles, also understood here as autonomous technologies, are already used or soon will be. Co-published by SAE International and AUVSI, Autonomous Technologies: Applications That Matter will assist the reader in identifying profitable opportunities and avoiding costly misconceptions with respect to civilian applications of autonomous vehicle technologies as it brings together chapters on how air, water, and ground vehicles are becoming ever more used and appreciated.
Magazine
2014-08-22
SMACing the automotive industry: from concept to consumer Technology is making a more significant impact on today's auto industry. Perhaps one of the most notable examples is the development of connected technologies coupled with social, mobile, analytics, and cloud (SMAC) technologies. The 3i paradigm: India's story The concept of ideation, incubation, and implementation is enhancing the growth of the Indian automotive industry. Virtualization for automotive IVI systems As the demand for modern in-vehicle infotainment systems grows, automakers are increasingly looking toward virtualization as a solution to bridge the gap between consumer and automotive electronics. Command Center: Securing connected cars of the future automotive An architectural approach to minimize connectivity interfaces acts as a secure, intelligent gateway between the car and external devices/networks to better guard against malicious or sensitive data from being compromised.
Standard
2014-08-21
This SAE Information Report defines a procedure for indicating the severity of narrowband emissions from an electronic system-component.
Standard
2014-08-11
The J1939 Digital Annex The J1939 Digital Annex, introduced in August 2013, offers key J1939 technical data in an Electronic Spreadsheet that can be easily searched, sorted, and adapted to other formats. J1939DA contains all of the SPNs (parameters), PGNs (messages), and other J1939 data previously published in the SAE J1939 top level document. J1939DA also contains all of the SLOTs, Manufacturer ID Codes, NAME Functions, and Preferred Addresses previously published in the SAE J1939 top level and the J1939-71 document. J1939DA contains the complete technical details for all of the SPNs and PGNs previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document. For all other SPNs and PGNs which are published in a document other than SAE J1939-71, J1939DA lists only basic details along with a reference to the document that contains the complete technical details. J1939DA replaces, and expands upon, the 1939 Companion Spreadsheet (CS1939), which was last published through November 2012. The data fields included in J1939DA for PGNs are: PGN Parameter Group Label Acronyn EDP DP PF PGN Length PS PGN Description Multipacket Transmission Rate PGN Data Length Default Priority PGN Reference PGN Document The data fields included in J1939DA for SPNs are: SPN SPN Name SPN Description SPN Length Resolution Offset Data Range Operational Range Units SLOT Identifier SPN Type SPN Reference SPN Document The J1939 Digital Annex is current through Second Quarter 2014 and can be purchased separately or as part of the SAE J1939 Standards Collection on the Web.
Magazine
2014-08-07
Growth in telematics capabilities brings more benefits to more users Broader coverage, more features highlight the potential for increased connectivity and communication from the field
WIP Standard
2014-08-04
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses characteristics of data communications for the Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS). This document provides guidance on the aspects of transport media, unmanned systems and the characteristics of JAUS itself that are relevant to the definition of a JAUS transport specification.
WIP Standard
2014-08-04
This document, the JAUS Compliance and Interoperability Policy (ARP6012), recommends an approach to documenting the complete interface of an unmanned system or component in regard to the application of the standard set. While non-SAE AS-4 JAUS documents are referenced in this ARP they are not within the scope of this document and should be viewed as examples only.
Standard
2014-07-29
This document defines a set of standard application layer interfaces called JAUS Unmanned Ground Vehicle Services. JAUS Services provide the means for software entities in an unmanned system or system of unmanned systems to communicate and coordinate their activities. The Unmanned Ground Vehicle Services represent the platform-specific capabilities commonly found in UGVs, and augment the Mobilty Service Set [AS6009] which is platform-agnostic. At present ten (10) services are defined in this document.
WIP Standard
2014-07-18
The SAE Aerospace Information Report AIR5315 – Generic Open Architecture (GOA) defines “a framework to identify interface classes for applying open systems to the design of a specific hardware/software system.” [sae] JAUS Service (Interface) Definition Language defines an XML schema for the interface definition of services at the Class 4L, or Application Layer, and Class 3L, or System Services Layer, of the Generic Open Architecture stack (See Figure 1 below). The specification of JAUS services shall be defined according to the JAUS Service (Interface) Definition Language document.
Magazine
2014-07-10
Off-highway engines advance beyond Tier 4 With Tier 4 Final/Stage IV needs met, engine OEMs direct their focus and competitive energies toward optimizing competitive solutions. At the same time, they need to keep a weather eye out for future regulations, which many expect. Autonomous vehicle challenges span many fields Many of the challenges faced by military and commercial design teams are similar. Racket busters With a quiet cab at the top of many tractor buyers' wish lists, agricultural equipment manufacturers are pursuing every opportunity possible to shed decibels.
WIP Standard
2014-07-09
This AIR intends to better document and tabulate electrical load dynamics that influence power source capacity, power quality and stabiltiy.
WIP Standard
2014-07-02
This document describes the features and functions of the CXPI protocol. The CXPI protocol provides some selected features of the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol implemented on a UART-based data link for mainly HMI (Human Machine Interface) of road vehicles electric systems. This information report is a description of the CXPI protocol, which is specified in the JASO D015 CXPI document published by JASO. The JASO D015 CXPI specification is the normative reference for the CXPI protocol. The CXPI specification is maintained by JSAE (Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Inc.). This information report does not supersede any information contained in the JASO D015 CXPI specification. It has the sole purpose of providing textual description and graphical illustrations to ease reading and interpretation of the CXPI protocol.
Standard
2014-06-13
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the minimum performance standards for equipment used as secondary alternating current (AC) electrical power sources in aerospace electric power systems.
WIP Standard
2014-06-10
SAE ARP to provide guidance and best practices for demonstrating civil aircraft electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Incorporate EMC guidance for large transport airplanes, business airplanes, small airplanes, small helicopters, and transport helicopters. Provide guidance that considers compliance with aircraft safety requirements, and also considers intended performance of non-required and non-essential aircraft systems. Provide guidance on aircraft equipment EMC qualification, aircraft system and wiring installation, and aircraft EMC tests.
Standard
2014-06-03
This document defines a set of standard application layer interfaces called JAUS Manipulator Services. JAUS Services provide the means for software entities in an unmanned system or system of unmanned systems to communicate and coordinate their activities. The Manipulator Services represent platform-independent capabilities commonly found across domains and types of unmanned systems. At present, twenty-five (25) services are defined in this document.
Standard
2014-05-29
This document describes a physical layer utilizing Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable with extended stub lengths for flexibility in ECU placement and network topology. Also, connectors are not specified. CAN controllers are now available which support the newly introduced CAN Flexible Data Rate Frame format (known as “CAN FD”). These controllers, when used on SAE J1939-15 networks, must be restricted to use only the Classical Frame format compliant to ISO 11989-1 (2003). These SAE Recommended Practices are intended for light- and heavy-duty vehicles on- or off-road as well as appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components (e.g., generator sets). Vehicles of interest include but are not limited to: on- and off-highway trucks and their trailers; construction equipment; and agricultural equipment and implements.
Standard
2014-04-28
The SAE J1939 communications network is developed for use in heavy-duty environments and suitable for horizontally integrated vehicle industries. The SAE J1939 communications network is applicable for light-duty, medium-duty, and heavy- duty vehicles used on-road or off-road, and for appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components (e.g. generator sets). Vehicles of interest include, but are not limited to, on-highway and off-highway trucks and their trailers, construction equipment, and agricultural equipment and implements.   SAE J1939-71 Vehicle Application Layer is the SAE J1939 reference document for the conventions and notations that specify parameter placement in PGN data fields, the conventions for ASCII parameters, and conventions for PGN transmission rates. This document previously contained the majority of the SAE J1939 data parameters and messages for information exchange between the ECU applications connected to the SAE J1939 communications network.
WIP Standard
2014-04-23
Generate an accompanying document to AS-6129 to define the verification method and criteria for all the requirements contained in AS-6129.
WIP Standard
2014-04-22
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the editorial format and policies necessary for the publication of platform/subsystem Interface Control documents. The Common Interface Control Document Format Standard defines a common format for platform to subsystem interface documents to facilitate subsystem integration. This aerospace standard specifies the common technical data sections for the Common Interface Control Document Format down to the third header level for the majority of sub-sections. The Common Interface Control Document Format Aerospace Standard provides a structured document format in appendixes supported by example paragraphs, drawings, etc.
WIP Standard
2014-04-22
This standard defines a generic set of electrical interfaces between a host aircraft (“platform”) and an electro-optic/infrared (EO/IR) sensor. This includes connectors, cabling, fiber optics, signals, and power.
Book
2014-04-16
The new Grid-Connected Vehicles Report provides an in-depth analysis on the current market landscape, challenges, drivers and market forecasts for electric, plugin hybrid and range extended electric vehicles. Factors like the EV charging infrastructure, battery technology, fuel price, vehicle availability, electricity grid and resource supply are all examined. Grid-Connected Vehicles Report covers the following key areas: • Market drivers and challenges • The key enabling technologies for electric vehicles: Batteries, motors, regenerative braking, electrically driven ancillaries • The future market dynamics, new markets and forecasts • Electric light vehicles currently on the market • Regional incentives and legislation The report includes a series of 20 supplier profiles from suppliers relevant to the electric vehicle and plugin sector. These profiles provide you with relevant data on corporate strategy, investments, product offerings and contact information built from SupplierBusiness research.
Standard
2014-04-16
SAE J1939-31 Network Layer describes the requirements and services for Network Interconnection ECUs (NIECU) that enable electronic control units (ECUs) on a network segment to intercommunicate with other ECUs on different network segments of the vehicle network. This document defines various types of NIECUs. The information in this document applies only to ECUs that are intended to provide networking services. It is not necessary for an ECU to provide any of these services in order to be compliant with the SAE J1939 protocol.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sreenath K. Reghunath, Deepak Sharma, Ashwini S. Athreya
Abstract Availability of road navigation data and route pattern details to the vehicle controller allows the use of predictive algorithms to obtain optimal performance from the vehicle. Conventionally, in the automated transmissions, gear position values are decided from predefined maps depending on the load demand and vehicle velocity at that instant. Due to the instantaneous decisions taken to get the gear position, minor changes in terrain sometimes might cause multiple unwanted gear shifts. The paper presents the concept of predictive optimal gear shifting strategy, utilizing the route information from the vehicle navigation system and vehicle state. Route terrain information is processed to analyze the vehicle behavior at future route gradient segments. Several categories of vehicle behavior are identified and at each decision point, the driving state is classified into one of these categories. Each category of vehicle driving state has an associated predefined shift behavior calculated for optimal fuel economy and vehicle dynamics for that particular state.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Raghavendra Anantharam, Prakash Kulkarni
Abstract AUTOSAR introduces standardization of software development in three areas, namely Architecture, Application Interfaces and Methodology. The most frequently employed method for application SW migration is the Bottom-up approach, wherein the existing software architecture is reused with no or minimal change. This approach can introduce software performance and maintainability issues. Still, it is often preferred, as it is relatively easy to implement, because of experience with the architecture and the need for quick results. In the Top-down approach, on the other hand, the entire AUTOSAR architecture is created from a Vehicle System and Control System perspective. The Top-down method has potential for a superior result, although it is effort-intensive. A custom methodology for migration from a traditional SW architecture to AUTOSAR architecture is described in this paper. The approach seeks an optimum combination of the Top-down and the Bottom-up approaches to obtain a suitable compromise between the lower effort of the latter and the completeness of the former approach.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Karsten Schmidt, Jens Harnisch, Denny Marx, Albrecht Mayer, Andre Kohn, Reinhard Deml
Abstract Integration scenarios for ECU software become more complicated, as more constraints with regards to timing, safety and security need to be considered. Multi-core microcontrollers offer even more hardware potential for integration scenarios. To tackle the complexity, more and more model based approaches are used. Understanding the interaction between the different software components, not only from a functional but also from a timing view, is a key success factor for high integration scenarios. In particular for multi-core systems, an amazing amount of timing data can be generated. Usually a multi-core system handles more software functionality than a single-core system. Furthermore, there may be timing interference on the multicore systems, due to the shared usage of buses, memory banks or other hardware resources. The current approach for timing analysis, often based on execution times and sequences of executions in Gantt charts, will not scale arbitrarily for high integration scenarios on multi-core systems.
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