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2017-04-11
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0020
Mark Zachos
Since 2001, all sensitive information by U.S. Federal Agencies has been protected by strong encryption mandated by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)140-2 Security Requirements. Today, this same strong security protection has become possible for vehicle networks using modern, cost-effective hardware. This paper describes strong FIPS 140-2 encryption for vehicle communications, using as an example the J1939 protocol. The encrypted J1939 data and commands are tamper-proof, since they cannot be changed or altered -- accidentally or otherwise. The encrypted J1939 data and proprietary commands can be stored and transported securely, giving no unauthorized read access. The examples will show J1939 encryption, including both wired and wireless communication. Two-factor authentication is achieved, since both the hardware and a decryption key are need to decrypt.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0065
Bülent Sari, Hans-Christian Reuss
Safety is becoming more and more important with the ever increasing level of safety related E/E Systems built into the cars. Increasing functionality of vehicle systems through electrification of power train and autonomous driving leads to complexity in designing system, hardware, software and safety architecture. The application of multicore processors in the automotive industry is becoming necessary because of the needs for more processing power, more memory and higher safety requirements. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the safety solutions particularly for ASIL-D-Systems. This brings additional challenges because of additional requirements of ISO 26262 for ASIL-D safety concepts. The ISO 26262 provides the possibility to apply decomposition approach for ASIL-D safety requirements. An appropriate decomposition has the advantage to reduce the ASIL rating of the top events.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1094
Yusuke Nakade, Atsushi Kamada, Koki Ueno, Mikine Kume, Kouji Sakaguchi
Abstract Shift selection devices are desired to be flexible for design and layout, in order to realize the next generation of cockpits for Lexus vehicles. In addition, refined shift operation feelings are also required to be suitable for Lexus vehicles. To meet these demands, the Lexus LC500 has been equipped with a shift-by-wire system, which replaces the mechanical linkage between the shift selector and transmission with electrical signals and an actuator. This shift-by-wire system will be installed in a wide variety of Lexus powertrain lineup, including conventional gas vehicles and hybrid vehicles. Therefore, the next generation shift-by-wire system for Lexus has been developed with high reliability and applicability. This technology will be essential when autonomous driving and autonomous parking systems are realized in the near future.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0896
Philip Griefnow, Jakob Andert, Dejan Jolovic
Abstract The range of tasks in automotive electrical system development has clearly grown and now includes goals such as achieving efficiency requirements and complying with continuously reducing CO2 limits. Improvements in the vehicle electrical system, hereinafter referred to as the power net, are mandatory to face the challenges of increasing electrical energy consumption, new comfort and assistance functions, and further electrification. Novel power net topologies with dual batteries and dual voltages promise a significant increase in efficiency with moderate technological and financial effort. Depending on the vehicle segment, either an extension of established 12 V micro-hybrid technologies or 48 V mild hybridization is possible. Both technologies have the potential to reduce fuel consumption by implementing advanced stop/start and sailing functionalities.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1650
Jian Yang, Christian Poellabauer, Pramita Mitra
Abstract Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is an energy-efficient radio communication technology that is rapidly gaining popularity for various Internet of Things (IoT) applications. While BLE was not designed specifically with vehicular communications in mind, its simple and quick connection establishment mechanisms make BLE a potential inter-vehicle communication technology, either replacing or complementing other vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) technologies (such as the yet to be deployed DSRC). In this paper we propose a framework for V2V communication using BLE and evaluate its performance under various configurations. BLE uses two major methods for data transmission: (1) undirected advertisements and scanning (unconnected mode) and (2) using the central and peripheral modes of the Generic Attribute Profile (GATT) connection (connected mode).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1651
Douglas Thornburg, John Schmotzer, MJ Throop
Abstract Onboard, embedded cellular modems are enabling a range of new connectivity features in vehicles and rich, real-time data set transmissions from a vehicle’s internal network up to a cloud database are of particular interest. However, there is far too much information in a vehicle’s electrical state for every vehicle to upload all of its data in real-time. We are thus concerned with which data is uploaded and how that data is processed, structured, stored, and reported. Existing onboard data processing algorithms (e.g. for DTC detection) are hardcoded into critical vehicle firmware, limited in scope and cannot be reconfigured on the fly. Since many use cases for vehicle data analytics are still unknown, we require a system which is capable of efficiently processing and reporting vehicle deep data in real-time, such that data reporting can be switched on/off during normal vehicle operation, and that processing/reporting can be reconfigured remotely.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1649
Jeffrey Yeung, Omar Makke, Perry MacNeille, Oleg Gusikhin
Abstract SmartDeviceLink (SDL) is open-source software that connects the vehicle’s infotainment system to mobile applications. SDL includes an open-source software development kit (SDK) that enables a smart-device to connect to the vehicle’s human-machine interface (HMI), read vehicle data, and control vehicle sub-systems such as the audio and climate systems. It is extensible, so other convenience subsystems or brought-in aftermarket modules can be added. Consequently, it provides a platform for cyber-physical systems that can integrate wearables, consumer sensors and cloud data into an intelligent vehicle control system. As an Open Innovation Platform, new features can be rapidly developed and deployed to the market, bypassing the longer vehicle development cycles. This facilitates a channel for rapid prototyping and innovation that is not constrained by the traditional process of automotive parts development, but is rather on the timeline of software development.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0267
Tomasz Haupt, Gregory Henley, Angela Card, Michael S. Mazzola, Matthew Doude, Scott Shurin, Christopher Goodin
Abstract The Powertrain Analysis and Computational Environment (PACE) is a powertrain simulation tool that provides an advanced behavioral modeling capability for the powertrain subsystems of conventional or hybrid-electric vehicles. Due to its origins in Argonne National Lab’s Autonomie, PACE benefits from the reputation of Autonomie as a validated modeling tool capable of simulating the advanced hardware and control features of modern vehicle powertrains. However, unlike Autonomie that is developed and executed in Mathwork’s MATLAB/Simulink environment, PACE is developed in C++ and is targeted for High-Performance Computing (HPC) platforms. Indeed, PACE is used as one of several actors within a comprehensive ground vehicle co-simulation system (CRES-GV MERCURY): during a single MERCURY run, thousands of concurrent PACE instances interact with other high-performance, distributed MERCURY components.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1615
Hariharan Venkitachalam, Christian Granrath, Balachandar Gopalakrishnan, Johannes Richenhagen
Abstract Ensuring software quality is one of the key challenges associated with the development of automotive embedded systems. Software architecture plays a pivotal role in realizing functional and non-functional requirements for automotive embedded systems. Software architecture is a work-product of the early stages of software development. The design errors introduced at the early stages of development will increase cost of rework. Hence, an early evaluation of software architecture is important. PERSIST (Powertrain control architecture Enabling Reusable Software development for Intelligent System Tailoring) is a model-based software product line approach which focuses on cross-project standardization of powertrain software. The product line is characterized by common design guidelines and adherence to industry standards like ISO 25010, AUTOSAR and ISO 26262.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1617
Sherif Aly
Abstract The evolution in automotive qualified electronic components, including the birth of powerful multicore System-on-Chip (SoC) platforms has fundamentally changed the approach to designing automotive electronic systems today. This evolution is not only happening on the hardware side, but also on the software design side where there has been consolidation of multiple domains onto a single SoC. This type of consolidation allows shorter time-to-market with consumer-ready features to address immediate market demands. This paper explores the reasons for this trend and available architectures for achieving consolidation. AUTOSAR on Linux is one of those architectures and has been popular in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and infotainment applications, allowing complex functions to smoothly integrate into the vehicle network.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1621
Andre Kohn, Karsten Schmidt, Jochen Decker, Maurice Sebastian, Alexander Züpke, Andreas Herkersdorf
Abstract The increasing complexity of automotive functions which are necessary for improved driving assistance systems and automated driving require a change of common vehicle architectures. This includes new concepts for E/E architectures such as a domain-oriented vehicle network based on powerful Domain Control Units (DCUs). These highly integrated controllers consolidate several applications on different safety levels on the same ECU. Hence, the functions depend on a strictly separated and isolated implementation to guarantee a correct behavior. This requires middleware layers which guarantee task isolation and Quality of Service (QoS) communication have to provide several new features, depending on the domain the corresponding control unit is used for. In a first step we identify requirements for a middleware in automotive DCUs. Our goal is to reuse legacy AUTOSAR based code in a multicore domain controller.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0006
Harald Bucher, Clemens Reichmann, Juergen Becker
Abstract The increasing complexity of electric/electronic architectures (EEA) in the automotive domain raised the necessity of model-based development processes for the design of such heterogeneous systems, which combine different engineering principles with different viewpoints. High-level simulation is a great means to evaluate the EEA in the concept phase of the design, since it reduces costly real-world experiments. However, model-based EEA design and analysis as well as its simulation are often separate processes in the development lifecycle. In this paper, we present a novel approach that extends state-of-the-art model-based systems engineering principles of EEA by a behavior specification reusing library components. The specification is seamlessly integrated in the development process of a single source EEA model. Therewith, the starting point is the abstract logical function architecture of the EEA.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0009
Raymond Turin, John Mills, Jeremy Mangas, Eileen Davidson, William P. Milam, Thomas Erickson
Abstract This paper highlights and discusses the development and deployment of an enterprise-level tool infrastructure that fits into the production build environment of Ford Motor Company. A particular focus is on navigating bottlenecks and pitfalls that arise with the adoption of a model-based software development process. This includes provisions to support centralized data and architecture artifact management (including version control across the lifecycle of the software), support to integrate and manage legacy software artifacts, support to archive and bookshelf development milestones, and last but not least, built-in intelligence to spot potential sources of software defects early in the development stage.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0012
Zia Hossain, Shengling Deng, Jim Sellers, Gary Loechelt, Mo Grimaldi, Irene Wan, Emily Linehan, Alexander Young, Ali Salih
Abstract To meet the increasing demand for lower RDS(ON) MOSFETs in medium voltage automotive applications, the shielded gate trench MOSFET architecture is becoming increasingly popular in recent years for its ability to achieve both lower RDS(ON) and faster switching speed. The lower specific drain-to-source resistance (RDS(ON).Area) translates into smaller chip size and consequently cheaper die cost for the end customers. Furthermore, shielded gate trench architecture offers smaller gate-to-drain capacitance by utilizing the shielding effect from the shield-poly, leading to lower G-D charge (QGD), faster switching speed, and increased dv/dt immunity. A comprehensive portfolio of medium voltage shielded gate power MOSFET products in several voltage classes (40V, 60V, 80V, and 100V) in automotive and industrial markets is presented in this paper.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0013
Gaurav Gupta, Ujjwal Modi
Abstract Flickering problems in automotive vehicles have been observed from long time. After assessing numerous vehicles it was observed that whenever the hazard lights in a vehicle are activated, it leads to flickering problems in lights/small electrical components. This paper is to provide the solution for flickering snags in electrical components in a vehicle. The lights that are analyzed to be flickering/wavering are generally small loads such as LEDs in the bus roof area, small parking lamps, LEDs used in instrument clusters, cabin lamps, etc. The flickering in lights can turn out to be very unappealing at certain times. This absurd behavior can lead to extreme discomfort to the passengers and can also be a source of major distraction to the driver. This study presents the design & development for a vehicle platform & implementation that assesses the problem. Because of abrupt behavior of flasher circuits, voltage surges are observed, leading to flickering problems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0017
Azeem Hafeez, Hafiz Malik, Omid Avatefipour, Prudhvi Raj Rongali, Shan Zehra
Abstract Technological advances in automotive industry have resulted in an increased number of Electronic Control Units (ECU)s. These ECUs are used for sensing and controlling actuators in the modern vehicles. Various network protocols have been proposed to achieve scalable and reliable communication amonglarge number ECUs in modern vehicles.Various network protocols have been proposed for invehicle communication,such as Controlled Area Network (CAN), Local Interconnected Network (LIN), Media Oriented System Transport (MOST), and FlexRay. This study compares latency and reliability of CAN-Bus and FlexRay communication protocols. The HSC12 microcontroller is used to implement these protocols, and for secure communication data is encrypted.Our experimental results indicate that the CAN-Bus communication protocol is a better option for hard real-time systems and FlexRay protocol is appropriate for deterministic data transmission, e.g., priority-less message communication.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0019
Yang Zhao, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu, Rui He
Abstract Electric vehicle (EV) has been regarded as not only an effective solution for environmental issues but also a more controllable and responsible device to driving forces with electric motors and precise torque measurement. For electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, its tire longitudinal forces can be generated independently and individually with fully utilized tire adhesion at each corner. This type of the electric vehicles has a distributed drive system, and often regarded as an over-actuated system since the number of actuators in general exceeds the control variables. Control allocation (CA) is often considered as an effective means for the control of over-actuated systems. The in-vehicle network technology has been one of the major enablers for the distributed drive systems. The vehicle studied in this research has an electrohydraulic brake system (EHB) on front axle, while an electromechanical brake system (EMB) on rear axle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0018
Jeong Chan Kim, Kai Richter, Myung Hyun Koo, Matthias Hagner, Chung Hi Lee
Abstract Along with the efforts to cope with the increase of functions which require higher communication bandwidth in vehicle networks using CAN-FD and vehicle Ethernet protocols, we have to deal with the problems of both the increased busload and more stringent response time requirement issues based on the current CAN systems. The widely used CAN busload limit guideline in the early design stage of vehicle network development is primarily intended for further frame extensions. However, when we cannot avoid exceeding the current busload design limit, we need to analyze in more detail the maximum frame response times and message delays, and we need good estimation and measurement techniques. There exist two methods for estimating the response time at the design phase, a mathematical worst-case analysis that provides upper bounds, and a probability based distributed response time simulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0022
Holger Zeltwanger
Abstract In-vehicle networks (IVN) have been standardized from the beginning. The story of IVN standardization started at the beginning of the 90s. Today, several IVN technologies have been internationally standardized by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) including the related conformance test plans. But as all electronic technologies, IVNs are a matter of improvement and change due to new requirements and gained experiences. This makes it difficult to always keep the standard backwards compatible, in particular if immature approaches are submitted. Furthermore, new communication protocols are knocking on the door of international standardization bodies. The automotive industry itself is conservative and adapts new IVNs slowly. There are also concerns regarding too many different bus systems and networks in one vehicle. This paper discusses the benefits and challenges of the standardization of IVNs.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0021
Takashi Yasuda, Hideki Goto, Hiroki Keino, Kaoru Yoshida, Hiroyuki Mori, Miyuki Mizoguchi
Abstract In recent years, the demand for high-speed/high-bandwidth communication for in-vehicle networks has been increasing. This is because the usage of high-resolution screens and high-performance rear seat entertainment (RSE) systems is expanding. Additionally, it is also due to the higher number of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and the future introduction of autonomous driving systems. High-volume data such as high definition sensor images or obstacle information is necessary to realize these systems. Consequently, automotive Ethernet, which meets the requirements for high-speed/high-bandwidth communication, is attracting a lot of attention. The application of automotive Ethernet to in-vehicle networks requires that technology developments satisfy EMC performance requirements. In-vehicle EMC requirements consist of two parts: emission and immunity. The emission requirement is to restrict the electromagnetic noise emitted from vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0023
Naoya Tsuchiya, Tomohisa Kishigami, Eiichirou Kawakami
Abstract In-vehicle network communication is evolving faster speeds and higher performance capabilities, connecting the information possessed by ECU and sensors with the in-vehicle electronic systems which are continuing to develop. With the evolution of the complicated networks, it is becoming difficult to develop them without many verification of actual machine. On the other hand, as for the verification means required at the logic level or physical level for a network verification through ECU design, virtual verification in the whole vehicle is difficult due to speed increases and the sheer size of the system. Therefore, it is only applicable for systems which are limited to a domain or an area, and flexible and timely utilization would be difficult due to the changes in specifications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0067
Wei Han, Xinyu Zhang, Jialun Yin, Yutong Li, Deyi Li
Abstract Safety of buses is crucial because of the large proportion of the public transportation sector they constitute. To improve bus safety levels, especially to avoid driver error, which is a key factor in traffic accidents, we designed and implemented an intelligent bus called iBus. A robust system architecture is crucial to iBus. Thus, in this paper, a novel self-driving system architecture with improved robustness, such as to failure of hardware (including sensors and controllers), is proposed. Unlike other self-driving vehicles that operate either in manual driving mode or in self-driving mode, iBus offers a dual-control mode. More specifically, an online hot standby mechanism is incorporated to enhance the reliability of the control system, and a software monitor is implemented to ensure that all software modules function appropriately. The results of real-world road tests conducted to validate the feasibility of the overall system confirm that iBus is reliable and robust.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0071
Vahid Taimouri, Michel Cordonnier, Kyoung Min Lee, Bryan Goodman
Abstract While operating a vehicle in either autonomous or occupant piloted mode, an array of sensors can be used to guide the vehicle including stereo cameras. The state-of-the-art distance map estimation algorithms, e.g. stereo matching, usually detect corresponding features in stereo images, and estimate disparities to compute the distance map in a scene. However, depending on the image size, content and quality, the feature extraction process can become inaccurate, unstable and slow. In contrast, we employ deep convolutional neural networks, and propose two architectures to estimate distance maps from stereo images. The first architecture is a simple and generic network that identifies which features to extract, and how to combine them in a multi-resolution framework.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0070
Longxiang Guo, Sagar Manglani, Xuehao Li, Yunyi Jia
Abstract Autonomous driving technologies can provide better safety, comfort and efficiency for future transportation systems. Most research in this area has mainly been focused on developing sensing and control approaches to achieve various autonomous driving functions. Very little of this research, however, has studied how to efficiently handle sensing exceptions. A simple exception measured by any of the sensors may lead to failures in autonomous driving functions. The autonomous vehicles are then supposed to be sent back to manufacturers for repair, which takes both time and money. This paper introduces an efficient approach to make human drivers able to online teach autonomous vehicles to drive under sensing exceptions. A human-vehicle teaching-and-learning framework for autonomous driving is proposed and the human teaching and vehicle learning processes for handling sensing exceptions in autonomous vehicles are designed in detail.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0069
Venkatesh Raman, Mayur Narsude, Damodharan Padmanaban
Abstract This manuscript compares window-based data imputation approaches for data coming from connected vehicles during actual driving scenarios and obtained using on-board data acquisition devices. Three distinct window-based approaches were used for cleansing and imputing the missing values in different CAN-bus (Controller Area Network) signals. Lengths of windows used for data imputation for the three approaches were: 1) entire time-course for each vehicle ID, 2) day, and 3) trip (defined as duration between vehicle's ignition statuses ON to OFF). An algorithm for identification of ignition ON and OFF events is also presented, since this signal was not explicitly captured during the data acquisition phase. As a case study, these imputation techniques were applied to the data from a driver behavior classification experiment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0068
Pablo Sauras-Perez, Andrea Gil, Jasprit Singh Gill, Pierluigi Pisu, Joachim Taiber
Abstract In the next 20 years fully autonomous vehicles are expected to be in the market. The advance on their development is creating paradigm shifts on different automotive related research areas. Vehicle interiors design and human vehicle interaction are evolving to enable interaction flexibility inside the cars. However, most of today’s vehicle manufacturers’ autonomous car concepts maintain the steering wheel as a control element. While this approach allows the driver to take over the vehicle route if needed, it causes a constraint in the previously mentioned interaction flexibility. Other approaches, such as the one proposed by Google, enable interaction flexibility by removing the steering wheel and accelerator and brake pedals. However, this prevents the users to take control over the vehicle route if needed, not allowing them to make on-route spontaneous decisions, such as stopping at a specific point of interest.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0072
Yang Zheng, Navid Shokouhi, Amardeep Sathyanarayana, John Hansen
Abstract With the embedded sensors – typically Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and GPS, the smartphone could be leveraged as a low-cost sensing platform for estimating vehicle dynamics. However, the orientation and relative movement of the smartphone inside the vehicle yields the main challenge for platform deployment. This study proposes a solution of converting the smartphone-referenced IMU readings into vehicle-referenced accelerations, which allows free-positioned smartphone for the in-vehicle dynamics sensing. The approach is consisted of (i) geometry coordinate transformation techniques, (ii) neural networks regression of IMU from GPS, and (iii) adaptive filtering processes. Experiment is conducted in three driving environments which cover high occurrence of vehicle dynamic movements in lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions. The processing effectiveness at five typical positions (three fixed and two flexible) are examined.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1695
Kuang-I Shu
Abstract Much like how mobile phones ceased to be only person-to-person communications devices and became technical platforms, in-vehicle electronic devices will too cease to be solely information devices and become technical platforms incorporating all-encompassing features, including but not limited to ADAS, navigation, communication, and entertainment. This fundamental shift however will require a transformation and redesign of the vehicle’s technical architecture. Today, a vehicle’s ADAS, communications, and entertainment features exist isolated in separate devices and systems and are purpose built, leading to duplicative functions, increased costs, and difficult control, management, maintenance, and upgrade of the system. This presentation will illustrate a central control system architecture built around an IoV Gateway, an open hardware platform that integrates ICT devices for future vehicles.
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