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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1824
2017-04-11
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0056
Naveen Mohan, Martin Törngren, Sagar Behere
With the advent of the ISO 26262 there is an increased emphasis on top-down design in the automotive industry. While the standard delivers an ideal framework for safety design, it lacks detailed requirements for the various stages themselves. The lack of structure becomes evident in the reuse of legacy components and subsystems, a common scenario in the cost-sensitive automotive domain. This poses particular challenges in the context of automated driving where multiple subsystems both new and legacy need to coordinate to realize a function, leaving vehicle architects and safety designers to rely on experience for their decisions. This paper introduces a method to support consistent design of the Functional Safety Concept(FSC) as required by the ISO 26262. The method arises from and addresses need within the industry for systematic architectural analysis and rationale management and reuse of legacy subsystems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0070
Longxiang Guo, Sagar Manglani, Xuehao Li, Yunyi Jia
Autonomous driving technologies can provide better safety, comfort and efficiency for future transportation. Most research in this area main focus on developing sensing and control approaches to achieve autonomous driving functions such as model based approaches and neural network based approaches. However, even if the autonomous driving functions are ideally achieved, the performance of the system is still subject to sensing exceptions. Few research has studied how to efficiently handle such sensing exceptions. In existing autonomous approaches, sensors, such as cameras, radars and lidars, usually need to be full calibrated or trained after mounted on the vehicles and before being used for autonomous driving. A simple unexpected on the sensors, e.g., mounting position or angle of a camera is changed, may lead the autonomous driving function to fail.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1657
Jesse Edwards, Ameer Kashani
In the past few years, automotive electronic control units (ECUs) have been the focus of many studies regarding the ability to affect the deterministic operation of safety critical cyber-physical systems. Researchers have been able to successfully demonstrate flaws in security design that have considerable, dramatic impacts on the functional safety of a target vehicle. With the rapid increase in data connectivity within a modern automobile, the attack surface has been greatly broadened to allow adversaries remote access to vehicle control system software and networks. This has serious implications, as a vast number of vulnerability disclosures released by security researchers point directly to common programming bugs and software quality issues as the root cause of successful exploits which can compromise the vehicle as a whole. In this paper, we aim to bring to light the most prominent categories of bugs found during the software development life cycle of an automotive ECU.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1625
Rajeev Kalamdani, Chandra Jalluri, Stephen Hermiller, Robert Clifton
Use of sensors to monitor dynamic performance of machine tools at Ford's powertrain machining plants has proven to be effective. The traditional approach to convert sensor data to actionable intelligence consists of identifying single features from cycle based signatures and setting thresholds above acceptable performance limits based on trials. The thresholds are used to discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable performance during each cycle and raise alarms if necessary. This approach requires a significant amount of resource & time intensive set up work up-front and considerable trial and error adjustments. The current state does not leverage patterns that might be discernible using multiple features simultaneously. This paper describes enhanced methods for processing the data using supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods. The objective of using these methods is to improve the prediction accuracy and reduce up-front set up.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1651
Douglas Thornburg, John Schmotzer, MJ Throop
Onboard, embedded cellular modems are enabling a range of new connectivity features in vehicles and transmission of a rich, real-time data set from a vehicle’s internal network up to a cloud database is of particular interest. However, there is far too much information in a vehicle’s electrical state for every vehicle to upload all of its data in real-time. We are thus concerned with which data is uploaded and how that data is processed, structured, stored, and reported. Existing onboard data processing algorithms (e.g. for DTC detection) are hard-coded into critical vehicle firmware, limited in scope and cannot be reconfigured on the fly. Since many use cases for vehicle data analytics are still unknown, we require a system which is capable of efficiently processing and reporting vehicle deep data in real-time, such that data reporting can be switched on/off during normal vehicle operation, and that processing/reporting can be reconfigured remotely.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1655
Paul Wooderson, David Ward
An essential part of any cybersecurity engineering process is testing the implementation of a system for vulnerabilities and validating the effectiveness of cybersecurity countermeasures. The SAE J3061 Cybersecurity Guidebook for Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems provides a recommended framework which organizations can use to implement a cybersecurity engineering process, which includes activities such as integration and testing, penetration testing and verification/validation of cybersecurity requirements at the hardware, software and system levels. This paper explores the different kinds of testing that are appropriate at each of these process steps and discusses some important differences between cybersecurity testing and more familiar forms of testing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0019
Yang Zhao, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu, Rui He
Electric vehicle (EV) has been regarded as not only an effective solution for environmental issues but also a more controllable and responsible device to driving forces with electric motors and precise torque measurement. For electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, its tire longitudinal forces can be generated independently and individually with fully utilized tire adhesion at each corner. This type of the electric vehicles has a distributed drive system, and often regarded as an over-actuated system since the number of actuators in general exceeds the control variables. Control allocation (CA) is often considered as an effective means for the control of over-actuated systems. The in-vehicle network technology has been one of the major enablers for the distributed drive systems. The vehicle studied in this research has an electrohydraulic brake system (EHB) on front axle, while an electromechanical brake system (EMB) on rear axle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0267
Tomasz Haupt, Gregory Henley, Angela Card, Michael S. Mazzola, Matthew Doude, Scott Shurin, Christopher Goodin
Pending OPSEC review
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1154
Jimmy Kapadia, Thomas Gee, Alan Dona, Ming Kuang, Mark Jennings, Brandon Masterson, Daniel Kok, Chuck Wagner, Richard Isaacs
The automotive industry is rapidly expanding its Hybrid, Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicle product offerings in response to meet customer wants and regulatory requirements. One way for electrified vehicles to have an increasing impact on fleet-level CO2 emissions is for their sales volumes to go up. This means that electrified vehicles need to deliver a complete set of vehicle level attributes like performance, Fuel Economy and range that is attractive to a wide customer base at an affordable cost of ownership. As part of “democratizing” the Hybrid and plug-In Hybrid technology, automotive manufacturers aim to deliver these vehicle level attributes with a powertrain architecture at lowest cost and complexity, recognizing that customer wants may vary considerably between different classes of vehicles. For example, a medium duty truck application may have to support good trailer tow whereas a C-sized sedan customer may prefer superior city Fuel Economy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1147
Hyunjun Kim, Jingeon Kang, Dongsuk Kum
Input- and output-split hybrids, which use a single planetary gear (PG), have a good fuel economy, but a relatively low acceleration performance. In order to improve their acceleration performance, speed reduction gears (SRG) have been employed in various commercialized split hybrids. However, the full potential of using SRGs has not yet been investigated. In fact, adding one SRG to input- or output-split hybrids can improve not only their acceleration performance, but also their fuel economy. Nevertheless, the design space of input- and output-split configurations using one SRG is huge; 864 configurations are using two PGs connected through one interconnection and having one node grounded to a fixed platform. Thus, in order to solve this high computational load problem, an efficient comprehensive design methodology is highly required.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0114
Jorge De-J. lozoya santos, J. C. Tudon-Martinez PhD
A high automation of a small vehicle is under study. This work introduces a system for a partial automation (level 2) of a Supermillage SAE vehicle. The X-by-wire concept is implemented for the actuation of the steering and throttle systems. This modification reduces the mechanical interaction for the steering, braking and steering systems. By means of the description of the vehicle dynamics and the use of well-known techniques in industry and academy as Hardware and Software in the Loop, this work seeds an interface and a system to implement computer vision, steering and throttle algorithms to allow degree of autonomy to the vehicle. The system consists of a throttle, brake and steering system, connected through CAN protocol. The system is simulated using Simulink, and also runs in a simulation using V rep and a Matlab script. Throttle and brake are actuated by servomotors, and the steering system by a DC motor.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0022
Holger Zeltwanger
The automotive industry requests different communication technologies for in-vehicle networking. It is a challenge to integrate different bus systems and networks from different implementors. Conformance and interoperability testing is only successful, if the tests are standardized. The paper describes the actual status of automotive-oriented communication technologies submitted for international standardization. It discusses the challenges and the pros and cons of standardized solutions ("frozen" technology). Another topic are the gaps still exisiting in standardization, e.g. gateways, middleware, etc. The presentation will also address the administrational and bureaucratic hurdles in the standardization bodies. Of course, there is a survey provided on the currently networks under standardization and those which under submission. This includes an attemp to classify in-vehicle networks and to evelaute the overlapping.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0017
Azeem Hafeez, Hafiz Malik, Omid Avatefipour, prudhvi raj rongali, Shan zehra
The advancement of technology in automotive industry has increased the number of Electronic Control Units (ECU) in the vehicles which are connected to each other and other sensors and actuators in the in-vehicle networks. These numbers of ECUs necessitate the use of communication buses instead of traditional point-to-point protocol to reduce the amount of cabling and increase network scalability. There are different types of in-vehicle network protocol and bus system namely Controlled Area Network (CAN), Local Interconnected Network (LIN), Media Oriented System Transport (MOST), and FlexRay. In the study conducted, CAN bus and FlexRay communication protocol have been compared and implemented on the HCS12 Board. It was concluded that CAN-Bus communication protocol is the best for hard real-time systems and FlexRay is appropriate for deterministic data transmission when a particular message does not have any priority over the other ones.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0020
Mark Zachos
Since 2001, all sensitive information by U.S. Federal Agencies has been protected by strong encryption mandated by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)140-2 Security Requirements. Today, this same strong security protection has become possible for vehicle networks using modern, cost-effective hardware. This paper describes strong FIPS 140-2 encryption for vehicle communications, using as an example the J1939 protocol. The encrypted J1939 data and commands are tamper-proof, since they cannot be changed or altered -- accidentally or otherwise. The encrypted J1939 data and proprietary commands can be stored and transported securely, giving no unauthorized read access. The examples will show J1939 encryption, including both wired and wireless communication. Two-factor authentication is achieved, since both the hardware and a decryption key are need to decrypt.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1227
Ali Najmabadi, Michael Kress, Brett Dryer, Ahmad Khan
This abstract studies different switching schemes for loss reduction in a traction motor drive. The system under examination is composed of a battery, a 2 level Voltage Source Inverter, and an Interior Permanent Magnet motor. Discontinuous PWM (DPWM) control strategy is widely used in this type of motor drive for the reduction of losses. In some publications, the effect of the DPWM modulation scheme is compared to the reduction of the switching frequency which causes a drop in switching losses of the inverter. Similarly, extensive studies have examined the effect of variation of the switching frequency on the motor and inverter losses. However, the effect of applying both switching schemes simultaneously has not been explored. This paper will use a system that is operated at a fixed switching frequency as the base line. Afterwards, three different switching schemes will be studied and compared to the base line.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1247
Mohammed Khorshed Alam, Lihua Chen, Yan Zhou, Fan Xu, Shuitao Yang
Direct bypass to DC-DC boost converter in traction inverter increases converter’s capability and efficiency significantly by providing a lower loss path for power flow between the battery and DC-link terminal. A bypass using diode is an excellent solution to achieve this capability at low cost and system complexity. The bypass diode operates in the linear operating region (DC Q-point) when the battery discharges through the bypass diode to drive the electric motors. Therefore, thermal stress on the DC-link capacitor is shared between the input and DC-link capacitors through the bypass diode. Inverters introduce voltage oscillation in the DC-link terminal during battery charging through regenerative operation and results in unwanted power oscillation through the bypass diode. Both of these phenomena have been investigated in details.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1661
Georg Macher, Richard Messnarz, Eric Armengaud, Andreas Riel, Eugen Brenner, Christian Kreiner
The replacement of safety-critical mechanical components with electro-mechanical systems has led to the fact that safety aspects play a central role in development of embedded automotive systems. Recently, consumer demands connectivity (e.g., infotainment, car-2-car or car-2-infrastructure communication) as well as new advances toward advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) or even autonomous driving functions make cybersecurity another key factor to be taken into account by vehicle suppliers and manufacturers. Although these can capitalize on experiences from many other domains, they still have to face several unique challenges when gearing up for specific cybersecurity challenges. A key challenge is related to the increasing interlacing of automotive systems with networks (such as Car2X) and thus it is no longer acceptable to assume that safety-critical systems are immune to security risks and vice versa.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1250
Tomokazu Ishikawa, Kouhei Ikebuchi, Kenji Nakamura, Osamu Ichinokura, Naoki Kurimoto, Yoshiaki Nishijima
An electromagnetic and motion-coupled analysis is made for a switched reluctance motor based on a reluctance network analysis. Electric and hybrid vehicles are attractive choice due to its high potential for reducing CO2 emissions. In order to make those vehicles highly competitive in the market, cost reduction is essential. A switched reluctance motor without expensive rare earth magnets has been of great interest as a traction motor. Particularly, a full-pitch winding switched reluctance motor is promising since it has a high torque constant. Since the motor characteristics such as driving torque significantly depend on commutation pattern, an analysis coupled with motor motion and its drive circuit is requisite for the performance prediction.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1248
Ming Su, Chingchi Chen, Krishna Prasad Bhat, Jun Kikuchi, Shrivatsal Sharma, Thomas Lei
Due to global trends and government regulations for CO2 emission reduction, the automotive industry is actively working toward vehicle electrification to improve fuel efficiency and minimize tail-pipe pollutions. For the traction inverter systems in today’s hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), silicon IGBTs and power diodes are the main control devices. These mature components are reliable and cost-effective, but have their limitation on energy losses. SiC wide bandgap semiconductor, on the other hand, has potential to offer additional boost of efficiency for the HEV drive system. In recent years, commercial SiC MOSFETs are significantly improved in terms of conduction and switching losses. However, reliability concerns and high prices still place a limit on their overall competitiveness against silicon. Ford Motor Company has partnered with major semiconductor manufacturers to evaluate SiC products for the HEV inverter system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0072
Yang Zheng, Navid Shokouhi, Amardeep Sathyanarayana, John Hansen
The proliferation of smartphone application has made a great impact in the automotive industry. Smartphones contain a variety of useful sensors including cameras, microphones, as well as their Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) such as accelerometer, gyroscope, and GPS. These multi-channel signals would also be synchronized to provide a comprehensive description of driving scenarios. Therefore, the smartphone could potentially be leveraged for in-vehicle data collection, monitoring, and added safety options/feedback strategies. In our previous study, a smartphone/tablet solution with our Android App - MobileUTDrive - was developed. This platform provides a cost effective approach, which allows for a wider range of naturalistic driving study opportunities for drivers operating their own vehicles. The most meaningful reason for introducing the smartphone platform is its potential ability to be integrated with intelligent telematics services.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1094
Yusuke Nakade, Atsushi Kamada, Koki Ueno, Mikine Kume, Kouji Sakaguchi
Shift selection devices are desired to be flexible for design and layout, in order to realize the next generation of cockpits for Lexus vehicles. In addition, refined shift operation feelings are also required to be suitable for Lexus vehicles. To meet these demands, the Lexus LC500 has been equipped with a shift-by-wire system, which replaces the mechanical linkage between the shift selector and transmission with electrical signals and an actuator. This shift-by-wire system will be installed in a wide variety of Lexus powertrain lineup, including conventional gas vehicles and hybrid vehicles. Therefore, the next generation shift-by-wire system for Lexus has been developed with high reliability and applicability. This technology will be essential when autonomous driving and autonomous parking systems are realized in the near future.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1650
Jian Yang, Christian Poellabauer, Pramita Mitra
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is an energy-efficient radio communication technology that is rapidly gaining popularity for various Internet of Things (IoT) applications. While BLE was not designed specifically with vehicular communications in mind, its simple and quick connection establishment mechanisms make it a potential inter-vehicle communication technology, either replacing or complementing other V2V technologies (such as the yet to be deployed DSRC). Recently, there have been several efforts analyzing BLE performance in inter-vehicular communications, but these studies are still far from being comprehensive or conclusive. It is thus necessary to develop a new, accurate framework for BLE-based V2V communication. In particular, the wide range of parameter settings indicate great potential for BLE-based V2V communications. In this paper we propose a framework for V2V communication using BLE and evaluate its performance under various configurations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0009
Raymond Turin, John Mills, Jeremy Mangas, Eileen Davidson, William P. Milam, Thomas Erickson
The reception of automobiles in the marketplace is more and more driven by the appeal of software related features such as infotainment features, advanced powertrain control features, collision avoidance features, etc. Simultaneously, it has become commonplace to develop software artifacts in decentralized locations. As a consequence, embedded automotive software systems have become increasingly complex and the proper management of software artifacts over the lifetime of a vehicle is increasingly difficult. However, recalls are costly, and hence it is imperative that the developed software is error free, despite its complexity and despite coordination challenges. These challenges give rise to the need for enterprise-level tools to support a unified and guided software development process. This process is commonly formulated around the principles of a model-based software development paradigm.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0069
Venkatesh Raman, Mayur Narsude, Damodharan Padmanaban
This paper describes main challenges encountered during data enrichment phase of connected vehicle experiments. It also compares data imputation approaches for data coming from actual driving scenarios and obtained using in-vehicle data acquisition devices. Three distinct window-based approaches were used for cleaning and imputing the missing values in different CAN-bus (Controller Area Network) signals. Lengths of windows used for data imputation for the three approaches were: 1) entire time-course, 2) day, and 3) trip (defined as duration between vehicle engine ON to OFF). An algorithm for identification of engine ON and OFF events will also be presented, in case this signal is not explicitly captured during the data acquisition phase. As a case study, these imputation techniques were applied to the data from vehicle’s CAN information in a driver behavior classification experiment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1209
Zhichao Luo, Xuezhe Wei
Nowadays, wireless power transfer (WPT) gradually prevails and many researchers has devoted themselves to it because it is a safe, convenient and reliable way for recharging electric vehicles comparing to the conventional plug-in contact-based methods . Square coils are one of the most commonly used in WPT systems. However, there is few theoretical analysis of self- and mutual inductance of square coils between two magnetic shielding materials. In this paper, in order to study the spatial magnetic field distribution, the analytical model of n-turn square planar spiral coils between two semi-infinite multilayer media is developed based on the Maxwell equations and the Dual Fourier transformation. And then, by means of surface integrals, the self- and mutual inductance can be carried out, with respect to the main parameters of the WPT systems such as the operating frequency, the geometry feature of the coupling coils and the properties of the multilayer media.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1554
Ajith Jogi, Sujatha Chandramohan
Over the years, commercial vehicles, especially tractor-semitrailer combinations have become larger and longer. With the increasing demand for their accessibility in remote locations, these vehicles face the problem of off-tracking, which is the ensuing difference in path radii between the front and rear axles of a vehicle as it maneuvers a turn. Apart from steering the rear axle of the semitrailer, one of the feasible ways of mitigating off-tracking is to shift the fifth wheel coupling rearwards. However, this is limited by the distribution of the semitrailer’s load between the two axles of the tractor; any rearward shift of the fifth wheel coupling results in the reduction of the total static load on the tractor’s front axle and hence available traction. This may in turn lead to directional instability of the vehicle. In the present work, a new model of the fifth wheel coupling is proposed which the authors call Split fifth wheel coupling (SFWC).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1615
Hariharan Venkitachalam
Ensuring software quality is one of the key challenges associated with the development of control applications for the powertrain domain. Software architecture plays a pivotal role in realizing functional and non-functional requirements for automotive embedded systems by breaking down the complexity of the application software. Software architecture is a work-product of the early stages of software development. Hence, design errors introduced at early stages will increase cost of rework of software artifacts. PERSIST is a model-based software product line approach focused on cross-project standardization of powertrain software facilitated by common design guidelines and adherence to standards like ISO 25010, AUTOSAR and ISO 26262. This paper shows a systematic approach to ensure objective, early and repeated analysis of software architecture for the PERSIST product line using metrics.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1617
Sherif Aly
A major automotive trend is the consolidation of multiple domains on single powerful SoCs. This paper will explore the reasons for this trend and available architectures for achieving this consolidation. AUTOSAR on Linux has been popular in ADAS and infotainment applications, allowing complex functions to smoothly integrate into the vehicle network.
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