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Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rodrigo Felix, John Economou, Kevin Knowles
Upon their arrival, Unmanned Autonomous Systems (UAS) brought with them many benefits for those involved in a military campaign. They can use such systems to reconnoitre dangerous areas, provide 24-hr aerial security surveillance for force protection purposes or even attack enemy targets all the while avoiding friendly human losses in the process. Unfortunately, these platforms also carry the inherent risk of being built on inherently vulnerable cybernetic systems. From software which can be tampered with to either steal data, damage or even outright steal the aircraft, to the data networks used for communications which can be jammed or even eavesdropped on to gain access to sensible information. All this has the potential to turn the benefits of UAS into liabilities and although the last decade has seen great advances in the development of protection and countermeasures against the described threats and beyond the risk still endures. With this in mind the present work will describe a monitoring system whose purpose is to monitor UAS mission profile implementation at both high level mission execution and at lower level software code operation to tackle the specific threats of malicious code and possible spurious commands received over the vehicle’s data links.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Aurelie Beaugency, Marc Gatti, Didier Regis
Since 2000, avionics is facing several changes, mostly driven by technological improvements in the electronics industry and innovation requirements from aircraft manufacturers. First, it has progressively lost its technological leadership over innovation processes in the economy. Second, the explosion of the electronics consumer industry has contributed to shorten even more its technology life cycles, and promoted the use of COTS. Third, the increasing complexities of avionics systems, which integrate more and more functions, have encouraged new players to enter the market. In this context, firms’ ability to quickly face technological changes provides competitive advantage. The aim of this article is to analyze how technological changes can affect the competitive environment of avionics firms. More precisely, we refer to criticality levels as a determinant of the market competitiveness. According to its criticality, each avionic system is ranked from A (highly critical) to E in the DO 178b standard.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Thierry Cornilleau, Pierre Linard, Paul Moxon, Christopher Nicholas
UK and French Aerospace industries are currently collaborating, under the Anglo-French Government Memorandum of Understanding, on a programme, named ECOA (European Component Oriented Architecture) which aims to reduce the development and through-life-costs of the increasingly complex software systems within military air platforms. The ECOA programme defines an open real-time software architecture, agreed between the programme partners, that meets these goals. The software architecture is based around a number of key concepts: the use of flexible architectural paradigms which provide event and data distribution, the precise specification of software artefacts, allowing a detailed understanding of functional and non-functional behaviour, a better model of distributed real-time behaviour, the support for Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) and automated code generation to reduce development costs, the ability to support any underlying hardware and software platform ensuring the approach is able to support legacy and new build platforms, and the creation of a market for software artefacts, based on an agreed breakdown of mission systems functionality.
Book
2014-09-04
William C. Messner
Over the years, the DARPA Challenges in the United States have galvanized interest in autonomous cars, making them a real possibility in the mind of the public, but autonomous and unmanned vehicles have been increasingly employed in many roles on land, in the water, and in the air. Military applications have received a great deal of attention, with weaponized unmanned aircraft (drones) being the most prominent. However, unmanned vehicles with varying degrees of autonomy already have many civilian applications. Some of these are quite familiar (such as the Roomba autonomous vacuum cleaner), while others remain largely out of the public eye (such as autonomous farm equipment). Additional applications and more capable vehicles are rapidly coming to the markets in the years ahead. This book examines a number of economically important areas in which unmanned and autonomous vehicles, also understood here as autonomous technologies, are already used or soon will be. Co-published by SAE International and AUVSI, Autonomous Technologies: Applications That Matter will assist the reader in identifying profitable opportunities and avoiding costly misconceptions with respect to civilian applications of autonomous vehicle technologies as it brings together chapters on how air, water, and ground vehicles are becoming ever more used and appreciated.
WIP Standard
2014-07-18
The SAE Aerospace Information Report AIR5315 – Generic Open Architecture (GOA) defines “a framework to identify interface classes for applying open systems to the design of a specific hardware/software system.” [sae] JAUS Service (Interface) Definition Language defines an XML schema for the interface definition of services at the Class 4L, or Application Layer, and Class 3L, or System Services Layer, of the Generic Open Architecture stack (See Figure 1 below). The specification of JAUS services shall be defined according to the JAUS Service (Interface) Definition Language document.
Magazine
2014-07-10
Off-highway engines advance beyond Tier 4 With Tier 4 Final/Stage IV needs met, engine OEMs direct their focus and competitive energies toward optimizing competitive solutions. At the same time, they need to keep a weather eye out for future regulations, which many expect. Autonomous vehicle challenges span many fields Many of the challenges faced by military and commercial design teams are similar. Racket busters With a quiet cab at the top of many tractor buyers' wish lists, agricultural equipment manufacturers are pursuing every opportunity possible to shed decibels.
WIP Standard
2014-07-09
This AIR intends to better document and tabulate electrical load dynamics that influence power source capacity, power quality and stabiltiy.
WIP Standard
2014-07-02
This document describes the features and functions of the CXPI protocol. The CXPI protocol provides some selected features of the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol implemented on a UART-based data link for mainly HMI (Human Machine Interface) of road vehicles electric systems. This information report is a description of the CXPI protocol, which is specified in the JASO D015 CXPI document published by JASO. The JASO D015 CXPI specification is the normative reference for the CXPI protocol. The CXPI specification is maintained by JSAE (Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Inc.). This information report does not supersede any information contained in the JASO D015 CXPI specification. It has the sole purpose of providing textual description and graphical illustrations to ease reading and interpretation of the CXPI protocol.
Standard
2014-06-13
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the minimum performance standards for equipment used as secondary alternating current (AC) electrical power sources in aerospace electric power systems.
WIP Standard
2014-06-10
SAE ARP to provide guidance and best practices for demonstrating civil aircraft electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Incorporate EMC guidance for large transport airplanes, business airplanes, small airplanes, small helicopters, and transport helicopters. Provide guidance that considers compliance with aircraft safety requirements, and also considers intended performance of non-required and non-essential aircraft systems. Provide guidance on aircraft equipment EMC qualification, aircraft system and wiring installation, and aircraft EMC tests.
Standard
2014-06-03
This document defines a set of standard application layer interfaces called JAUS Manipulator Services. JAUS Services provide the means for software entities in an unmanned system or system of unmanned systems to communicate and coordinate their activities. The Manipulator Services represent platform-independent capabilities commonly found across domains and types of unmanned systems. At present, twenty-five (25) services are defined in this document.
Standard
2014-05-29
This document describes a physical layer utilizing Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable with extended stub lengths for flexibility in ECU placement and network topology. Also, connectors are not specified. CAN controllers are now available which support the newly introduced CAN Flexible Data Rate Frame format (known as “CAN FD”). These controllers, when used on SAE J1939-15 networks, must be restricted to use only the Classical Frame format compliant to ISO 11989-1 (2003). These SAE Recommended Practices are intended for light- and heavy-duty vehicles on- or off-road as well as appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components (e.g., generator sets). Vehicles of interest include but are not limited to: on- and off-highway trucks and their trailers; construction equipment; and agricultural equipment and implements.
Standard
2014-04-28
The SAE J1939 communications network is developed for use in heavy-duty environments and suitable for horizontally integrated vehicle industries. The SAE J1939 communications network is applicable for light-duty, medium-duty, and heavy- duty vehicles used on-road or off-road, and for appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components (e.g. generator sets). Vehicles of interest include, but are not limited to, on-highway and off-highway trucks and their trailers, construction equipment, and agricultural equipment and implements.   SAE J1939-71 Vehicle Application Layer is the SAE J1939 reference document for the conventions and notations that specify parameter placement in PGN data fields, the conventions for ASCII parameters, and conventions for PGN transmission rates. This document previously contained the majority of the SAE J1939 data parameters and messages for information exchange between the ECU applications connected to the SAE J1939 communications network.
WIP Standard
2014-04-23
Generate an accompanying document to AS-6129 to define the verification method and criteria for all the requirements contained in AS-6129.
WIP Standard
2014-04-22
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the editorial format and policies necessary for the publication of platform/subsystem Interface Control documents. The Common Interface Control Document Format Standard defines a common format for platform to subsystem interface documents to facilitate subsystem integration. This aerospace standard specifies the common technical data sections for the Common Interface Control Document Format down to the third header level for the majority of sub-sections. The Common Interface Control Document Format Aerospace Standard provides a structured document format in appendixes supported by example paragraphs, drawings, etc.
WIP Standard
2014-04-22
This standard defines a generic set of electrical interfaces between a host aircraft (“platform”) and an electro-optic/infrared (EO/IR) sensor. This includes connectors, cabling, fiber optics, signals, and power.
Standard
2014-04-16
SAE J1939-31 Network Layer describes the requirements and services for Network Interconnection ECUs (NIECU) that enable electronic control units (ECUs) on a network segment to intercommunicate with other ECUs on different network segments of the vehicle network. This document defines various types of NIECUs. The information in this document applies only to ECUs that are intended to provide networking services. It is not necessary for an ECU to provide any of these services in order to be compliant with the SAE J1939 protocol.
Book
2014-04-16
The new Grid-Connected Vehicles Report provides an in-depth analysis on the current market landscape, challenges, drivers and market forecasts for electric, plugin hybrid and range extended electric vehicles. Factors like the EV charging infrastructure, battery technology, fuel price, vehicle availability, electricity grid and resource supply are all examined. Grid-Connected Vehicles Report covers the following key areas: • Market drivers and challenges • The key enabling technologies for electric vehicles: Batteries, motors, regenerative braking, electrically driven ancillaries • The future market dynamics, new markets and forecasts • Electric light vehicles currently on the market • Regional incentives and legislation The report includes a series of 20 supplier profiles from suppliers relevant to the electric vehicle and plugin sector. These profiles provide you with relevant data on corporate strategy, investments, product offerings and contact information built from SupplierBusiness research.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sreenath K. Reghunath, Deepak Sharma, Ashwini S. Athreya
Abstract Availability of road navigation data and route pattern details to the vehicle controller allows the use of predictive algorithms to obtain optimal performance from the vehicle. Conventionally, in the automated transmissions, gear position values are decided from predefined maps depending on the load demand and vehicle velocity at that instant. Due to the instantaneous decisions taken to get the gear position, minor changes in terrain sometimes might cause multiple unwanted gear shifts. The paper presents the concept of predictive optimal gear shifting strategy, utilizing the route information from the vehicle navigation system and vehicle state. Route terrain information is processed to analyze the vehicle behavior at future route gradient segments. Several categories of vehicle behavior are identified and at each decision point, the driving state is classified into one of these categories. Each category of vehicle driving state has an associated predefined shift behavior calculated for optimal fuel economy and vehicle dynamics for that particular state.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Raghavendra Anantharam, Prakash Kulkarni
Abstract AUTOSAR introduces standardization of software development in three areas, namely Architecture, Application Interfaces and Methodology. The most frequently employed method for application SW migration is the Bottom-up approach, wherein the existing software architecture is reused with no or minimal change. This approach can introduce software performance and maintainability issues. Still, it is often preferred, as it is relatively easy to implement, because of experience with the architecture and the need for quick results. In the Top-down approach, on the other hand, the entire AUTOSAR architecture is created from a Vehicle System and Control System perspective. The Top-down method has potential for a superior result, although it is effort-intensive. A custom methodology for migration from a traditional SW architecture to AUTOSAR architecture is described in this paper. The approach seeks an optimum combination of the Top-down and the Bottom-up approaches to obtain a suitable compromise between the lower effort of the latter and the completeness of the former approach.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Karsten Schmidt, Jens Harnisch, Denny Marx, Albrecht Mayer, Andre Kohn, Reinhard Deml
Abstract Integration scenarios for ECU software become more complicated, as more constraints with regards to timing, safety and security need to be considered. Multi-core microcontrollers offer even more hardware potential for integration scenarios. To tackle the complexity, more and more model based approaches are used. Understanding the interaction between the different software components, not only from a functional but also from a timing view, is a key success factor for high integration scenarios. In particular for multi-core systems, an amazing amount of timing data can be generated. Usually a multi-core system handles more software functionality than a single-core system. Furthermore, there may be timing interference on the multicore systems, due to the shared usage of buses, memory banks or other hardware resources. The current approach for timing analysis, often based on execution times and sequences of executions in Gantt charts, will not scale arbitrarily for high integration scenarios on multi-core systems.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bjoern Lumpp, Mouham Tanimou, Martin McMackin, Eva Bouillon, Erica Trapel, Micha Muenzenmay, Klaus Zimmermann
Abstract Current exhaust gas emission regulations can only be well adhered to through optimal interplay of combustion engine and exhaust gas after-treatment systems. Combining a modern diesel engine with several exhaust gas after-treatment components (DPF, catalytic converters) leads to extremely complex drive systems, with very complex and technically demanding control systems. Current engine ECUs (Electronic Control Unit) have hundreds of functions with thousands of parameters that can be adapted to keep the exhaust gas emissions within the given limits. Each of these functions has to be calibrated and tested in accordance with the rest of the ECU software. To date this task has been performed mostly on engine test benches or in Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) setups. In this paper, a Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) approach, consisting of an engine model and an exhaust gas treatment (EGT) model, coupled with software from a real diesel engine ECU, will be described in detail. A virtual (SiL) test bench is realized with which the diesel engine software functions can be calibrated without any special hardware, using industry- standard calibration tools like INCA from ETAS.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jihas Khan
Abstract Modern day vehicles have about 70 Electronic Control Units that are networked using CAN, LIN, MOST or K-Line protocols. All these protocols suffer from some common disadvantages like limited baud rate, limited bandwidth, limited networking length, complex software algorithms, high power consumption and queuing of messages. Wiring, ECU connectors and harness also become complex and bulky owing to the large number of ECUs. This paper proposes a new In-Vehicle network with a Single ECU for a Network (SEN). Rather than employing nearly 20 ECUs for each vehicle network (Body and Chassis), a single parent ECU shall control all the activities in that network. Wiring complexity shall be reduced by 40 % by reducing in the pin count of ECUs. This can be achieved by using interface modules for communication of ECUs with sensors and actuators. Proposed architecture employs cutting-edge technology which provides data rates that are 1000 times higher that of CAN while still maintaining real-time behavior of the network.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Edgardo X. Menendez, George White, Michael Ulrich
Abstract Vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communications is receiving a lot of attention in the automotive industry due to the many advantages it presents to the general public including, but not limited to, increased traffic efficiency and increased safety on the roads. The multilayer organic technology allows manufacturers to build several different types of passive components with high performance characteristics at RF/Microwave frequencies, including capacitors, inductors and diplexers. The performance of each component family will be discussed along with a comparison to traditional ceramic based fired components. Frequency response, mechanical performance, and specifications will be compared. MLO™ diplexer performance will be discussed relative to their use in V2V systems and their potential impact on system performance.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Radovan Miucic, Zeljko Popovic, Sue Bai
Abstract Precise vehicle positioning is dependent on the availability of a clear line of sight path between a vehicle and four or more satellites. For improved estimation of vehicle positioning in the absence of a complete set of visible satellites, Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) may offer a temporary position estimate. This paper investigates the feasibility of acquiring position based solely on DSRC signals. First the precision of DSRC signal strength (SI)-based position estimates is analyzed; this is followed by an analysis of position estimates based on time of flight (TOF). SI and TOF methods are compared using an extensive set of outdoor data collected from 30 vehicles on a test track. This research suggests that TOF is a better measure than SI for estimating position information.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Brian Harries, Townsend Hyatt, Kenneth Leslie, Brandon Smith, Marc Compere
Abstract This paper describes the interdisciplinary architecture selection study conducted by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) to determine the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) architecture for its entry into EcoCAR2: Plugging In To The Future. This study includes a fuel, component, and architecture comparison to determine the most viable strategy to convert the competition vehicle, a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu, into a strong PHEV. Performance, energy, emissions, and consumer acceptability goals were established and summarized in the Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS). Drive cycle simulations were used to create vehicle and component requirements for achieving the VTS targets. Three candidate architectures were then evaluated and compared for energy consumption, well to wheel (WTW) emissions, WTW petroleum energy usage, performance, packaging, and consumer acceptability. The architectures compared were a front wheel drive Series PHEV, a series-parallel through the road PHEV, and pre-transmission PHEV.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Zhenhong Lin, Jan-Mou Li, Jing Dong
Abstract This study attempts to establish a quantitative linkage between deployment of dynamic wireless power transfer (DWPT) and the market adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). This linkage can be useful for analyzing the societal benefits of DWPT and justifying investments in its research, development, demonstration and deployment. Spatial relationships between charging opportunity and DWPT availability are estimated for four metropolitan areas. The consumer value of DWPT is formulated as a function of key DWPT deployment parameters and then integrated into an existing validated consumer choice model, where sales of PEVs are endogenous. Results indicate significant impacts on PEV sales of DWPT deployment, even only at 0.5% of road length by 2050. Significant impact heterogeneity is observed. Larger impacts appear to be on battery electric vehicles (BEV) as opposed to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), on short-range BEVs as opposed to long-range ones, and on consumers with charging challenges, such as consumers without adequate home or workplace charging and consumers with high driving intensity.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Arturo Davila, Emilia Romero, Marina Roche, Marco Mammetti, Javier Gutierrez, Micha Lesemann
Abstract The ELVA project (Advanced Electric Vehicle Architectures) was co-funded under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme and had the goal of developing vehicle architectures specifically designed for electric powered vehicles. The consortium was formed by the Institute for Automotive Engineering (ika) of RWTH Aachen University (coordinator), Applus+ IDIADA, Volkswagen, Renault, Centro Richerche Fiat (CRF), Continental and the Swedish Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre (SAFER). The main objectives of the ELVA project were: To generate, investigate and analyze innovative design concepts for EVs To deliver a wide range of advanced modular architectures that enable the same level of safety as today's best known practices To minimize weight, maximize energy efficiency, optimize ergonomics and space at affordable costs with good levels of comfort and performance To deliver best practices and evidence based design rules for modular lightweight and safe architectures specifically for EVs The project, which was characterized by an intensive interaction among the partners, completed the design of three electric vehicle concepts, that were developed in parallel and doing iterative design loops.
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