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2015-05-20
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This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1465
Sho Nikaido, Shota Wada, Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa, Toshiya Hirose
1. Background and purpose There are various contributing factors to accidents of bicycles, it is considered that cyclists often do not observe the traffic regulation that requires cyclists to stop before a stop line at an intersection. As a countermeasure to this type of accident, cycling assist systems that activate a warning system for cyclists have been researched and developed. This assist system warns the cyclist about the danger of a collision. Such an assist system needs to provide a warning with appropriate timing. It is necessary to clarify cycling characteristics in developing a countermeasure for traffic accidents at an intersection without signals. The findings of this study can be used for the future construction of an assist system that will encourage cyclists to observe traffic regulations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1687
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limits the relative utility of EVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high power public charging availability combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and EVs could be marginalized. Herein we quantify the relationships between EV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating EVs operated to real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). Under support from the U.S.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1686
Takamitsu Tajima, Wataru Noguchi, Tomohisa Aruga
We studied a method for realizing an unlimited driving range for an Electric Vehicle (EV) by supplying power and charging simultaneously while the vehicle is being driven. This method, powering and charging at the same, time mitigates the primary concerns associated with an EV. In addition, we discuss the results of driving tests where we were able to reach an unlimited driving range. The greatest concern attributed to EVs is their short driving range when compared to gasoline vehicles. The direct supply of power to the vehicles from infrastructure during operation has been proposed as one means of addressing this issue. However, if non-contact (wireless) power supply is employed, the realization of this technology is said to require another 100 years.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1688
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
With support from the Vehicle Technologies Office in the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed BLAST-V—the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles. The addition of high resolution spatial-temporal travel histories has enabled BLAST-V to investigate user-defined infrastructure rollouts of publically accessible charging infrastructure, as well as quantify impacts on vehicle and station owners in terms of improved vehicle utility and station throughput. This paper will present simulation outputs from BLAST-V quantifying the utility improvements of multiple distinct rollouts of publically available level 2 electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE) in the Seattle metropolitan area. Publically available data on existing level 2 EVSE will also be used as an input to BLAST-V with resulting vehicle utility compared to a number of mock rollout scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1685
Omar Abu Mohareb, Phan-Lam Huynh, Hans-Christian Reuss, Michael Grimm, A. Al-Janabi
This paper addresses the performance and potential of using electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states. The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) in cooperation with Dhofar University in Salalah has established this research project, where several tests have been performed to study the performance of electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states in general and in Oman in specific. This will give a deep insight of the electric vehicles use possibilities, in addition to the fuel saving potentials and environmental effects by using both electric vehicles and renewable energy charging stations. A survey with a questionnaire of 30 questions was carried out and distributed over 320 candidates representing population distribution in Salalah.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0201
Robert Wragge-Morley, Guido Herrmann, Phil Barber, Stuart Burgess PhD
We present a method for the estimation of vehicle mass and road gradient for a light passenger vehicle . The estimation method uses information normally available on the vehicle CAN bus without the addition of extra sensors. A nonlinear adaptive observer structure with a finite and exponential time converging regressor uses vehicle speed over ground and driving torque to estimate mass and road gradient. A novel system of filters is used to avoid deriving acceleration directly from wheel speed. In addition, a novel data fusion method makes use of the regressor structure to introduce information from other sensors in the vehicle. The dynamics of the additional sensors must be able to be parameterised using the same parameterisation as the complete vehicle system dynamics. In this case we make use of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) which is part of the vehicle safety and ADAS systems.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0199
Stefan Fuchs, Hans-Peter Schmidt
Real-time data transfer over Ethernet, with an inhomogeneous physical layer is studied. Within the Ethernet network 100Base-TX and BroadR Reach© physical layers are used. Synchronization of the transferred data is investigated and synchronized transfer of video streams is shown. Purpose-built Ethernet-Physical Layer Adapters (E-PLAs) are applied It is demonstrated that an Ethernet network with different physical layers may be used for real-time data transfer with just a little trade-off in synchronization and transfer delay. Keywords— Real-time Ethernet; Ethernet AVB; Unshielded twisted single pair; Physical layer; Synchronization;
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0296
Roman Schmied, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems allow a safe and reliable driving by adapting the velocity of the vehicle to velocity setpoints and the distance from preceding vehicles. This substantially reduces the effort of the driver especially in heavy traffic conditions. However, standard ACC systems do not necessarily take in account comfort and fuel efficiency. Recently some work has been done of the latter aspect. This paper extends previous works for CI engines by incorporating a prediction model of the surrounding traffic and a simplified control law capable for real time use in experiments. The prediction model itself uses sinusoidal functions as the traffic measurements often show periodic behavior and is adapted in every sample instant with respect to the predecessor’s velocity. Furthermore, the controlled vehicle is forced to stay within a specific inter-vehicle distance corridor to avoid collisions and ensure safe driving.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0294
Takamasa Koshizen, MAS Kamal, Hiroyuki Koike
In order to mitigate traffic congestion, in this paper, we propose an effective approach of smoothing traffic flows by introducing smart cars. It is relied on the smartphone-based technology of detecting traffic congestion, initially developed by Honda Motor Co. Ltd throughout 2011-2013. The detection technology is basically aimed to correct erratic driving behaviors such as aggressive acceleration or rapid braking, and is referred as "smooth driving". Generally, it is known that traffic congestion will likely occur when volume of traffic generates demand for a space greater than the available road capacity. Nevertheless, driving patterns relative to reaction time, sensitivity and time headway, can also be crucial for traffic stability and congestion mitigation. So far, our driving strategy combined with the congestion detection has considered achieving the driving smoothness for "single" lane in particular.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0295
Dominik Moser, Harald Waschl, Roman Schmied, Hajrudin Efendic, Luigi del Re
Modern cars feature a variety of different driving assistance systems, which aim to improve driving comfort as well as fuel consumption. Due to the technical progress and the possibility to consider vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) strategies have received strong interest both from research and industrial communities. The performance of such systems can be enhanced if the future development of the surrounding traffic can be predicted. This paper presents a stochastic model of the future velocity of a preceding car based on the incorporation of available information sources such as V2X and radar information. Generally, human driving behavior is a complex process and influenced by several environmental impacts. The main influences on the velocity prediction considered in this work are current and previous velocity measurements and traffic light signals.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0298
Wontaek Lim, Junsoo Kim, Chulhoon Jang, Yongwoo Jo, Myoungho Sunwoo
Autonomous vehicle technology has developed to meet the demands of drivers for improving driving safety and convenience. In particular, the study of parking for the autonomous driving has received significant attention from automotive researchers because many drivers have trouble estimating a parking path in a complex area. This difficulty is due to the characteristic of non-holonomic constraints and the restricted free-space of parking lots. Many reports have been published on the topic of geometric methods that use circles and straight lines as well as fuzzy logic based path planners for parking. These methods generate feasible paths from a starting position to a desired parking position and consider maximum steering angle, Ackermann steering geometry, and vehicle speed. However, it is difficult to generate repeated backward-forward paths for a narrow parking lot since the paths are made in a wide parking space.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0297
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Finn Tseng
This paper studies the problem of characterizing the driving behavior during steady-state and transient car-following. An approach utilizing the online learning of an evolving Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model that is combined with a Markov model is used to characterize the multi-model and evolving nature of the driving behavior. Such an approach is targeted for real-time implementation instead of the traditional off-line approach to driver characterization. The approach is validated by testing on a test vehicle during different driving conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0288
Virendra Kumar, William Whyte
IEEE Standard 1609.2-2013, Security Services for Applications and Management Messages for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments, specifies its data structures and encoding using a proprietary language based on that used in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)’s Transport Layer Security (TLS) specification. This approach is believed to allow fast encoding and decoding, but is non-standard, is not proved to be complete, lacks automatic tools for generation of codecs, and is difficult to extend. For that reason the 1609 Working Group approved the use of Abstract Syntax Notation 1 (ASN.1) for future versions of 1609.2, so long as ASN.1 did not significantly degrade performance. This paper is the first publication of the results of a performance analysis carried out to determine whether ASN.1-based encoding was in fact acceptable.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1175
Norishige Konno, Seiji Mizuno, Hiroya Nakaji
Small size, high performance and affordable price are needed to launch a Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) on the market. Toyota makes it possible to adopt the no humidification system (the first among the world) and 3kW/L of power density (double in comparison with previous model) by innovation of structure of flow field and a Membrane Electrode Gas diffusion layer Assembly (MEGA) in the new FC stack for Toyota FCV 2015 model. Also Toyota has succeeded in compatible development with performance and cost by using items in below. Quantity of Pt is decreased by 1/3, replacing the gilding of bipolar plates to carbon nano-coating and simplifying a structure of stacking parts. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) type fuel cell is generally used in vehicle, and generate electricity by chemical reaction utilize Pt as catalyst, H2 as fuel and O2 as oxidant.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0299
Saurav Talukdar
Control of vehicular platoons has been a problem of interest in the controls domain for the past 40 years. This problem gained a lot of popularity when the California PATH program was operational. String stability is an important design criterion in this problem and it has been shown that lead vehicle information is essential to achieve it. This work builds upon the existing framework and presents a controller form for each follower in the string where the lead vehicle information is used explicitly to analytically demonstrate string stability. The discussion is focused on using information from immediate neighbors to achieve string stability. Recent developments in distributed control are an attractive framework for control design where each agent has access to states of the neighbors and not all agents in the network. In this work, the aim is to design sparse H2 controllers and then perform a check on string stability.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0287
Javier Adolfo Alcazar, David Weber
A method to merge onto highways using V2V communications is proposed. Vehicles equipped with GPS and DSRC are capable of broadcasting vehicle’s GPS data to neighboring vehicles. The vehicle entering the highway shares traffic information, via DSRC, with other vehicles traveling in the highway; such information allows speed adaptation to merge into the traffic flow. Vehicles equipped with GPS and DSRC can provide smoother traffic flow and fewer collisions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0178
James Price
AUTOSAR 4.0.3 is now being deployed by many of the world’s top automotive OEMs and seeing increased adoption in regions outside of Europe. OEMs exert significant effort in the design, migration, configuration, integration, generation, and in the final build of AUTOSAR-based systems. The presentation gives an overview how to successfully adopt an AUTOSAR design methodology and how to manage the digital interaction  between Tier 1 suppliers and OEMs
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0304
Samveg Saxena, Jason MacDonald, Doug Black, Sila Kiliccote
Electric vehicles (EVs) enable higher vehicle efficiency and zero emissions in population centers, however the large loads from EV charging can stress grid systems during periods of peak demand. We apply detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars to quantify the ability for EVs to reduce their charging rates during periods of peak demand. Peak demand periods are defined to occur between 12 pm and 6 pm, as specified by Pacific Gas and Electric. A managed charging controller is developed and applied within the vehicle-to-grid simulator (V2G-Sim) which charges vehicles during the demand response period only if charging is required to satisfy mobility needs for upcoming anticipated trips over the next 24 hours. When the managed charging controller is applied at commercial (non-home) locations only, we show that 27-70% of EV charging loads can be removed at 12 pm.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0196
Varun M. Navale, Kyle Williams, Athanassios Lagospiris, Michael Schaffert, Markus-Alexander Schweiker
This paper will present an overview of the evolution & revolution of automotive E/E architectures and how we at Bosch, envision the technology in the future. The paper will discuss bottlenecks for current E/E architectures and drivers for their evolution. Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases. Implementation of these functionalities in mainstream vehicles will demand a paradigm shift in E/E architectures with respect to communication networks, power networks, connectivity, safety and security. This paper will expound on these points at a system level.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0198
Hironobu AKITA, Nobuaki MATSUDAIRA, Chao CHEN, Takasuke ITO, Shigeki OHTSUKA
With the evolution of automotive features, larger flash program size has been required even at the local electronic control units (ECUs). As a fast flash programming interface, Ethernet is adopted as a global data port from the external source. However, it has a peer-to-peer type network topology, and cannot be applied to the bus type network topology between the domain controller and the local ECUs. On the other hand, high speed CAN-FD has been studied recently for this bus type topology, but its data rate is limited at the range of several mega bps due to the signal waveform distortion caused by the multiple reflections at the non-terminated stubs. This paper describes a novel distortion cancelling technique for the bus type topology, in which digital signal processing technology compensates the complicated signal distortion caused by the multiple reflections. Moreover, this complex signal processing block is located only at the domain controller, not at the local ECUs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0135
James Price
Functional Design is a paradigm used to simplify the design of hardware and software devices such as computer software and increasingly, 3D models. A functional design assures that each modular part of a device has only one responsibility and performs that responsibility with the minimum of side effects on other parts. Functionally designed modules tend to have low coupling. Quite often functional design is interpreted as architecture design or as a planning aid for trade studies. Instead of using it for the design of the architecture and then forgetting all about it when making implementation decisions downstream our recommendation is to use functional design at the beginning of every implementation decision, not just when defining the architecture. In order to clearly focus on the over-all goals the implementation details should not obstruct the view of the design. This means that functional design should be implementation independent as long as possible.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0306
Satoru Shinzaki, Hakaru Sadano, Yutaka Maruyama, Willett Kempton
For suppressing climate change by reducing greenhouse gas, and enhancing energy security, renewable power sources, such as solar and wind power sources, are being introduced aggressively. In the meantime, supply of such renewable power sources changes frequently and significantly, depending on weather conditions, and hence, it is difficult to maintain the balance between renewable power supply and corresponding demand. As a means of resolving the imbalance between supply and demand, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology is being discussed. This technology enables vehicles to contribute to stabilizing the power grid by utilizing high-power and high-capacity on-board propulsion batteries as fast-responding energy storage.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0286
Radovan Miucic, David Weber
Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cooperative applications for advanced safety is becoming a reality. Many automotive manufactures are entering advanced research phases or even planning deployments of such applications in the near future. However, the success of most V2V applications requires full or near-full deployment of the DSRC devices in new and existing vehicles, which will take ten or more years to accomplish. In the meantime, use of autonomous sensors in combination with V2V can augment this deployment transitional period. In this paper we propose a hybrid approach that uses autonomous sensors to rebroadcast information about unequipped neighboring vehicles. In addition to messages that a host vehicle sends about its own state (such as position, speed, and direction), additional sensing capabilities also allow sending information about neighboring vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0197
Jan Seyler, Nicolas Navet, Loic Fejoz
Context of the work. Scalable Service-Oriented Middleware on IP (SOME/IP) is a proposal on top of switched Ethernet aimed at providing service-oriented communication in vehicles. SOME/IP takes advantage of Ethernet bandwidth, maximum frame size and multicast capabilities to support larger messages and reduce the overhead with regard to legacy protocols such as CAN and FlexRay. SOME/IP nodes are able to dynamically discover and subscribe to available services through the SOME/IP Service Discovery protocol (SOME/IP SD), with efficient routing strategies mixing unicast and multicast communications. Though it remains to be ascertained which use-cases would most benefit from SOME/IP, SOME/IP opens the door to more flexibility in automotive communications, such as the ability to dynamically add new services or migrate existing services. Problem definition and contribution of the paper.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0292
Pascal Herve
Connected vehicle technologies aim to tackle some of the biggest challenges of transportation industry in the areas of safety, mobility, and environment. Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) or Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) wireless communications enables a vehicle to: sense threats and hazards with a 360 degree awareness of the position of other vehicles; calculate risk; issue driver warnings; or take preventive actions to avoid and mitigate crashes. Evolving wireless technologies and associated multi-antenna systems contribute to an ever-increasing need for performance testing in order to ensure a highly reliable performance and seamless quality. Dangers of poor performance must be carefully evaluated and managed: it is imperative that potential risks are quantified, mitigated and managed to be at very low levels.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0184
James Price
AUTOSAR is a well established standard for automotive ECU and network design. This session will walk through a demonstration project, using a full AUTOSAR 4.x run-time stack. Attendees will learn how design tools are used in the development process together with the Basic Software stack to develop a specific ECU application.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0200
Karsten Schmidt, Udo Dannebaum, Harald Zweck
In-vehicle communication faces a rising request for bandwidth, which cannot be fulfilled by today’s MOST150, FlexRay or CAN networks. During the last years Fast Ethernet has gained a lot of momentum in the automotive world, because it promises to bridge the bandwidth gap. A first step in this direction is the introduction of Ethernet as On Board Diagnostic interface for production vehicles. Next potential uses-cases are the use of Ethernet in Driver Assistance Systems and in the infotainment domain. But already for many of these use cases the Fast Ethernet solution is too slow to move the huge amount of data between the Domain Controllers, ADAS Systems, Safety Computer and Chassis Controller in an adequate way. The result is the pestering request for a network technology beyond the Fast Ethernet solution. The question is which innovation will provide enough bandwidth for domain controllers, fast flashing routines, video data, MOST-replacement and internal ECU-Bus?
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0303
Gregory Roberts
Vehicle-grid integration, whether involving bi-directional power flows (V2G) or simply modulating charge rates (V1G or G2V) on electric vehicles, has enormous potential to deliver operational and capital cost savings to utilities and grid operators. Plug-in hybrid and fully electric vehicles can deliver key ancillary services such as spinning reserve, frequency regulation, load shaping, renewables following and emergency backup power. With populations of EVs projected to the millions beyond 2020, and most vehicles spending 23 hours a day or more parked and otherwise going unused, there will be gigawatts of spare mobile storage on the distribution wires, ready for deployment to deliver a more reliable and vastly cheaper grid. This paper will explore the bottlenecks and prospects of vehicle-grid integration and will cite a recent pilot project with a municipal utility in California.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0301
Takayuki Shimizu, Akihisa Yokoyama, Kazuma Sato, Kunihiko Kumita
In this paper, we present an implementation of smart charging systems for plug-in electric vehicles based on SAE J2836/2847/J2931. In this system, the charging schedule is optimized so that it supplies sufficient electricity for the next trip and also minimizes the charging cost under given time-of-use rate structures while it follows demand response events requested by a utility. Also, users can control charging schedule and check the current status of charging through application software of tablet computers. To validate the effectiveness of the developed smart charging system, we conducted experimental demonstration in which a total of 10 customers of Duke Energy regularly used our developed system for approximately one year with simulated time-of-use rate structures and demand response events.
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