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2015-05-20
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This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1688
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
With support from the Vehicle Technologies Office in the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed BLAST-V—the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles. The addition of high resolution spatial-temporal travel histories has enabled BLAST-V to investigate user-defined infrastructure rollouts of publically accessible charging infrastructure, as well as quantify impacts on vehicle and station owners in terms of improved vehicle utility and station throughput. This paper will present simulation outputs from BLAST-V quantifying the utility improvements of multiple distinct rollouts of publically available level 2 electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE) in the Seattle metropolitan area. Publically available data on existing level 2 EVSE will also be used as an input to BLAST-V with resulting vehicle utility compared to a number of mock rollout scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0192
Yukihide Niimi, Toshinori Matsui, Naoya Tsuchiya
Vehicle electronics system will continue to become more complex and larger in scale, and because of this the development is conducted without control. As a result, in system development in reality, things are intertwined with each other, like spaghetti. This has made it extremely difficult to develop the entire electronics system coherently and efficiently from the functional architecture down to physical architecture. So, we have to reform the R&D style of the electronics field to a style which will continuously and efficiently generate high-quality products. This will be achieved by dividing development into functions and components. The development of functions OEMs want to equip in the vehicles, that is, "what to make," and the components development, that is, "how to realize them."  For this activity, it is necessary to promote and accelerate the platform-based development looking down at the entire electronics systems.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0299
Saurav Talukdar
Control of vehicular platoons has been a problem of interest in the controls domain for the past 40 years. This problem gained a lot of popularity when the California PATH program was operational. String stability is an important design criterion in this problem and it has been shown that lead vehicle information is essential to achieve it. This work builds upon the existing framework and presents a controller form for each follower in the string where the lead vehicle information is used explicitly to analytically demonstrate string stability. The discussion is focused on using information from immediate neighbors to achieve string stability. Recent developments in distributed control are an attractive framework for control design where each agent has access to states of the neighbors and not all agents in the network. In this work, the aim is to design sparse H2 controllers and then perform a check on string stability.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0298
Wontaek Lim, Junsoo Kim, Kichun Jo, Yongwoo Jo, Myoungho Sunwoo
Autonomous vehicle technology has developed to meet the demands of drivers for improving driving safety and convenience. In particular, the study of parking for the autonomous driving has received significant attention from automotive researchers because many drivers have trouble estimating a parking path in a complex area. This difficulty is due to the characteristic of non-holonomic constraints and the restricted free-space of parking lots. Many reports have been published on the topic of geometric methods that use circles and straight lines as well as fuzzy logic based path planners for parking. These methods generate feasible paths from a starting position to a desired parking position and consider maximum steering angle, Ackermann steering geometry, and vehicle speed. However, it is difficult to generate repeated backward-forward paths for a narrow parking lot since the paths are made in a wide parking space.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0199
Stefan Fuchs, Hans-Peter Schmidt
Real-time data transfer over Ethernet, with an inhomogeneous physical layer is studied. Within the Ethernet network 100Base-TX and BroadR Reach© physical layers are used. Synchronization of the transferred data is investigated and synchronized transfer of video streams is shown. Purpose-built Ethernet-Physical Layer Adapters (E-PLAs) are applied It is demonstrated that an Ethernet network with different physical layers may be used for real-time data transfer with just a little trade-off in synchronization and transfer delay. Keywords— Real-time Ethernet; Ethernet AVB; Unshielded twisted single pair; Physical layer; Synchronization;
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0236
Matthias Lenhart-Rydzek, Markus Rau, Matthias Ebert
Improving the energy balance of vehicles is an effective way of lowering CO2 emissions. Among other things, this does entail mounting demands on the power wiring system. The intention is, for instance, to adapt the drive train to facilitate such functions as more efficient recuperation, e-boost and sailing with the aid of a 48V starter generator and a 48V battery. In addition, it is a matter of electrifying mechanical components with the aim of energy-efficient demand management to save fuel. The 48V power wiring system as an addition to the 12V system is a promising option where the task is to make the low-voltage wiring system of vehicles in the massmarket segment more powerful. Raising system voltage to 48V has the effect of fundamentally improving the efficiency of electricity generation and power distribution in the vehicle because of the reduced current and therefore the diminished ohmic losses.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0239
Markus Ernst, Markus Heuermann
Current trends in the automotive industry show a path towards the diffusion of automated or even autonomous driving. Due to this development, an increasing number of assistance systems and inherent networks of data and power will increase in vehicles. The main challenge among this development is the coordination of these functions and the securing of functionalities in terms of failure. Living organisms are capable of efficiently coordinating a large number of paths to transmit information and energy. They dispose of tested mechanisms as well as structures which offer certain robustness and fault tolerance. Prudent redundancy in energy supply, communication and safeguarding of function ensures that the system as a whole remains capable of operating even when there are disruptions. Vehicles, which are being fitted with ever more assistance systems, must perform comparably.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0296
Roman Schmied, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems allow a safe and reliable driving by adapting the velocity of the vehicle to velocity setpoints and the distance from preceding vehicles. This substantially reduces the effort of the driver especially in heavy traffic conditions. However, standard ACC systems do not necessarily take in account comfort and fuel efficiency. Recently some work has been done of the latter aspect. This paper extends previous works for CI engines by incorporating a prediction model of the surrounding traffic and a simplified control law capable for real time use in experiments. The prediction model itself uses sinusoidal functions as the traffic measurements often show periodic behavior and is adapted in every sample instant with respect to the predecessor’s velocity. Furthermore, the controlled vehicle is forced to stay within a specific inter-vehicle distance corridor to avoid collisions and ensure safe driving.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0229
Zhongwen Zhu, Xu Wang, Wei Huang, Jinfeng Gong
Pure electric vehicles are recognized as one of the most important new energy vehicle forms to meet the increasing stringent requirements in energy saving and environment protection. The vehicle control unit(VCU) of pure electric vehicle is situated in the top-level of control architecture and decides the overall vehicle performance in a great degree. Vehicle control unit will be challenged more and more in the future to improve performance, reduce costs and the time need for match different pure electric vehicles. To meet these demands, the China Automotive Technology & Research Center(CATARC) plan to develop a advanced Vehicle Control Platform(VCP) for pure electric vehicles which has well structure on hardware and software level and can be adapted to different pure electric vehicles easily. The paper introduces VCP development. The VCP hardware is development based on Infineon 32bit microcontroller TC1782 which uses the latest innovation in terms of architecture and technologies.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0287
Javier Adolfo Alcazar, David Weber
A method to merge onto highways using V2V communications is proposed. Vehicles equipped with GPS and DSRC are capable of broadcasting vehicle’s GPS data to neighboring vehicles. The vehicle entering the highway shares traffic information, via DSRC, with other vehicles traveling in the highway; such information allows speed adaptation to merge into the traffic flow. Vehicles equipped with GPS and DSRC can provide smoother traffic flow and fewer collisions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0288
Virendra Kumar, William Whyte
IEEE Standard 1609.2-2013, Security Services for Applications and Management Messages for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments, specifies its data structures and encoding using a proprietary language based on that used in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)’s Transport Layer Security (TLS) specification. This approach is believed to allow fast encoding and decoding, but is non-standard, is not proved to be complete, lacks automatic tools for generation of codecs, and is difficult to extend. For that reason the 1609 Working Group approved the use of Abstract Syntax Notation 1 (ASN.1) for future versions of 1609.2, so long as ASN.1 did not significantly degrade performance. This paper is the first publication of the results of a performance analysis carried out to determine whether ASN.1-based encoding was in fact acceptable.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0292
Pascal Herve
Connected vehicle technologies aim to tackle some of the biggest challenges of transportation industry in the areas of safety, mobility, and environment. Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) or Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) wireless communications enables a vehicle to: sense threats and hazards with a 360 degree awareness of the position of other vehicles; calculate risk; issue driver warnings; or take preventive actions to avoid and mitigate crashes. Evolving wireless technologies and associated multi-antenna systems contribute to an ever-increasing need for performance testing in order to ensure a highly reliable performance and seamless quality. Dangers of poor performance must be carefully evaluated and managed: it is imperative that potential risks are quantified, mitigated and managed to be at very low levels.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0603
Robert A. Smith, Mikel Petty
Dynamic Mechanical Analysis Evaluation of the Dimensional Stability of Poly(butylene terephthalate) with Glass Fiber Filler Robert A. Smith and Mikel Petty Delphi Electrical/Electronic Architecture 4551 Research Parkway Warren, Ohio 44483 Sealed connections are critical for the safe operation of all vehicles; particularly with the high voltages (350V) of HEV and EVs. Leakage of water or petroleum-based contaminants into connections could cause immediate cessation of operation risking a catastrophic collision. Connections consist of various designs which require a sufficient hold force between the male and female components to enable gasket sealing. Loss of hold force or distortion from dimensional instability may lead to leakage through the gasket.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0293
Yaamini Devi Loganathan
Indian automobile production increased at a CAGR of 12.2% over FY05-FY13, with a decline in Commercial Vehicle (CV) growth rate during FY09 and FY13. Globally, automotive industry suffered a decline in FY09 due to the global financial crisis and again on a decline in FY12 due to the European sovereign debt crisis. Both these events took a toll on the economy as well as industrial activity, around the globe, as well as in India. Apart from the global events, there are various internal risks the Indian OEMs need to consider: 1) regulatory risk due to excise duty hikes, decontrol of fuel pricing, etc., 2) market risks due to currency, inflation, interest rates, material cost, 3) industry risks due to increased competition, price war, etc. In this scenario, Indian Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) need to constantly recalibrate their strategies to the changing market dynamics and associated risks.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0135
Thomas Heurung
Functional Design is a paradigm used to simplify the design of hardware and software devices such as computer software and increasingly, 3D models. A functional design assures that each modular part of a device has only one responsibility and performs that responsibility with the minimum of side effects on other parts. Functionally designed modules tend to have low coupling. Quite often functional design is interpreted as architecture design or as a planning aid for trade studies. Instead of using it for the design of the architecture and then forgetting all about it when making implementation decisions downstream our recommendation is to use functional design at the beginning of every implementation decision, not just when defining the architecture. In order to clearly focus on the over-all goals the implementation details should not obstruct the view of the design. This means that functional design should be implementation independent as long as possible.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1158
Justin Wilbanks, Fabrizio Favaretto, Franco Cimatti, Michael Leamy
This paper presents a detailed design study and associated design considerations supporting the development of high-performance plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Due to increasingly strict governmental regulations and a diminishing supply of fossil fuels, all automotive manufacturers have been tasked with the reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of production vehicles. PHEV powertrains can provide a needed balance in terms of fuel economy and vehicle performance by exploiting regenerative braking, pure electric vehicle operation, engine load-point shifting, and power-enhancing hybrid traction modes. Thus, properly designed PHEV powertrains can reduce fuel consumption while increasing vehicle utility and performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1155
Robert Steffan, Peter Hofmann, Bernhard Geringer
This paper is based on a vehicle research project called CULT (Cars Ultra-Light Technology) under the lead of Magna Steyr Engineering (Graz, Austria) which focuses on the development of an ultra-light (600 kg) vehicle (4-seater, A-segment) with a hybrid propulsion system. The Institute for Powertrains and Automotive Technology of the TU Vienna, was responsible for the complete powertrain development. To reach the project CO2 target of only 49 g/km a downsized CNG DI engine was combined with a 6-gear automated transmission and a Belt-Starter-Generator (BSG). The first part of this paper shortly summarizes the final project results by highlighting the CO2 saving potentials obtained by the 12 Volt BSG. The connection of the BSG on the transmission input shaft instead the conventional adaption on the belt-drive of the ICE should maximize the CO2 potentials. This new approach leads to a significantly increased recuperation potential, because the engine drag torque can be de clutched.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0265
Martin Krammer, Philip Stirgwolt, Helmut Martin
A single malfunction in a product can initiate a costly product recall. With ever increasing reliance on electronic and electric components contributing to the functional safety of next generation vehicles, a malfunction may cause such inconvenience too. Automotive E/E systems perform highly networked functions, including dense system interactions, and with a large number of product variants and features, complexity increases beyond human susceptibility. This is considered to be the main source for systematic faults and does not only affect newly developed systems, like complex driver assistance systems. Also well-known systems often bear a non-negligible safety threat. Safety critical automotive product development starts with a comprehensive and well-coordinated concept phase.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0273
Helmut Martin, Martin Krammer, Bernhard Winkler, Christian Schwarzl
Today, the development of cyber-physical systems - in particular in the automotive domain – faces a variety of challenges, such as the increasing complexity caused by the interconnection and communication of distributed E/E systems in a vehicle, pressure to reduce costs and times to market, the need to handle multidisciplinary automotive systems (electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal disciplines for e.g. automotive battery systems), and the mandate that all these systems comply with functional safety standards such as the ISO 26262 . The approach presented in this paper allows the these challenges to be met in an effective way in order to be competitive on the market. This paper presents a model-based systems safety engineering approach based on SysML for specifying relevant safety artefacts. Through the use of specific diagram types, different views of the available data can be provided that correspond to the specific needs of all stakeholders.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0184
James Price
AUTOSAR is a well established standard for automotive ECU and network design. This session will walk through a demonstration project, using a full AUTOSAR 4.x run-time stack. Attendees will learn how design tools are used in the development process together with the Basic Software stack to develop a specific ECU application.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0190
Mostafa Anwar Taie, Ibrahim El-Faramawy, Mohamed Elmawazini
Estimating the real-time (RT) behavior of software architecture in embedded system is very difficult and critical. Most of the current approaches rely on engineering judgment or actual measurements performed during integration testing. Both approaches are not error proof and can yield to RT constraints violations discovered during simulation of RT architectural design or during product validation. Impact on project could even be a CPU change. In this work, OS process execution time (ET) is used as the basic element of RT architectural design. First, OS process ET is predicted using machine learning (ML) algorithms, based on previous SW releases. Different types of features (e.g. number of static architecture requirements, hardware factor, seniority index), are proposed as inputs (feature vectors) to multiple ML classifiers in order to predict processes ET. Multiple ML techniques (e.g.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1630
Wolfgang Ebner, Michael Stolz, Markus Bachinger, Evgeny Korsunsky
To reach more and more stringent emission regulations (especially lower CO2 targets) vehicle manufacturers need to optimize every single component like engine and transmission but also to develop totally new powertrain concepts. The development of a complete new powertrain is very expensive. Companies try to find solutions to electrify the existing powertrain designs to take advantage of reusing big parts. Depending on system requirements electrification of a powertrain ranges from partly electrified (micro- and mild-hybrid) to complete electrified vehicles (full-hybrid, electric vehicle). A key factor to reduce the fuel consumption lies in optimal control of the entire interconnected powertrain. This work focuses on the efficient connection and coordination of control units with respect on hybrid functions. To use this concept with different powertrain topologies and electrification variants a generic approach is selected.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1468
Radovan Miucic, Xinzhou Wu, Sue Bai, James Misener
This paper explores using Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) that can improve safety by exchanging messages between vehicles and pedestrians. In recent years, the percentage of pedestrian fatalities has risen in the US compared to other traffic crash victims. In 2012 alone there were 4743 pedestrian fatalities, which is 14.1 percent of the total fatalities. DSRC is the next chapter for the advanced vehicle safety systems, which can reduce the total number of fatalities and injuries. Even though the DSRC was intended for the vehicle-to-vehicle communication it can be extendable to vehicle-to-pedestrian communication. In August 2012 we successfully demonstrated this prototype safety system using an off-the-shelf smartphone with a modified Wi-Fi transceiver and a DSRC-equipped vehicle. In addition to existing on-board sensors, DSRC can provide an opportunity to increase pedestrian visibility, enable the vehicle to warn the driver and assist in vehicle control.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1160
Namdoo Kim, Ayman Moawad, Neeraj Shidore, Aymeric Rousseau
Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) have demonstrated the potential to provide significant fuel displacement across a wide range of driving cycles. Companies and research organizations are involved in numerous research activities related to PHEVs. One of the current unknowns is the impact of driving conditions and standard test procedures on the true benefits of PHEVs from a worldwide perspective. To address this issue, five different PHEV powertrain configurations (Input split, Parallel, Series, Series-output split and Series-parallel) with four all electric range will be analyzed under different standards (i.e., UDDS, HWET, NEDC) and real world drive cycles on the component sizes, manufacturing cost, and fuel consumption of a midsize car in the year 2020 through the use of vehicle system simulation. These configurations can be seen in current mass-production vehicles such as Toyota Prius PHEV, Chevrolet Volt and Honda Accord PHEV.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0208
Hongtao Yu, Reza Langari
In order to prevent accidents caused by vehicle problems and drivers’ misapplication of vehicle controls, a detection system to perform real-time identification of abnormal vehicle behaviors is needed, which is an inherently complex task. Research efforts to this end include Sang et al. [1], which implemented an approach to abnormal behavior identification by performing video-based detection and creating information chain of tracked vehicles. Meanwhile, Bouttefroy et al. [2] introduced a paradigm for abnormal behavior detection relying on the integration of contextual information in Markov random fields. This technique models the local density of object feature vector and leads to simple and elegant criterion for behavior classification. Likewise, Chen et al. [3] presented an approach to detect potential ECU application software abnormal behavior based on the Mahalanobis Distance, the Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and vehicle driving data playback capability with a simulator.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0268
Pablo Oliveira Antonino, Mario Trapp, Ashwin Venugopal
Safety requirements are crucial artifacts in the specification of safety-critical systems, since, as recommended by standards such as ISO 26262 and the DO-178C, they must result from a safety analysis of the architecture and must ultimately be addressed by architecture elements. Because of the key role of safety requirements in safety engineering, it is important to assure that they meet certain quality attributes. In particular, the “completeness” and “consistency” of safety requirements have been widely discussed, as industrial evidence has shown that the lack of guidance on how to specify safety requirements that are traceable to the architecture and to failure propagation models is one of the main reasons for their incompleteness and inconsistency, and, consequently, a root cause of safety incidents. For example, industry practitioners have revealed to us that it is common to document traceability ad-hoc, just prior to submitting a product for certification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0294
Takamasa Koshizen, MAS Kamal, Hiroyuki Koike
In order to mitigate traffic congestion, in this paper, we propose an effective approach of smoothing traffic flows by introducing smart cars. It is relied on the smartphone-based technology of detecting traffic congestion, initially developed by Honda Motor Co. Ltd throughout 2011-2013. The detection technology is basically aimed to correct erratic driving behaviors such as aggressive acceleration or rapid braking, and is referred as "smooth driving". Generally, it is known that traffic congestion will likely occur when volume of traffic generates demand for a space greater than the available road capacity. Nevertheless, driving patterns relative to reaction time, sensitivity and time headway, can also be crucial for traffic stability and congestion mitigation. So far, our driving strategy combined with the congestion detection has considered achieving the driving smoothness for "single" lane in particular.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0317
Jongsang Seo, Kyongsu Yi
This paper describes a robust model predictive control (MPC) framework of lane change for automated driving vehicles. In order to develop a safe lane change for automated driving, the driving mode and lane change direction are determined with environmental information, sensor uncertainties, and collision risks. The safety margin is calculated using predicted trajectories of surround and subject vehicles. The MPC based combined steering and longitudinal acceleration control law has been designed with extended bicycle model over a finite time horizon. A reachable set of vehicle state is calculated on-line to guarantee that MPC state and input constraints are satisfied in the presence of disturbances and uncertainties. Simulation studies has been conducted and the proposed framework has been successfully implemented on a test vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0290
Amin Tahmasbi-Sarvestani, Hadi Kazemi, Yaser P. Fallah, Mohammad Naserian, Allan Lewis
Pedestrians account for a significant ratio of traffic fatalities; as a result, research on methods of reducing vehicle-pedestrian crashes is of importance. In this paper, we describe a system architecture that allows the use of vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) communication as a means of generating situational awareness and eventually predicting hazards and warning drivers and pedestrians. In contrast, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication for safety applications, V2P has not received much attention. One major reason for this lack of attention had been the unavailability of communication mechanisms between pedestrians and vehicles. Recent advances in enabling Wi-Fi and dedicated short range communication (DSRC) based communication using smart-phones is changing this picture. As a result, V2P communication can be considered as a possible solution.
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