Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 1650
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2879
Evandro Silva
In recent years the commercial vehicle industry, specifically the heavy duty truck product line, has seen a rapid increase in the replacement of pure mechanical systems by electronic controlled systems. Engine, transmission, brakes, lighting, clusters, etc. are all monitored and/or controlled electronically. The adoption of electronic systems created a substantial change in the complexity of our products. Currently Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) displayed on instrument clusters, in the majority of the cases, are no longer generated by a single sensor/component failure, instead these DTCs are triggered by a system monitor flag, result of a below average performance or a failure of an entire system. This new level of complexity makes it very difficult for the current diagnostic methods and tools, to identify what is causing the equipment to operate below ideal conditions.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2878
Peter Subke, Michael Eberl
SAE J1939 is the synonym for a CAN-based in-vehicle network for heavy-duty road-vehicles (trucks and buses) and non-road mobile machinery (NRMM). The SAE J1939 standards collection consists of 18 parts and 2 digital annexes. SAE J1939-21 (Data Link Layer) describes the data link layer using the CAN protocol with 29-bit identifiers, SAE J1939-73 (Application Layer – Diagnostics) includes the specification of diagnostic messages (DMs). The software components of external test equipment can be described by software interfaces (APIs). ISO 22900 (Modular Vehicle Communication Interface) contains the description of the D-Server that comes with the D-Server API for the diagnostic application and the D-PDU API for the connection to the in-vehicle network (e.g. CAN). ISO 22901-2 (D-PDU API) references SAE J1939-73 and SAE J1939-21 as “Truck and Bus CAN”. D-Server based external test equipment is powered by data which is described in ODX.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0048
Sumit Gupta, Mohammad Khan, Tapan Sahoo
This paper deals in methodology creation of HEV plant model using Matlab-Simulink for testing the HCU (Hybrid control Unit) logics in dSpace Hardware-in-loop environment. Hybrid Controller requires certain inputs, which further process it and gives output. Inputs are provided in close loop environment by modeling all the Engine and Vehicle signals like Vehicle Speed, Engine Speed, Accpedal, Brake, clutch, Boost pressure, Rail Pressure, Motor torque, Battery SOC etc in plant model. Transfer functions are defined in plant model to convert the physical signals into digital, Analog and PWM signals for actual controller input. The model is able to test the Hybrid functions like stop start, recuperation, torque assist etc.Also it is used for vehicle performance and FE simulations with better accuracy as compared to conventional simulation.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0047
Sudha Bansal
This paper presents the small signal analysis and controller design of Dual Inductor Current-Fed Bidirectional Converter for Fuel Cell Vehicle. The proposed converter achieves soft switching of all switches in both sides and switching sequence for secondary side switches naturally clamps the voltage across the primary switches. Thus no additional clamping circuit is needed. Hence this converter is having high power density, high efficiency and low device requirement. State space averaging technique is used to derive the small signal model. The controller is designed using two loop average current control. Bode plots in MATLAB are plotted to verify the stability of the complete system and the simulation results obtained using PSIM 9.0 are presented to verify the controller design and converter’s transient performance.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0046
Nabal Kishore Pandey, Satish Thimmalapura, Paul Isac
Clean and Green car is the new buzz word in automotive industry. Every major OEM in world today is working towards development of alternative propulsion technology due to current and upcoming stringent emission norms. Customer focus is also shifting towards improved fuel economy and environment. The encouraging fact is the development activity which once was predominantly concentrated in matured markets, has now attracted emerging markets also. Initiative in emerging markets towards development of Electric Vehicle and Hybrid Electric Vehicle has multitude of challenges arising from adapting products/ technologies to local conditions which are different from the prevailing conditions in matured markets. Customer Acceptance, Driving Behavior, Challenging Thermal Profile etc. needs to be addressed for the intended market to ensure viability and sustainability of the technology.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0045
Harald Dietel, Norbert Scholz
Mobile electric drives, power inverters, batteries and battery management systems, electric power management and safety, cabling and connection technologies.Patented and simple to operate electric 'Power take-off' for off-highway vehicles. Electrical system design, embeded controller software, model based software development, vehicle dynamic modelling. Torque and speed control. Integration know-how. All integrated motor drive unit with IP69K protection. High power and torque density thru active winding cooling. Speacial inverter design for demanding mobile applications. Various drive configurations. Excellent weight to torque ration. Brushless PM motors.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0052
Aisling Doyle, Tariq Muneer, Ian Smith
It is becoming widely accepted that the electric vehicle (EV) has found its place in the automobile market as a solution to many topical issues that face governments and policy makers, industrial stakeholders and even individuals in terms of energetic, economic and environmental sustainability. However, issues still surround the reliability of this technology that has resulted in slow penetration of the EV into the market as a competent competitor. This paper will focus on the heating aspect of the EV. The conventional internal combustion vehicle (ICV) uses ‘waste’ heat from the engine to heat the vehicle. With a battery powered vehicle there is no heat produced to provide thermal comfort to the vehicle cabin and so this must be a consideration when looking at the range, longevity and overall performance of the EV.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0051
Ankita Dwivedi, S K Singh, R K Srivastava
Hybrid Electric Vehicles driven by electric vehicles are very promising in reducing emissions by maintaining high efficiency. The presence of inverters for the electric vehicles adds additional cost and maintenance to the overall system. Line start PM motor is a very encouraging technique for hybrid electric vehicles without any need of inverters and requires very less space. Line start motor provides the advantage of line starting as an induction machine and running as synchronous motor. The paper deals with the analysis and development of a new type of line start permanent magnet (LSPM) machine with conducting sleeve and surface mounted magnets. The use of conducting sleeve for starting the machine as an induction motor and surface mounted magnets on rotor make the construction of LSPM very simple. The cogging torque produced due to interaction of slot and PMs are reduced due to the presence of sleeve over the PMs.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0050
Shyam Kulkarni, Amitabh Vaidya, Priyanka Karwa
Electrical Safety is the most important factor considered while initiating circuit design for any EV modules. EVs contain very high battery power that can be devastating and extremely hazardous in case of any abnormalities. Hence Safety protection in the electrical circuits is the very critical and requires 100% accuracy. Electric vehicles contain many complicated circuitries. These circuits carry very high current & are operated at high DC Voltages. Thus in case of short circuit, very high current flows in the line that can cause severe damage to the car and also can be fatal. Hence each circuit is necessarily provided with protective elements like relays and fuses. Thus these fuses, which appear to be very small elements of the circuit, can become life saver in case of short circuits and can prevent huge damages. Hence, Proper selection of the fuses is very important and critical for an electric circuit. Generally fuses are selected by a very simple process.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0049
Tariq Muneer, Mohan L. Kolhe, SK Adhikari, Ian Smith
All over the world, transport sector is contributing heavily towards Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The electric vehicles offers an elegant solution in terms of increasing overall efficiency compared with its fossil-fuel counterpart. Furthermore, if electric vehicles are charged with renewable electricity then GHG reduction is very significant. One of the main draw-back of the electric vehicle though is the sourcing of energy for air-conditioning of its cabin space. In this work, a fully-instrumented Renault Zoe electric car has been used to conduct experiments for parasitic energy consumption. The object has been to evaluate the proportion of the total energy consumption that is used for cabin ventilation. These experiments have been part of a wider project under which Edinburgh Napier University’s Transport Research Institute has operated a fleet of 18 electric vehicles over a two-year period.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0057
Sumit Gupta, Prateek Patel, Harish Chandra, Mohammad Khan, Tapan Sahoo
In Hybrid vehicles the torque split and Gear Shift optimization strategy is generally cycle dependent and behaves significantly different in Real world driving conditions. This project helps us to optimize the torque split and gear shift points simultaneously for Real World and certification drive cycle for Hybrid Electric vehicle. Now the level of trade-off in optimization between certification and Real World conditions can be selected. The methodology evaluates Objective function at each and every operating point for Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and electric motor-generator (E-machine) corresponding to all possible torque split and gear shift combinations at a particular instant and finally choose one combination with a least value of objective function (which is dependent on emission and fuel consumption, and is restricted under various constraints like drivability, component operational limits etc).
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0058
A K Gupta, V Kartik, C P Ramanarayanan
Hybrid electric vehicles are widely seen as potential solutions to the problems of exhaust emissions, fuel consumption and technical challenges to increase vehicle functionality. The present paper focuses on the design, development and performance evaluation of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle based on the concept of a new hybrid transmission. A light pick up diesel vehicle is selected as a platform for hybridization because this category of vehicles consumes a lot of fuel. A prototype of the new transmission system comprised of a coupled planetary gear set, clutches and brakes is built. This transmission utilizes two planetary gear trains coupled for multispeed capability and, has the ability to operate two power sources and to control such power sources independently from one another. To demonstrate the practical applicability of the transmission and this hybrid configuration, one prototype vehicle is built integrating the new transmission system.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0059
Rajasekhar MV
Recent focus on environment impacts and energy efficiency has been a key consideration for any vehicle manufacturer currently. These scenarios have led to the development of hybrid vehicle powertrains to acts as an immediate step towards improving fuel economy and reducing emissions. The hybridization of powertrain leads to an increase in overall cost of the vehicle on account of the anticipated benefits of improving vehicle efficiency. This cost factor plays a critical role in acceptance of technology in developing countries such as India to be a wide success. Under such situations the vehicle manufacturer has to devise a strategy for choosing the right technology (parallel hybrid, series hybrid, B-ISG etc) for the right segment of vehicle that can play a major role in making the vehicle a big success.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0053
Zhaohua Wang, Gangfeng Tan, Xiaomeng Shen, Yifan Ye, Quan Zhou, Xiaolong He, Xintong Wu
Regenerative braking used in hybrid electric vehicle can recover energy while braking, which can improve the driving distance of electric vehicle. As commercial vehicles trend to large tonnage, the power of vehicle retarding is greater than the power of vehicle driving. It is hard to ensure braking stability of the automotive only relying on regenerative braking and influence driving safety. This research combines regenerative brake and eddy current retarder. It can extend retarding time by sharing the brake torque of eddy current retarder using the regenerative brake. Meanwhile the regenerative brake supplies electric power for eddy current retarder and it will improve the energy efficiency of system. This paper aimed at target type vehicle that is 20 ton new energy commercial vehicles, and established the regenerative brake model and eddy current retarder model, and then combined vehicle running conditions for the system simulation.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0054
Hruday Konduri
This paper introduces different types of architectures in Hybrid Electric Vehicles.It is intended to provide a fundamental level of understanding of modelling and designing by using Simulink to design efficient components in HEV. Modeling different power train architectures including battery electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles and plug-in-hybrid vehicles,constructing power loss models of every components including conventional engines, traction motor, driveline by using simulink.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0055
Jignesh Sindha, Basab Chakraborty, Debashish Chakravarty
The dynamic stability of a vehicle is of profound significance which has led three wheel vehicles to be used for only low speed application. Static Stability Factor (SSF) is a commonly used safety rating for vehicles. In this paper, stability of a three-wheeled vehicle with two wheels on the front axle (2F1R), a three-wheeled vehicle with two wheels on the rear axle (1F2R) and a standard four-wheeled vehicle are compared. A particularized formula for SSF of a three wheel vehicle is derived. Critical cornering conditions for lift-off are identified for both three wheeler configurations. Three wheelers with tilting wheel mechanism are seen as a potential solution for high speed stability. The mathematical model is derived for dynamic load transfer in case of tilting wheels. A comparison is carried out for cornering stability enhancements that can be achieved through tilting mechanism during critical cornering conditions.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0056
Abhishek Kumar Saxena, Jaydeep Shah, Ambica Tyagi
Batteries mounted on electric vehicles (EVs) are often damaged by high peak power and rapid charging/discharging cycles, which are originated from repetitive acceleration/deceleration of vehicles. To reduce battery damage, the battery/ultracapacitor (SC) hybrid energy storage system (HESS) has been considered as a solution because the SC can act as a buffer against large magnitudes and rapid fluctuations in power increasing the overall efficiency of an electric vehicle. In this paper we propose a HESS system for the hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and also state some control strategies for the hybrid electric vehicle. Environmentally-friendly and renewable energy resources are becoming increasingly important in industrial, commercial and residential applications. The shift to electric mobility has become necessary on account of fast depletion of fossil fuels, rapid increase in energy costs, impact of transportation on the environment and concerns over climate change.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0061
Vishnuraj Lakshmanan, Ravikanth GV, Varun Mohan, Vinod Shigarkanthi, Rahul Jangid
There is a major market pull in India that calls for improving the fuel economy for passenger vehicles. Indian government has launched the Electric Mobility Mission Plan that calls for giving subsidies to hybrid electric vehicles. Amongst different possible hybrids the mid hybrid systems seem to be viable option for Indian market considering the cost involved. One of the key requirements for the hybrid system is the right size of the motor for a mild hybrid vehicle which directly decides the size of the entire hybrid system including battery and power electronics. In order to work out the Indian market requirements, this paper aims to determine the correct sizing of the electric motor under Indian driving conditions both for real world and test cycle. The motor sizing for emerging markets is a trade-off study between cost involved versus the level of electrification. Hence the sizing of the electric machine is both critical and challenging.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0060
Shyam Kulkarni, Amitabh Vaidya, R Naveen
Electric vehicles contain complicated circuits connected by different cables. Vehicle has both High Voltage & Low Voltage connections. Load current varies from 5A in low current applications to around 200A load during fast charging. Hence, various sizes of cables are required to meet the safety and thermal requirements. Current carrying capacity in the cable is very important aspect in the electric vehicles from safety and life perspective. Wrong cable selection can be very dangerous in case of continuous current applications. If the size of the cable is less than required maximum continuous current rating of the circuit, over load current may lead to temperature rise, melting of the cables and also cause short circuits. This may cause fire hazards and stall the intended operation. Hence many factors are to be considered while selection of cables If the size of the cables is more than the current rating of the circuit, cables will not be fully utilized which is uneconomical.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0062
C. Subramoniam
Abstract The solution for high fuel economy, low emission and long range requirement is the hybrid vehicle technology. The hybrid powertrain consists of an engine and a hub-motor as two power sources. Vehicle starts with electric mode and changes to engine operation at a predetermined speed. The electric mode operation is normally very smooth as it does not have reciprocating parts and exhaust noise. During the changeover from electric mode to engine mode, a step increase in vibration, noise and associated with a jerk feel were observed. Achieving the smoothness in all operating conditions is essential to meet customer requirements. The tools and techniques used to solve the noise and vibration problems in a hybrid powertrain are explained in this paper. The noise analysis was done using both subjective rating and objective measurements.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0063
Dipanjan Mazumdar, Surajit Das, Pramila Rao, A Sivakumar, S Jabez Dhinagar
The hybrid technology enables a regular two wheeler rider to accept the electric technology without the fear of getting stranded on road, as the internal combustion engine can be switched ON whenever required or the when the battery capacity is depleted. In a parallel hybrid four modes of operations are possible. Apart from pure EV and pure engine mode two hybrid modes can be enabled. One is hybrid economy mode which is the start- stop mode, in which the vehicle starts in electric mode and switches over to engine at higher speeds and the second one is the hybrid power mode in which both the IC engine and traction motor is switch ON simultaneously. A hybrid two-wheeler require two different types of motors for enabling the start stop operation- one is the traction motor and second is the starter motor. Two separate batteries are used in a vehicle to power the motors as their operating voltages are different.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0065
Mukund Arvind Kulkarni, Rajkumar Bhagate, Arun S, Gajanan Kale
The vibration of a vehicle often causes discomfort, fatigue and even injury to passengers. Therefore reducing vibration levels to a tolerable range is one of the most important goals in electric vehicle design. Since ride comfort is determined by road roughness and vehicle properties, the uncertainty of ride comfort results from uncertainties of road roughness and vehicle property data. A general multi-body dynamics formulation is employed to obtain dynamic response to evaluate the ride comfort uncertainty. The effects of individual and overall design variable uncertainties on the ride comfort are investigated for the reliability analysis and NVH acceptability of the electric vehicle under consideration. In order to control exterior Noise and Vibration, the sound pressure levels (SPL) of the car exterior structure-borne noise is investigated and suitable NVH solutions was implemented.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0064
Mukund Arvind Kulkarni, Gajanan Kale, Saravanan Meenatchi Sundaram, Dandamudi Chinranjeevi, Vinten Diwakar
Electric Mobility is getting to be reality and Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles are presently being created and marketed on an expansive scale. This has an enormous impact on all electrical and mechanical frameworks in a car, displaying new effectiveness, size, safety and expenditure challenges. This implies that new ideas must be produced at both component and system architectural levels. There is at present a pattern in the automotive industry to supplant combustion engines with electric motors or a mix of an electric motor and a combustion engine, thereby significantly decreasing the environmental impact of automobiles by diminishing (i.e., hybrids/crossovers) or totally eliminating (i.e., electric vehicles) car emissions.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0067
Shrikant Uttam Gunjal
A Hybrid Vehicle that uses rechargeable batteries, which can be fully charged through normal wall sockets, is termed as Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). It stands in between the conventional Hybrid and the All Electric Vehicle. This paper throws light on what exactly is a Plug-in Hybrid, its classification, what are its advantages, what are the challenges, the Future of Plug-ins, etc. A Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (referred to as PHEV hereafter) is just a normal hybrid but what makes it different from the other hybrids is its method of recharging the batteries. A PHEV, unlike a normal hybrid, can be charged from a regular wall socket. A PHEV is defined by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 as a vehicle that draws motive power from a battery with a capacity of at least 4 kilowatt hours, can be recharged from an external source of electricity for motive power and is a light-, medium-, or heavy-duty motor vehicle or non-road vehicle.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0066
C S Nanda Kumar, C S Shankar Ram
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are emerging as alternatives to the traditional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) driven vehicles to meet stringent emission norms, environmental and energy concerns. A commonly seen HEV configuration is the Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), in which both the ICE and electric motor are mechanically coupled to drive the wheels. Depending on level of hybridization, which is defined as the ratio of motor power to the total power of the drive train, the PHEV is further classified into Mild, Full, and Plug-in hybrid. Regenerative braking is a key feature in HEVs that improves the fuel economy. The amount of energy recovered again depends on the motor and battery specification. The design and analysis of the drive system and the control strategy for a typical Indian vehicle is the key focus of this paper.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0069
Akhilesh Prasad Singh
Electric vehicles are very important need to the World in present situation of environment, limited fossil fuel resource and problems of road transportation. Many R&D works are going on all over the World to make an alternative vehicle like fuel cell, capacitor charge, Hydrogen fuel, hybrid, battery operated vehicles for fossil fuel based vehicles but due to their limitations it has not become practical. The overhead supply adopter play important role in rubber tyre wheel Electric Trolley bus to take power from pair of overhead supply line but restrict the operation of ETB as well as problem of de-wirement. The new design of Electronic current collector (ECC) is having panto-graph structure connecting both overhead wires (P &N) with full rolling flexibility to ETB without short. The ETB with ECC ply like normal fuel buses i.e turns, overtaking, multi-lines crossings etc).
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0068
Kumar Piyush, Alok Gautam, Abhijit Bora, Harivansh Dayal, Chinam Patro, Tapan Sahoo
In the automobile industry, high fuel prices and growing environmental concerns have continuously driven up the demand for fuel efficient vehicles. Improved transmission and engine design, aerodynamics, fuel quality improvement and weight reduction are some of the various methods which can contribute to increase in fuel efficiency. Reduction in the weight of wiring harness can lead to decrease in overall vehicle weight, which was a key motivation that led us to explore a light weight, cost effective alternate conductor in the form of aluminum. This paper explains the methodology used for adoption of aluminum conductor in wiring harness. Keywords: Fuel efficiency, Weight reduction, wiring harness, aluminum.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0071
Avinash Rajendran Vallur, Prathmesh Sawarbandhe, Chandrakant Awate
The authors of this technical paper conceptualize and illustrate a novel powertrain architecture for a hybrid electric vehicle. This unique architecture utilizes a relatively low powered hybrid electric prime mover that is generally used in mild hybrid vehicles, in an arrangement similar to a parallel hybrid system. Here, the electric machine is mounted on the input shaft of the gearbox and the clutch is actuated automatically through an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) system. Therefore it is possible to completely disengage the engine from the driveline and drive the vehicle independently through an appropriately sized electric prime mover. The high gear ratio between the drivetrain and the electric prime mover at lower gears can be leveraged to provide low velocity electric creep mode during which the vehicle can function as a pure electric vehicle (EV) while engine remains off. Different factors affect the selection of suitable components.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0070
Sachin P. Pandit, Sarika Kelkar, Nikhil Mittal
Hybridization of Automobile powertrain is a powerful strategy towards reducing emissions and enhancing fuel economy. However the benefit of a HEV, depends solely on the energy management strategy involved. A variety of algorithms have been proposed so far, which are often computationally complex and/or require several iterations of vehicle testing. Herein, we propose a very cost-effective and time-saving approach of tuning HEV control parameters that can predict the emissions and fuel consumption on any given drive cycle, for the given vehicle. We describe in detail the proposed control strategy and provide experimental data demonstrating the efficacy of the same.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1650

Filter