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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1729
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2154
Ary Armando Alvarez, Eufemio Muñoz
The EcoCAR3 team of California State University, Los Angeles is designing a Parallel Post Transmission Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PPT PHEV) that will maintain consumer acceptability in the areas of performance, utility and safety with the end-goal of reducing Well-to-Wheel Green House Gas (WTW GHG) emissions and Well-to-Wheel Petroleum Energy Use (WTW PEU). The team utilizes the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro platform with modifications such as 2.4L Ecotec engine, a 134 HP electric motor and a 12.6 KW/h battery pack. The vehicle is estimated to have a fuel economy of 58.7 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge). This paper presents the vehicle’s two main operating modes, Electric Vehicle (EV) and Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV) while performing Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified drive cycles: 505, HWFET, US06 City and US06 HWY.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2153
Hubertus Ulmer, Ansgar Heilig, Matthias Rühl, Boris Löw
The calibration process of modern combustion engines is characterized by a wide range of experimental test runs. Whereas in the past mainly standardized test bench runs were carried out, the new Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) and real drive emissions will require additional experimental efforts. In order to provide solutions for a time and cost efficient calibration process, Bertrandt has developed in the work of Burggraf [BUR15] an innovative optimization algorithm. While common Design of Experiments (DOE) optimization approaches are usually based on stationary engine operation points, the Bertrandt tool b.eco (Bertrandt. Engine Calibration Optimization) uses a quasi-stationary measurement procedure. The time necessary for establishing a steady state of the engine can thus be omitted. On the one hand, this leads consequently to a general reduction of time.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2157
Huiyan Zhang, Lei Shi
The three-phase sequential turbocharging(ST) system with two unequal-size turbochargers is developed to improve the fuel economy performance and reduce the smoke emission of the automotive diesel engine, which has wider range of application than the current two-phase sequential turbocharging system. However, it results in greater difficulty in obtaining strategies because of control variables increasing and more complicated transient control strategies under frequently changing operating conditions. The present work aims to optimize the control schemes of bypass valve of turbine and fuel injection to improve the transient performance. A mathematical model of optimal control expressing the relationship between ST system parameters and engine performance is established, then a mean value model for diesel engine is built and verified by engine tests for transient process in SIMULINK environment.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2156
Christian Friedrich, Matthias Auer, Gunnar Stiesch
Due to the increasing number of engine setting parameters to be optimized, model based calibration techniques have been introduced to medium speed engine testing to keep the number of engine tests low. Polynomials in combination with d-optimal test plans have been proven to be a good choice for modeling the stationary behavior of selected engine outputs. Model approaches like artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been rarely used for medium speed purposes since they require quite high amounts of testing data for model training. To evaluate the potential of these model approaches radial basis function networks, a subclass of neural networks, as well as Gaussian processes have been investigated as alternatives to polynomials. A manageable amount of tests according to an adapted d-optimal test plan was carried out at a test bench.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2155
Ivan Rot, Stephan Rinderknecht
Due to growing variant diversity and shortened product development time the calibration task of transmission control unit (TCU) parameters constitutes a challenge in further vehicle development. In future, tools and methods are required for an efficient adjustment of calibration parameters. Model based calibration methods represent a promising approach to calibrate these parameters effectively. For computer-aided calibration a powertrain model is required which simulates the behavior of the system accurately. Additionally the functionality code of the TCU is needed to calculate certain signals for engine- and clutch-control during the gearshift operation. The TCU software requires certain state quantities of the powertrain which have to be simulated explicitly and accurately by the model. Furthermore a residual bus simulation for all input signals of the TCU software has to be implemented, which normally are not provided by the powertrain model.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8111
Hiral Haria, Monika Ivantysynova
With the need for improvement in the fuel economy along with reduction in emissions due to stringent regulations, powertrain hybridization has become the focal point of research for the automotive sector. Hydraulic hybrids have progressively gained acceptance due to their high power density and low component costs relative to their electric counterpart and many different architectures have been proposed and implemented on both on and off-highway applications. The most commonly used architecture is the series hybrid which offers great flexibility for implementation of power management strategies. But the direct connection of the high pressure accumulator to the system often results in operation of the hydraulic units in high pressure and low displacement mode. However, in this operating mode the hydraulic units are highly inefficient. Also, the accumulator renders the system highly compliant and makes the response of the transmission sluggish.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8130
giorgio malaguti, Massimiliano Ruggeri, Luca Dariz, Michele selvatici
Automotive industry compartment is undertaking a massive technology revolution. ADAS systems and infotainment promise to change the way that customers mean travel and transportation radically, through several use cases. The key enabling technologies for this trend are Ethernet and its newly standardized physical layer, IEEE 802.3bw 100BASE-T1 (a.k.a. BroadR-Reach). From an architectural point of view, the evolution of the applications that rely on Automotive Ethernet resembles in many ways the evolution that the IT has had in the last decades. In the IT world, increased throughput and computational power to the end-user enabled technologies like multimedia streaming; scalability and availability requirements, together with the increased complexity of IT infrastructure, led to the “Anything as a Service” paradigm and Software Defined Networks.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2034
Tobias Kreitz, Frank Thielecke
The aviation industry is facing major challenges due to increased environmental requirements that are driven by economic constraints. For this reason, guidelines like "Flightpath 2050", the official guide of European aviation, call for significant reductions in pollutant emissions. The concept of the "More Electric Aircraft" offers promising perspectives to meet these demands. A key-enabler for this concept is the integration of new technologies on board of the next generation of civil transportation aircraft. Examples are electro-mechanical actuators for primary flight controls or the fuel cell technology as innovative electrical energy supply system. Due to the high complexity and interdisciplinary, the development of such systems is an equally challenging and time-consuming process. To support the classical development process, a continuous model-based approach for the design and test of complex aircraft systems is currently developed at the Hamburg University of Technology.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2028
Maher A. Hasan, Eric Walters, Michael Boyd, Jason Wells, Jon Zumberge, Chad Miller
Increasing system complexity along with ever tighter integration between subsystems necessary to meet increasing performance demands of modern aerospace platforms can give rise to subsystem interactions that adversely affect overall system performance. The standard approach of utilizing dynamic modeling, simulation, and analysis (MS&A) to study these interactions is often inadequate to capture all effects of interest due to the assumptions required to make the modeling feasible and integrated simulations computationally tractable. As such, Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing, with part of the system being emulated using real-time simulation models, is being increasingly utilized in addition to MS&A in order to study interactions that are unknown a priori or cannot be adequately captured using MS&A alone.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1991
Syed J. Khalid
Engine bleed and power extraction are required by the aircraft to operate the various onboard subsystems which are necessary for the proper functioning of the aircraft. These extractions are parasitic for engine performance and operation. The engine companies make large investments in technology to achieve a couple of percent in engine efficiency. These gains can be quickly negated if bleed and power extraction are not judiciously managed for minimizing the amounts of extractions. Permission has been obtained from Boeing to use their public domain information on subsystem architecture to articulate the message in this paper. Help from Boeing and from Specific Range Solutions Ltd of Canada in the preparation of this paper is acknowledged. The paper will first quantify the detrimental effects of bleed and power extraction on engine performance and operation using the proven GasTurb 12 performance software. The engine modelled is similar to a modern transport aircraft turbofan.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2015
Rory Telford, Catherine Jones, Patrick Norman, Graeme Burt
Mass and efficiency are key performance indicators for the development and design of future electric power systems (EPS) for more-electric aircraft (MEA). However, to enable consideration of high-level EPS architecture design trades, there is a requirement for modelling and simulation based analysis to support this activity. The predominant focus to date has been towards the more detailed aspects of analysis, however there is also a significant requirement to be able to perform rapid high-level trades of candidate architectures and technologies. Such a capability facilitates a better appreciation of the conflicting desires to maximise availability and efficiency in candidate MEA architectures, whilst minimising the overall system mass. It also provides a highly valuable and quantitative assessment of the systemic impact of new enabling technologies being considered for MEA applications.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2067
Qingchuan Shi, Kartik Lakshminarashimhan, Christopher Noll, Eelco Scholte, Omer Khan
Modern aircraft systems employ numerous processors to achieve system functionality. In particular engine controls and power distribution subsystems rely heavily on software to provide safety-critical functionality and are expected to move towards multicore architectures. The computing hardware-layer of avionic systems must be able to execute many concurrent workloads under tight deterministic execution guarantees to meet the safety standards. Single-chip multicores are attractive for safety-critical embedded systems due to their lightweight form factor. However, multicores aggressively share hardware resources, leading to interference that in turn creates non-deterministic execution for multiple concurrent workloads. We propose an approach to remove on-chip interference via a set of methods to spatio-temporally partition shared multicore resources.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1888
Jie Hu, Yehui Li, Jun Cai, Richard Turkson, Feng Lin, Meiyun Qiao
With the development of the society, automobiles have been widely used in various classes of the society, while some issues came out such as traffic safety, environmental pollution and energy shortages and became increasingly serious. It reported that good driving behaviors can be applied to driving assistance, active safety, fuel economy improvement and others aspects to alleviate this problem. This thesis proposed that by way of data acquisition and identification of driving behaviors based on vehicle bus, it can be identified the driver’s driving habit and accelerating intentions through these information without additional sensors. Firstly, K line and CAN line, which are known by the current mainstream vehicle bus, are selected as the research object, then we analyzing communication protocol of bus data link layer, data transport layer and application layer according to the OSI model.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1877
Jun Hu, Wei Liu, Shuai Cheng, Huan Tian, Huai Yuan, Hong Zhao
The convolutional neural network (CNN) has achieved extraordinary performance in image classification. However, the implementation of such architecture on embedded platforms is a big challenge task due to the computing resource constraint issue. This paper concentrates on optimization of CNN on embedded platforms with a case study of pedestrian detection in ADAS. The main contribution of this proposed CNN is its ability to run pedestrian classification task in real time with high accuracy based on a platform with ARM embedded. The CNN model has been trained with GPU locally and then transformed into an efficient implementation on embedded platforms. The efficient implementation uses dramatically small network scale and a lightweight CNN is obtained. Specifically, parameters of the network are compressed by adopting integer weights to reduce computational complexity. Meanwhile, other optimizations have also been proposed to adapt the general ARM processor architecture.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1894
Siyu Chen, Libo Huang, Jie Bai, Haitao Jiang, Liang Chang
Research objective: Intelligent vehicle can improve traffic safety and reduce damage caused by traffic accidents. Environmental perception system is the core of the intelligent vehicle which detects vehicles and pedestrians around the ego vehicle by using sensors. Environmental perception system with the multi-sensor information fusion algorithm can utilize the advantages of the individual sensors and detect the objects with higher probability and accuracy. Most of the published multi-sensor information fusion algorithms are based on the sensor level fusion architecture which is not stable in target tracking. This paper presents a multi-sensor fusion algorithm with central level architecture, which can improve the target tracking stability compare to the sensor level fusion architecture. Methodology:The fusion algorithm with central level architecture tracks the targets based on the targets’ distance, speed and angle measured by the individual sensors.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1887
Hui Sheng Ma, Erqing Zhang, Shufang Li, Zhengnan Lv, Jing Hu
Today it is already practically feasible to consider fully automatic operation of vehicles in restricted areas. Autonomous driving enabled by V2X communications generates delay-sensitive data traffic with requirements for high reliability. Considering the autonomous vehicles will be introduced massively in ubiquitous city environments, high traffic volumes and high mobility should be also supplied. Thus, the character of such V2X service can be described as low latency, high reliability, high traffic volumes and high mobility. In this paper we give a V2X design for 5G network to support autonomous driving service. The design target is to achieve as low as 1ms delay between user planes of air interface, 99.999% air interface reliability through retransmissions limited in 10ms duration, at least 2000 vehicles per kilometer for low speed, 200 vehicles per kilometer for high speed, 50Mbps cell edge throughput for V2I,and 10Mbps rate for V2V.
2016-07-12
Standard
J1939DA_201607
This document is intended to supplement the J1939 documents by offering the J1939 information in a form that can be sorted and search for easier use. The J1939 Digital Annex, introduced in August 2013, offers key J1939 technical data in an Electronic Spreadsheet that can be easily searched, sorted, and adapted to other formats. J1939DA contains all of the SPNs (parameters), PGNs (messages), and other J1939 data previously published in the SAE J1939 top level document. J1939DA also contains all of the SLOTs, Manufacturer ID Codes, NAME Functions, and Preferred Addresses previously published in the SAE J1939 top level and the J1939-71 document. J1939DA contains the complete technical details for all of the SPNs and PGNs previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document. It also includes the supporting descriptions and figures previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document.
2016-07-07
Magazine
Technology report Quest for 'new-car smell' dictates interior-materials changes Doing it again-this time with 10 After a successful decade-long collaboration on 6-speed transaxles, Ford and GM partner again on an all-new 10-speed automatic. Here's a look inside the gearbox and the project. Large-scale additive manufacturing for rapid vehicle prototyping A case study from Oak Ridge National Laboratory bridges the 'powertrain-in-the-loop' development process with vehicle systems implementation using big area additive manufacturing (BAAM). Global Vehicles Steel-intensive Mazda CX-9 sheds mass, debuts novel turbo setup
2016-07-01
Book
Joerg Schaeuffele, Thomas Zurawka
Since the early seventies, the development of the automobile has been characterized by a steady increase in the deploymnet of onboard electronics systems and software. This trend continues unabated and is driven by rising end-user demands and increasingly stringent environmental requirements. Today, almost every function onboard the modern vehicle is electronically controlled or monitored. The software-based implementation of vehicle functions provides for unparalleled freedoms of concept and design. However, automobile development calls for the accommodation of contrasting prerequisites – such as higher demands on safety and reliability vs. lower cost ceilings, longer product life cycles vs. shorter development times – along with growling proliferation of model variants. Automotive Software Engineering has established its position at the center of these seemingly conflicting opposites.
2016-07-01
Book
Eric Walter, Richard Walter
Modern vehicles have electronic control units (ECUs) to control various subsystems such as the engine, brakes, steering, air conditioning, and infotainment. These ECUs (or simply ‘controllers’) are networked together to share information, and output directly measured and calculated data to each other. This in-vehicle network is a data goldmine for improved maintenance, measuring vehicle performance and its subsystems, fleet management, warranty and legal issues, reliability, durability, and accident reconstruction. The focus of Data Acquisition from HD Vehicles Using J1939 CAN Bus is to guide the reader on how to acquire and correctly interpret data from the in-vehicle network of heavy-duty (HD) vehicles. The reader will learn how to convert messages to scaled engineering parameters, and how to determine the available parameters on HD vehicles, along with their accuracy and update rate. Written by two specialists in this field, Richard (Rick) P. Walter and Eric P.
2016-06-16
Standard
EIA408
This standard applies to the interconnection of data terminal equipment and numerical control equipment at the tape reader interface. The data terminal would typically be connected to a remote data source/sink such as a computer. This standard is applicable for the interchange of signals when used in conjunction with electronic equipment, each interchange circuit of which has a single return (signal ground) that can be interconnected at the interface point.
2016-06-16
Standard
EIAEDIF2
This volume is the second in a series of monographs which will make the standard (ANSUEIA 548-1988) easier to understand. It is intended to be used as a companion to the EDIF Reference Manual Version 2.0.0, which is also published by the EL4 (ISBN 0-7908-0000-4). This volume gives an introduction to the concept of connectivity in the format. Concepts are explained in a general way; constructs, such as net, appear in italics throughout this volume. Whenever more detail is desired about a topic the italicized constructs should be consulted in the EDIF Reference Manual. The EDIF Reference Manual contains the official definition of the format and should always be taken as the authoritative source of information. Further application guides will be provided in later volumes of this series.
2016-06-16
Standard
RS274D
This standard is intended to serve as a guidein the coordination of system design, to minimize the variety of program manuscripts required, to promote uniformity of programming techniques, and to foster interchangeability of input data between numerically controlled machines of the same classification by type, process function, size, and accuracy. It is intended that simple numerically controlled machines be programmed usinga simple format, which is systematically expandable for morec omplex machines.
2016-06-16
Standard
J2284/4_201606
This SAE Recommended Practice will define the Physical Layer and portions of the Data Link Layer of the Open Systems Interconnection model (ISO 7498) for a 500 kbps arbitration bus with CAN FD Data at 2 Mbps High-Speed CAN (HSC) protocol implementation. Both ECU and media design requirements for networks will be specified. Requirements will primarily address the CAN physical layer implementation. Requirements will focus on a minimum standard level of performance from the HSC implementation. All ECUs and media shall be designed to meet certain component level requirements in order to ensure the HSC implementation system level performance at 500 kbps arbitration bus with CAN FD Data at 2 Mbps. The minimum performance level shall be specified by system level performance requirements or characteristics described in detail in Section 6 of this document.
2016-06-09
WIP Standard
J2284/1
This document will define the Physical Layer and portions of the Data Link Layer of the ISO model for a 125 Kbps High Speed CAN (HSC) protocol implementation. Both ECU and media design requirements for networks will be specified. Requirements will primarily address the CAN physical layer implementation. Requirements will focus on a minimum standard level of performance from the High Speed CAN (HSC) implementation. All ECUs and media shall be designed to meet certain component level requirements in order to ensure the HSC implementation system level performance at 125 Kbps. The minimum performance level shall be specified by system level performance requirements or characteristics described in detail in Section 6 of this document. This document is designed such that if the Electronic Control Unit requirements defined in Section 6 are met, then the system level attributes should be obtainable. This document will address only requirements which may be tested at the ECU and media level.
2016-06-09
WIP Standard
J2284/2
This document will define the Physical Layer and portions of the Data Link Layer of the ISO model for a 250 Kbps High Speed CAN (HSC) protocol implementation. Both ECU and media design requirements for networks will be specified. Requirements will primarily address the CAN physical layer implementation. Requirements will focus on a minimum standard level of performance from the High Speed CAN (HSC) implementation. All ECUs and media shall be designed to meet certain component level requirements in order to ensure the HSC implementation system level performance at 250 Kbps. The minimum performance level shall be specified by system level performance requirements or characteristics described in detail in Section 6 of this document. This document is designed such that if the Electronic Control Unit requirements defined in Section 6 are met, then the system level attributes should be obtainable. This document will address only requirements which may be tested at the ECU and media level.
2016-06-09
Standard
AS20708/4B
Scope is unavailable.
2016-06-09
Standard
AS20708/6B
Scope is unavailable.
2016-06-09
Standard
AS20708/8B
Scope is unavailable.
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