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2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0114
Siddharth Das, Sushil S Ramdasi, Rakesh Mulik, Neelkanth V Marathe
Depleting fossil fuels and increasing emissions have led the automotive manufacturers and various researches - development organizations to develop various alternate energy sources for automotive propulsion systems. Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) have always complimented to the development of more efficient drivetrain systems. Electric Vehicles are considered to be Zero Emission Vehicles, but with a said limitation of range of the vehicle. Commercial Hybrid Electric Vehicles gives the extra added range compared to an electric vehicle, but the tail pipe emissions come into picture because of the IC engine being used in conjunction with the electric drive train. Therefore in order to achieve extended range and zero tail pipe emissions intensive research is going on for the development of Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCV) and Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0012
Torben Mielke, Mircea Negrean, Wei Lu, Jonas Rox, Jan Gacnik
Abstract This paper sketches a model based E/E-architecture analysis and design process for the development of distributed in-vehicle systems. Together with a model based system development, the sketched analysis and design process results in a cost-effective E/E-architecture which fulfills all the requirements for the developed in-vehicle system. As an example scenario, the integration of a new feature into a car, which requires integrating a new distributed function into the existing E/E-architecture of the car, is shown.
2014-12-11
Standard
J2931/1_201412
This SAE Information Report SAE J2931 establishes the requirements for digital communication between Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV), the Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) and the utility or service provider, Energy Services Interface (ESI), Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Home Area Network (HAN). This is the third version of this document and completes the effort that specifies the digital communication protocol stack between Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and the Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). The purpose of the stack outlined in Figure 1 and defined by Layers 3 to 6 of the OSI Reference Model (Figure 1) is to use the functions of Layers 1 and 2 specified in SAE J2931/4 and export the functionalities to Layer 7 as specified in SAE J2847/2 (as of August 1, 2012, revision) and SAE J2847/1 (targeting revision at the end of 2012).
2014-12-09
WIP Standard
J1939DA
The J1939 Digital Annex The J1939 Digital Annex, introduced in August 2013, offers key J1939 technical data in an Electronic Spreadsheet that can be easily searched, sorted, and adapted to other formats. J1939DA contains all of the SPNs (parameters), PGNs (messages), and other J1939 data previously published in the SAE J1939 top level document. J1939DA also contains all of the SLOTs, Manufacturer ID Codes, NAME Functions, and Preferred Addresses previously published in the SAE J1939 top level and the J1939-71 document. J1939DA contains the complete technical details for all of the SPNs and PGNs previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document. For all other SPNs and PGNs which are published in a document other than SAE J1939-71, J1939DA lists only basic details along with a reference to the document that contains the complete technical details. J1939DA replaces, and expands upon, the 1939 Companion Spreadsheet (CS1939), which was last published through November 2012.
2014-12-02
Magazine
2015 Hot Technologies Our annual year-end review of new and significant technology applications for the upcoming model year's vehicles. Can Toyota's Mirai be the next Prius? Toyota's first fuel-cell car has a range of 300 miles, fills up in 5 minutes, and accelerates from 0 to 60 mph in about 9 seconds. Integrated automotive gateway can enable connected cars One of the biggest challenges connected cars pose is the integration of information and consumer electronics into the car and ensuring connectivity among them.
2014-11-10
WIP Standard
J1939/71
The SAE J1939 communications network is developed for use in heavy-duty environments and suitable for horizontally integrated vehicle industries. The SAE J1939 communications network is applicable for light-duty, medium-duty, and heavy- duty vehicles used on-road or off-road, and for appropriate stationary applications which use vehicle derived components (e.g. generator sets). Vehicles of interest include, but are not limited to, on-highway and off-highway trucks and their trailers, construction equipment, and agricultural equipment and implements.   SAE J1939-71 Vehicle Application Layer is the SAE J1939 reference document for the conventions and notations that specify parameter placement in PGN data fields, the conventions for ASCII parameters, and conventions for PGN transmission rates.
2014-11-07
WIP Standard
AS5659/4
This specification provides guidance for the physical layer of optical networks which use Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM), within the SAE AS5659 WDM LAN specifications document family. The physical layer consists of cabling and connectors which provide the optical interconnections between the components and portions of the network. Performance requirements for general link connections- called the physical layer- are described. Specific sets of documents are identified, corresponding to each of several environments, which describe physical layer design, installation, maintenance, and training.
2014-11-07
WIP Standard
AS5659/2
This document describes the Client Adaptation Element (CAE), the set of functions that provides access and aggregation capability for the WDM LAN, within the SAE AS5659 WDM LAN specifications document family. In the WDM LAN, the CAE fits in between the Optical Backbone, which provides transmission of data over the transparent network, and the clients which the network serves. The complexity of the CAE depends on the types and number of clients.
2014-11-07
WIP Standard
AS5659/3
This document describes network management and control facilities for the WDM LAN, within the SAE AS5659 WDM LAN specifications document family. Unlike like point-to-point solutions, networks require a control plane to allocate the shared network resources and a management plane which provides a disciplined approach to configuring and monitoring the network. Within a Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) environment, management and control provides wavelength selection and routing for traffic that is processed. The extent of network management and control depends on the design of the network, and can range from hardwired wavelengths to dynamic wavelength allocation with damage recovery.
2014-11-07
WIP Standard
AS5659/1
This document provides a specification for the WDM Optical Backbone Network (OBN) within the SAE AS5659 WDM LAN specifications document family. The specification applies to any optical network which uses Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) in any optical media, and describes a transparent optical network that contains optical components (i.e. without Optical-to-Electrical conversion). The specification describes optical network elements (ONE) that perform optical transport, optical add/drop, optical amplification, optical routing, and optical switching functions. Performance limits are given for conforming optical signal interfaces and transfer functions for the ONEs, as well as architectures comprising combinations of them. This specification will enable network and systems engineers to design and use scalable and upgradable WDM based optical networks aboard mobile platforms.
2014-11-04
Standard
J1939DA_201411
The J1939 Digital Annex The J1939 Digital Annex, introduced in August 2013, offers key J1939 technical data in an Electronic Spreadsheet that can be easily searched, sorted, and adapted to other formats. J1939DA contains all of the SPNs (parameters), PGNs (messages), and other J1939 data previously published in the SAE J1939 top level document. J1939DA also contains all of the SLOTs, Manufacturer ID Codes, NAME Functions, and Preferred Addresses previously published in the SAE J1939 top level and the J1939-71 document. J1939DA contains the complete technical details for all of the SPNs and PGNs previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document. For all other SPNs and PGNs which are published in a document other than SAE J1939-71, J1939DA lists only basic details along with a reference to the document that contains the complete technical details. J1939DA replaces, and expands upon, the 1939 Companion Spreadsheet (CS1939), which was last published through November 2012.
2014-10-21
Standard
J2931/4_201410
This SAE Technical Information Report SAE J2931/4 establishes the specifications for physical and data-link layer communications using broadband Power Line Communications (PLC) between the plug-In electric vehicle (PEV) and the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) DC off-board-charger. This document deals with the specific modifications or selection of optional features in HomePlug Green PHY v1.1 (HomePlug GP1.1) necessary to support the automotive charging application over Control Pilot lines as described in SAE J1772™. PLC may also be used to connect directly to the Utility smart meter or home area network (HAN), and may technically be applied to the AC mains, both of which are outside the scope of this document.
2014-10-20
Book
Charles M. Kozierok, Colt Correa, Jeffrey Quesnelle, Robert B. Boatright
Ethernet, the most widely-used local area networking technology in the world, is moving from the server rooms of automobile manufacturers to their vehicles. As the quantity and variety of electronic devices in cars continues to grow, Ethernet promises to improve performance and enable increasingly powerful and useful applications in vehicles. Automotive Ethernet – The Definitive Guide explains how industry-standard Ethernet technology has been adapted via Broadcom's new BroadR-Reach® standard to bring Ethernet hardware, and applications that run upon it, to the automotive world.
2014-10-16
WIP Standard
J1939-16
This document defines a process for devices to follow when automatically detecting the baud rate of an SAE J1939 network.
2014-10-14
Standard
AS20708B
This specification relates to Synchros, 60 and 400 Hz. It is not complete in itself, but shall be used in conjunction with MIL DTL-81963, in which the latter shall be recognized as forming an inherent part of this specification. This standard requires a Qualified Products List (see 6.4).
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2584
Krisada Wannatong, Sompach Kongviwattanakul, Thananchai Tepimonrat, Thanadech Priroon
Abstract End of line test (EOL) of Engine Control Units (ECU) is the process of ECU functions validation before releasing ECUs to the car assembly process. Examples of ECU function that need to be validated are idle control, air path control and faults manager function. To perform EOL, a vehicle and a chassis dynamometer are used to enable control functions validation inside the ECU. However, this poses high operating cost and long setup time. This paper presents the development of Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) system, which imitates real vehicle behavior on a chassis dynamometer. The diesel high pressure pump model was developed using an empirical dynamic modeling approach. The engine model was developed using AVL BOOST RT software, an engine cycle simulation modeling approach. The vehicle model was developed using AVL CRUISE software. In order to interface the engine and vehicle models with the ECU, HiL system was implemented.
2014-10-07
Magazine
Outlook for autonomous driving includes cloud Connectivity with off-board data and services and among vehicles will be crucial in maintaining safety and security in future autonomous vehicles. The next wave of crash simulation As computing speed has improved and software itself has made significant speed and performance gains with each release, modeling tools are now quick enough to build high-quality, large, high-detail vehicle models in a very efficient manner. SAE 2014 Convergence preview Interest in advanced driver-assistance technologies is surging, with automotive engineers and decision makers at OEMs and suppliers working feverishly on the convenience vs. safety trade-off and other electronics-related challenges. Cooled EGR shows benefits for gasoline engines Exhaust gas recirculation systems now in use on diesel engines are used mainly to meet emissions regulations. In gasoline engines, they are an appealing way to meet ever more stringent fuel-economy standards
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2403
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Pietro Marani
Abstract The new X-by-Wire systems under study for commercial and heavy-duty vehicles, as well as for Agricultural Tractors, are increasingly real autonomous systems, capable to autonomously control a vehicle functionality, actuating the operator's commands, or managing in a complete autonomy a machine function. These application need an higher Performance Level from the functional safety point of view, due to the risk of a malfunction consequence. The paper deals with a new concept hydraulic spool valve that allow the design of new safer and more compacted hydraulic circuit architectures, ensuring higher safety performance levels. The architecture presents advantages both from performance (precision, fastness), both from operational point of view. The paper will focus in particular on safety and control topics.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2394
Demetrio Cortese
Abstract Using a Model-based approach to the embedded software development process contributed significantly in reducing the development time while also supporting a high quality level of the software code implementation. However, based on our experience with CNH Industrial application scenarios, involving multiple suppliers from vehicle ECU to the engine ECU, it only addressed the need of the implementation phase without any consistent influence in other software development life-cycle phases such as requirements and specification. Mandatory functional safety requirements, new complex functionalities, and reducing time to delivery while maintaining high quality level of software are driving factors in our new software development projects. Ideally the adoption of international standards, as for example the ISO 12007, and the safety standards, as the ISO 26262, ISO 25119 and ISO 13849, should represent a consistent guide to develop software.
2014-09-28
Technical Paper
2014-01-2542
Liang Zhou, Chuqi Su
Abstract Recovering the braking energy and reusing it can significantly improve the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs).The battery ability of recovering electricity limits the improvement of the regenerative braking performance. As one way to solve this problem, the technology of brake-by-wire can be adopted in the HEVs to use the recovery dynamically. The use of high-power electrical equipment, such as electromechanical brake (EMB), is working in the form of brake-by-wire. Due to the nature of EMB, there exists an obvious coupling relationship between the energy flow and brake force distribution. In this paper, a brake force distribution controller is proposed in HEV with EMB, which can maximize braking energy recovery, compared with the conventional distribution control without EMB. Meanwhile, an energy flow strategy working with the distribution controller is designed, which is less limited to the performance of the battery.
2014-09-28
Technical Paper
2014-01-2530
Kyung-Jung Lee, Jae-Min Kwon, Jae Seung Cheon, Hyun-Sik Ahn
Abstract This paper proposes a design approach for the network configuration of brake-by-wire (BBW) systems using the FlexRay communication protocol. Owing to the absence of mechanical or hydraulic back-ups, the BBW system needs to be highly reliable and fault-tolerant. The FlexRay network is shown to be very effective for such requirements of BBW systems by using hardware in-the-loop simulation (HILS), which allows developing and testing various algorithms and faithfully reproduces the actual system. The FlexRay protocols are designed using the FIBEX configuration tool appropriately for the control of BBW systems, and they are analyzed using the FlexRay communication monitoring tool. The results of HILS illustrate that the braking performance of a controller area network (CAN)-based network and that of a FlexRay-based network for BBW systems are very similar, however, the FlexRay-based network system is more reliable and ensures better fault diagnosis by monitoring more variables.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2227
Thierry Cornilleau, Pierre Linard, Paul Moxon, Christopher Nicholas
Abstract ECOA is an active software architecture research programme conducted by the French Republic and United Kingdom. It is one product of the recent Defence and Security Co-operation Treaty signed between the two nations. This paper provides an overview of the programme goals and progress as well as an introduction to the technology being developed and comparison to related initiatives. The goal of the ECOA programme is to define an open software architecture that enables collaborative development of mission system software. The ECOA programme is needed to reduce development and lifecycle costs of future military air programmes. For this reason the programme has a specific focus on combat-air mission systems but the underlying technology is general purpose, applying to multiple military and civil domains. At present, the programme has defined a concept, delivered a set of initial technical standards and produced a joint demonstrator to validate the technology developed.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2120
Jennifer C. Shaw, Patrick Norman, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt
Abstract Radical new electrically propelled aircraft are being considered to meet strict future performance goals. One concept design proposed is a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) aircraft that utilises a number of electrically driven propulsors. Such concepts place a new and significant reliance on an aircraft's electrical system for safe and efficient flight. Accordingly, in addition to providing certainty that supply reliability targets are being met, a contingency analysis, evaluating the probability of component failure within the electrical network and the impact of that failure upon the available thrust must also be undertaken for architecture designs. Solutions that meet specified thrust requirements at a minimum associated weight are desired as these will likely achieve the greatest performance against the proposed emissions targets.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2159
Richard Mourn
Abstract The paper provides an introduction into IEEE-1394, AS5643 and related documents. It then explores the I/O Technology Suitability Study criteria used to originally select IEEE-1394b (Beta) as the Vehicle System Data Bus for the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter and update each criterion with new information based on more than a decade of experience and use in not only the F-35 but several other programs. Based on the suitability study criteria, the reader gains insight into how and why programs like the F-35, which implements dozens of AS5643/IEEE-1394 devices per plane, utilize AS5643/IEEE-1394 for its vehicle system network. This unprecedented use of a high speed (491.52Mb/s) serial interface on an aircraft proves the capability of AS5643/1394, and opens the door for higher bandwidth communication between the Control Computer and remote nodes.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2188
Riko Bornholdt, Frank Thielecke
Abstract Due to a shift of the major aviation concerns to focus on enhancements of the successful programs instead of pushing their successors, the need for new methodologies for aircraft system architecture design emerges. Challenging the existing requirements and reconsidering the functions and their allocation could help to dissolve the system specific development paradigm and lead to beneficial architecture concepts. To help understand the mechanisms and boundary conditions of developing fault-tolerant systems, the first part of the paper gives an overview of the successive process of architecture design. The significant architectural design decisions and the concurrent safety assessment process are discussed. One crucial step in the design space exploration of future aircraft system architectures is the allocation of the consumers to the available power sources. Within the paper a methodology for the optimization of the power allocation for flight control systems is proposed.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2207
Evgeni Ganev, William Warr, Keming Chen
Abstract This paper presents a novel method and system for an electric power alternating-current (AC)-to-direct-current (DC) converter employing composite technology. The term composite entails utilization of more than one type of conversion operating in parallel. In addition, background information for the prior art, based on conventional autotransformer rectifier units (ATRUs), and active converters are discussed. The major requirements of AC-to-DC converters from both functional and protection perspectives are provided. The concept of the new approach is defined. Comparative analysis between the new and old methods is documented. The performance features and technical details of the system parameters with respect to AC-to-DC converter system requirements are presented and discussed. Analysis, simulation results, and test data are included.
2014-09-05
Standard
AIR5645A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses characteristics of data communications for the Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS). This document provides guidance on the aspects of transport media, unmanned systems and the characteristics of JAUS itself that are relevant to the definition of a JAUS transport specification.
2014-09-05
Standard
ARP6012A
This document, the JAUS Compliance and Interoperability Policy (ARP6012), recommends an approach to documenting the complete interface of an unmanned system or component in regard to the application of the standard set. While non-SAE AS-4 JAUS documents are referenced in this ARP they are not within the scope of this document and should be viewed as examples only.
2014-09-03
Book
William C. Messner
Over the years, the DARPA Challenges in the United States have galvanized interest in autonomous cars, making them a real possibility in the mind of the public, but autonomous and unmanned vehicles have been increasingly employed in many roles on land, in the water, and in the air. Military applications have received a great deal of attention, with weaponized unmanned aircraft (drones) being the most prominent. However, unmanned vehicles with varying degrees of autonomy already have many civilian applications. Some of these are quite familiar (such as the Roomba autonomous vacuum cleaner), while others remain largely out of the public eye (such as autonomous farm equipment). Additional applications and more capable vehicles are rapidly coming to the markets in the years ahead. This book examines a number of economically important areas in which unmanned and autonomous vehicles, also understood here as autonomous technologies, are already used or soon will be.
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