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2016-05-01
Book
Richard Walter, Eric Walter
Modern vehicles have electronic control units (ECUs) to control various subsystems such as the engine, brakes, steering, air conditioning, and infotainment. These ECUs (or simply ‘controllers’) are networked together to share information, and output directly measured and calculated data to each other. This in-vehicle network is a data goldmine for improved maintenance, measuring vehicle performance and its subsystems, fleet management, warranty and legal issues, reliability, durability, and accident reconstruction. The focus of Data Acquisition from HD Vehicles Using J1939 CAN Bus is to guide the reader on how to acquire and correctly interpret data from the in-vehicle network of heavy-duty (HD) vehicles. The reader will learn how to convert messages to scaled engineering parameters, and how to determine the available parameters on HD vehicles, along with their accuracy and update rate. Written by two specialists in this field, Richard (Rick) P. Walter and Eric P.
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9132
Husain Kanchwala, Harutoshi Ogai
Abstract Japan is suffering from the problem of an ageing society. In Kitakyushu city more than a quarter of people are aged above 65 years. The roads in this region are narrow with steep gradient and vulnerable roadbed. A big ratio of elderly people are living on their own. These characteristics make driving unsuitable. The problem is magnified by infrequent public transportation. A need-assessment survey for an autonomous vehicle at a community event suggested the applicability of small electric vehicle Toyota COMS. The vehicle is then equipped with features like automatic driving and platooning. The autonomous drive system is built to develop an intelligent transport system (ITS) using various sensors and actuators. Stereo camera and ultrasonic sensors were used to get a judgment of obstacle. Google earth and GPS were used to generate the target path using the Bezier curve method and optimized route is chosen.
2016-04-29
Standard
J2716_201604
This document defines a level of standardization in the implementation of the digital pulse scheme for reporting sensor information via Single Edge Nibble Transmission (SENT) encoding. This standard will allow ECU and tool manufacturers to satisfy the needs of multiple end users with minimum modifications to the basic design. This standard will benefit vehicle Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) by achieving lower ECU costs due to higher industry volumes of the basic design. Requirements stated in this document provide a minimum standard level of performance to which all compatible ECUs and media shall be designed. This assures data communication among all connected devices regardless of supplier. This document is a communication interface specification and no to be treated as product specification. The intended audience includes, but is not limited to, ECU suppliers, sensor suppliers, component release engineers and vehicle system engineers.
2016-04-26
WIP Standard
AS6386
This document, the JAUS Automated Behaviors and Diagnostics Service Set, defines a message-passing interface for services commonly found in mobile unmanned systems. These services represent the platform-independent capabilities common across all domains. Additional capabilities are specified in the JAUS Core Service Set (AS5710) and are frequently referenced herein.
2016-04-12
WIP Standard
AS5506C
(1) This standard defines a language for describing both the software architecture and the execution platform architectures of performance-critical, embedded, real-time systems; the language is known as the SAE Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL). An AADL model describes a system as a hierarchy of components with their interfaces and their interconnections. Properties are associated to these constructions. AADL components fall into two major categories: those that represent the physical hardware and those representing the application software. The former is typified by processors, buses, memory, and devices, the latter by application software functions, data, threads, and processes. The model describes how these components interact and are integrated to form complete systems. It describes both functional interfaces and aspects critical for performance of individual components and assemblies of components.
2016-04-07
Magazine
Defying the disruptors and driving innovation Four top engineering executives discuss how their "traditional" companies are finding new technology opportunities and business growth amid the start-ups-and are even doing some disrupting themselves. Preparing for a 48-volt revival The quest to improve fuel economy is not waning, nor is the desire to achieve higher mpg through the use of just the right lightweight material for the right vehicle application. Additive manufacturing enhances GTDI pistons Selective Laser Melting may help manufacture future gasoline-engine pistons with enhanced heat-transfer properties and reduced weight.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0163
Thomas Rothermel, Jürgen Pitz, Hans-Christian Reuss
Abstract This paper proposes a framework for semi-autonomous longitudinal guidance for electric vehicles. To lower the risk for pedestrian collisions in urban areas, a velocity trajectory which is given by the driver is optimized with respect to safety aspects with the help of Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC). Safety aspects, such as speed limits and pedestrians on the roadway, are considered as velocity and spatial constraints within prediction horizon in NMPC formulation. A slack variable is introduced to enable overshooting of velocity constraints in situations with low risk potential to rise driver acceptance. By changing the weight of slack variable, the control authority can be shifted continuously from driver to automation. Within this work, a prototypical real-time implementation of the longitudinal guidance system is presented and the potential of the approach is demonstrated in human-in-the-loop test drives in the Stuttgart Driving Simulator.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0165
Padmanaban Dheenadhayalan
Abstract Innovation in the field of intelligent autonomous systems of the automotive sector has been ever increasing. Accurate tracking of vehicles is an important aspect in the design of applications such as smart route planning or collision avoidance systems. In practical applications, tracking of vehicle using radar technology suffers from serious problem due to noisy measurements. It introduces major limit on the accuracy of the tracking system. This paper discusses a case study scenario where the robustness of vehicle tracking can be improved using Extended Kalman Filtering. Noisy radar measurement is simulated through model based design (MBD) using MATLAB. Analysis and design of Extended Kalman Filter to mitigate the noise is discussed. An efficient system architecture to implement the algorithm in autonomous smart vehicle tracking system is also identified.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0013
Sujit S. Phatak, Heming Chen, Yuan Xiao, Can Wang, Donald McCune, Simon Schliecker, Maurice Sebastian, Victor Reyes, David Balland
Abstract Automotive vehicles today consist of very complex network of electronic control units (ECU) connected with each other using different network implementations such as Controller Area Network (CAN), FlexRay, etc. There are several ECUs inside a vehicle targeting specific applications such as engine, transmission, body, steering, brakes, infotainment/navigation, etc. comprising on an average more than 50 ECUs executing more than 50 million lines of software code. It is expected to increase exponentially in the next few years. Such complex electric/electronic (E/E) architecture and software calls for a comprehensive, flexible and systematic development and validation environment especially for a system level or vehicle level development. To achieve this goal, we have built a virtual multi-ECU high fidelity cyber-physical multi-rate cosimulation that closely resembles a realistic hardware based automotive embedded system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0016
Jörg Schäuffele
Abstract The functions provided by the E/E system of modern vehicles can be assigned to the classical domains of powertrain, chassis, body and multimedia. Upcoming functions are forming new domains for advanced driver assistance and cloud integration. Therefore networking of functions is not limited to the vehicle but includes also the cloud. These trends imply major changes like the introduction of Ethernet as onboard networking technology or increasing safety and security needs. To design the best E/E architecture three groups of optimization targets are most relevant: Global vehicle targets, E/E targets derived from the implemented vehicle functions and product line targets for an E/E architecture. The PREEvision approach for E/E architecture design and optimization is a model based approach - inspired by the relevant and widely accepted automotive standards. Import and export filters allow the easy integration with PREEvision and complementation of existing tool chains.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0037
Hariharan Venkitachalam, Dirk von Wissel, Johannes Richenhagen
Abstract Powertrain software development for series production faces multifaceted challenges related to high functional complexity, high quality standards, reduced time to market and high development costs. Software architecture tackles the above mentioned challenges by breaking down the complexity of application software into modular components. Hence, design errors introduced during that phase cause significant cost and time deviations. Early and repeated analysis of new and modified architecture artifacts is required to detect design errors and the impact of the subsequent changes in the software architecture. Engine management software has a high degree of functional complexity and large number of system variants depending upon market requirements. This paper deals with the methods to perform automated evaluation of Renault’s EMS 2012 Engine Management Software in a Continuous Integration Framework.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0035
Amey Zare, Advaita Datar, R Venkatesh, Miwako Hasegawa
Abstract Finite State Machines (FSMs) are used at various stages of software development, from the initial concept of software system to the lowest level implementation. These FSMs communicate non-deterministically with the other FSMs and the environment of the underlying system. Any inappropriate handling of the communication across multiple FSMs or environment may lead to unexpected behavior of the underlying system. Manual detection of the root cause of such unexpected behavior is effort intensive. Moreover, state of art techniques focus mainly on design level review of communicating FSMs (Comm-FSMs), and no technique is available for systematic review of Comm-FSMs at implementation level. In this paper we present a review technique for detecting inconsistencies in the implementation of Comm-FSMs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0041
Florin Maticu, Paul Pop, Christian Axbrink, Mafijul Islam
Abstract The automotive electronic architectures have moved from federated architectures, where one function is implemented in one ECU (Electronic Control Unit), to distributed architectures, where several functions may share resources on an ECU. In addition, multicore ECUs are being adopted because of better performance, cost, size, fault-tolerance and power consumption. In this paper we present an approach for the automatic software functionality assignment to multicore distributed architectures. We consider that the systems use the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). The functionality is modeled as a set of software components composed of subtasks, called runnables, in AUTOSAR terminology.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0038
Priti Ranadive, Somnath Sengupta, Narendra Kumar, Naveen Boggarapu, Vinay Vaidya
Abstract Automobiles are getting more and more sophisticated with increased demand for more comfort and safety by customers. Due to this, the automotive Electronic Control Units (ECU) and the software applications running on these ECUs have become more complex and computationally more intensive. This has resulted in Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) migrating to multicore platforms. Optimal usage of multicore platform necessitates the design of new scheduling algorithms. In the past decade, different approaches to implement hard real time scheduling in automotive domain have been proposed for single core as well as multicore architectures. We explore different scheduling techniques proposed so far which are relevant to automotive domain and also, provide a taxonomy of these scheduling algorithms, which will help the automotive design engineer to make an informed decision.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0060
Holger Zeltwanger
Abstract The CAN FD protocol internationally standardized in ISO 11898-1:2015 just describes how to implement it into silicon. The ISO 11898-2:2016 standard specifies the physical media attachment (PMA) sub-layer of the CAN (FD) physical layer. The design of CAN FD networks is not in the scope of these standards. In general, the physical layer design of CAN FD networks requires more attention compared with Classical CAN networks. First recommendations have been developed. Different standardization bodies have already specified or are in the process of specifying higher-layer protocols, for example ISO for on-board diagnostic, ASAM for calibration, etc.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0059
Christopher Quigley, Paul Faithfull, Simon Saunders, Neil Yates
The paper discusses the development and implementation of a form of in-vehicle communications for the body control in an Ariel Atom niche sports car. A Local Interconnect Network (LIN) bus has been developed that runs the LIN signals over the power lines of the vehicle wiring harness. The LIN system has one master and up to 15 slave ECUs. LIN is normally run at a maximum bit rate of 20 Kbit/s, however this system has been implemented at 57.6 Kbit/s by modulating over the power lines. Benefits of this approach include weight reduction, reduction in the number wires, ease in retro-fitting to existing vehicle architectures as only requires a connection to power lines and the ability to monitor the signals via the battery pins of the OBD connector of the vehicle. The approach has resulted in a reduction in weight due to wiring and electronic control unit reduction.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0058
Jihas Khan
Abstract Network Management protocols are implemented in ECUs to provide a start-up of the network, node monitoring and to ensure that they go to a proper sleep mode when they don’t need the network, coordination among ECUs, support of diagnosis, reading and setting of network specific parameters and proper wake up of the network. OSEK/VDX based network management protocol is the most widely used among OEMs and its validation has proved to be of utmost importance these days. This paper is proposing a scalable validation framework using the model based architecture and relevant hardware to test the conformance of ECUs to the specifications of OSEK/VDX NM. OSEK/VDX works mainly via the exchange of network management CAN messages between the ECUs.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0057
Eiji Taki, Yoshiro Hirata, Yoshifumi Ohmori, Naoji Kaneko, Hiroya Andou
Abstract The growing functionality and complexity of recent vehicle electronic systems have made inter-device communication (on-board LAN) technology vital to vehicle design. By field of application, the LAN (Local Area Network) systems currently in use are LIN (Local Interconnect Network) used for body systems, CAN (Controller Area Network) used for control systems, and MOST (Media Oriented Systems Transport ) used for multimedia and camera systems, and work to standardize the next-generation communication technology for each of those fields is underway. This paper provides a technical overview of the CXPI (Clock Extension Peripheral Interface) communication protocol, which satisfies the body system requirements (rapid response, system extensibility, high reliability, and low cost). It also presents the progress made on standardization at SAE and other organizations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0064
Sandhya Lingadahalli, Sudhakaran Maydiga, Matthew Darin
The need for improved vehicle energy efficiency has increased greatly in recent years along with regulatory fuel economy standards. One key aspect of energy efficiency for both conventional and alternative propulsion vehicles is the energy efficiency of the electrical architecture. In the design of electrical architectures there are several techniques available to increase the energy efficiency. One technique is to manage CAN serial data communication by using Partial Networks. This paper describes a model based approach for simulating the vehicle network behavior when CAN Partial Networking is used as the strategy for need based ECU activation. The simulation results will in turn provide ECU power consumption data to support various electrical architecture design decisions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0063
Karsten Schmidt, Harald Zweck, Udo Dannebaum
Abstract/Short Version Introduction The introduction of Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet [2] as the main invehicle network infrastructure is the technical foundation for different new functionalities such as piloted driving, minimizing the CO2- footprint and others. The high data rate of such systems influences also the used microcontrollers due the fact that a big amount of data has to be transferred, encrypted, etc.Figure 1 Motivation - Vehicles will become connected to uncontrolled networks The usage of Ethernet as the in-vehicle-network enables the possibility that future road vehicles are going to be connected with other vehicles and information systems to improve system functionality. These previously closed automotive systems will be opened up for external access (see Figure 1). This can be Car2X connectivity or connection to personal devices.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0062
Anders Kallerdahl, Sherif Ali
Abstract Communication between electronic control units (ECUs) and vehicle gateways can span LIN, CAN, FlexRay, and Ethernet. Designing an in-vehicle network supporting multiple car platform variants, with respect to selecting the appropriate technology to connect ECUs and gateway networks, and making timing based analysis and synthesis is extremely challenging. This paper discusses how to handle a variety of communication protocols on an individual network level and how multiple networks relate to the overall communication design of a vehicle platform ensuring consistent variants.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0061
Anders Kallerdahl, Mohammad Salah
Abstract Increasingly, Ethernet is being used in automotive as a vehicle network backbone. It is ideal for service-oriented communications; streamed communications, such as Audio/Video Bridging (AVB) [1]; and Diagnostics over Internet Protocol (DoIP) [2] communications - areas in which high-bandwidth and reliable performance are essential. Designers are accustomed to network communication systems CAN, LIN, and FlexRay, but how will the timing performance be verified in an Ethernet network? This paper looks at network-wide timing analysis challenges where a mixture of CAN, FlexRay, and Ethernetbased busses co-exist. It is also worth noting that the AUTOSAR standard [3] supports timing definition for all elements in a mixed topology network, but again, accounting for the many different timing paths is a non-trivial process. Figure 1 The Ethernet backbone serving different domains.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0068
Yoshihiro Ujiie, Takeshi Kishikawa, Tomoyuki Haga, Hideki Matsushima, Tohru Wakabayashi, Masato Tanabe, Yoshihiko Kitamura, Jun Anzai
Abstract Controller area network (CAN) technology is widely adopted in vehicles, but attention has been drawn recently to its lack of security mechanisms. Numerous countermeasures have been proposed, but none can be regarded as a generic solution, in part because all the proposed countermeasures require extensive modifications to existing in-vehicle systems. To arrive at a solution to this problem, we propose a new method of protecting CAN without the need to modify existing systems. In this paper, we explain the principle of our proposed method and the architecture of the electronic control unit (ECU) that implements it. We report the result of our experiments and show its efficacy against typical security threats faced by CAN.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0067
Ryan Wilson, Wayne Music, Brian Anderson
Modern vehicular systems rely on millions of lines of code that must occasionally be updated to add new functions or to patch flaws to ensure safe and secure operation. Updates accomplished through a compromised cellular base station could lead to an update process that may be vulnerable to attack. We have been investigating techniques for determining whether an LTE base station (known as an eNodeB) appears to be suspicious, so that an update could be paused or terminated until a trusted eNodeB is available. We describe a detector we developed as part of our research that scans LTE signals for anomalies and provides an alert when an anomaly is found.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0065
Xinyu Du, Shengbing Jiang, Atul Nagose, Yilu Zhang, Natalie Wienckowski
Abstract Wire shorts on an in-vehicle controller area network (CAN) impact the communication between electrical control units (ECUs), and negatively affects the vehicle control. The fault, especially the intermittent fault, is difficult to locate. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model for in-vehicle CAN bus is developed under the wire short fault scenario. The bus resistance is estimated and a resistance-distance mapping approach is proposed to locate the fault. The proposed approach is implemented in an Arduino-based embedded system and validated on a vehicle frame. The experimental results are promising. The approach presented in this paper may reduce trouble shooting time for CAN wire short faults and may enable early detection before the customer is inconvenienced.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0069
Dae-Kyoo Kim, Eunjee Song, Huafeng Yu
Abstract Cyber security concerns in the automotive industry have been constantly increasing as automobiles are more computerized and networked. AUTOSAR is the standard architecture for automotive software development, addressing various aspects including security. The current version of AUTOSAR is concerned with only cryptography-based security for secure authentication at the communication level. However, there has been an increasing need for authorization security to control access on software resources such as data and services in the automobile. In this paper, we introduce attribute-based access control (ABAC) to AUTOSAR to address authorization in automotive software.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0078
Eric DiBiaso, Bert Bergner, Jens Wuelfing, Robert Wuerker, Carlos Almeida
Abstract Ethernet technology using a single unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is considered to have a promising future in the automotive industry. While 100Mbps transmission speeds can be achieved with standard connector platforms, 1Gbps requires specific design rules in order to ensure error free transmissions. This paper explains the specific challenges for high speed UTP solutions applied in automotive environments. Automotive relevant signal integrity (SI) and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) connector limitations are also discussed in detail. Through simulations and testing, the connector design criteria and rules necessary for meeting all the electrical and mechanical requirements for such automotive applications are evaluated and shown. This is followed by the introduction of a modular and scalable MATEnet Ethernet connection system utilizing an optimized cable termination technology.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0081
Husein Dakroub, Adnan Shaout, Arafat Awajan
Abstract Connectivity has become an essential need for daily device users. With the car projected to be the “ultimate mobile device”, connectivity modules will eventually be mainstream in every car. Network providers are expanding their infrastructure and technology to accommodate the connected cars. Besides making voice and emergency calls the connected car will be sharing data with telematics service providers, back end systems and other vehicles. This trend will increase vehicle modules, complexity, entry points and vulnerabilities. This paper will present the current connected car architectures. The paper will present current architectural issues of the connected car and its vulnerabilities. The paper will present a new proposed architecture for the future connected car that enhances efficiency and security.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0095
Qiao Fengying, Vincenzo Sacco, Gilles Delorme, Yevheniy Soloshenko
Abstract In this work, we analyze the use of the Local Interconnect Network (LIN) bus (and some of its potential variants) as Safety Element out of Context (SEooC) from an ISO-26262 perspective and provide the reader with an analysis methodology to compare between a range of different LIN protocol configurations and benchmark them against Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) targets as defined in ISO-26262. A methodology for a quantitative residual failure probability analysis is shown before applying it to the standard LIN protocol. The residual failure rate in time (RF) of LIN (compliant with ISO26262) has been investigated with a range of reasonable application assumptions. This paper shows that a high bit error probability assumption of 3e-5 yields an RF of 3e-4/h which is too high to satisfy the assumed ASIL-B target (1e-7/h) or higher functional safety requirements in noisy application.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0126
Philip Daian, Shinichi Shiraishi, Akihito Iwai, Bhargava Manja, Grigore Rosu
The Runtime Verification ECU (RV-ECU) is a new development platform for checking and enforcing the safety of automotive bus communications and software systems. RV-ECU uses runtime verification, a formal analysis subfield geared at validating and verifying systems as they run, to ensure that all manufacturer and third-party safety specifications are complied with during the operation of the vehicle. By compiling formal safety properties into code using a certifying compiler, the RV-ECU executes only provably correct code that checks for safety violations as the system runs. RV-ECU can also recover from violations of these properties, either by itself in simple cases or together with safe message-sending libraries implementable on third-party control units on the bus. RV-ECU can be updated with new specifications after a vehicle is released, enhancing the safety of vehicles that have already been sold and deployed.
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