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2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2879
Evandro Silva
In recent years the commercial vehicle industry, specifically the heavy duty truck product line, has seen a rapid increase in the replacement of pure mechanical systems by electronic controlled systems. Engine, transmission, brakes, lighting, clusters, etc. are all monitored and/or controlled electronically. The adoption of electronic systems created a substantial change in the complexity of our products. Currently Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) displayed on instrument clusters, in the majority of the cases, are no longer generated by a single sensor/component failure, instead these DTCs are triggered by a system monitor flag, result of a below average performance or a failure of an entire system. This new level of complexity makes it very difficult for the current diagnostic methods and tools, to identify what is causing the equipment to operate below ideal conditions.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2878
Peter Subke, Michael Eberl
SAE J1939 is the synonym for a CAN-based in-vehicle network for heavy-duty road-vehicles (trucks and buses) and non-road mobile machinery (NRMM). The SAE J1939 standards collection consists of 18 parts and 2 digital annexes. SAE J1939-21 (Data Link Layer) describes the data link layer using the CAN protocol with 29-bit identifiers, SAE J1939-73 (Application Layer – Diagnostics) includes the specification of diagnostic messages (DMs). The software components of external test equipment can be described by software interfaces (APIs). ISO 22900 (Modular Vehicle Communication Interface) contains the description of the D-Server that comes with the D-Server API for the diagnostic application and the D-PDU API for the connection to the in-vehicle network (e.g. CAN). ISO 22901-2 (D-PDU API) references SAE J1939-73 and SAE J1939-21 as “Truck and Bus CAN”. D-Server based external test equipment is powered by data which is described in ODX.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2407
Theodoros Kostakis, Patrick Norman, Steven Fletcher, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt
The aviation industry has witnessed a technological shift towards the More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) concept. This shift has been driven by a number of perceived benefits including performance optimization and reduced life-cycle costs. Increased electrification within MEA has made aircraft electrical networks larger and more complex and this necessitates an increased electrical power offtake from the engine. With this comes the need to better optimise the efficiency of engine electrical power extraction. The paralleling of multiple generation sources across the aircraft is one potential design approach which could help improve engine operability and fuel efficiency within more-electric aircraft platforms and this paper will investigate options for this to be implemented within the context of current design and certification rules.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2408
Hitoshi Oyori, Noriko Morioka, Tsuyoshi Fukuda
This paper will propose a novel power generating system concept including auxiliary, backup and emergency power source. Existing aircrafts employs an auxiliary power unit (APU) and a ram air turbine (RAT) for the power generation besides aero-engine generators. APU works prior to stating the propulsion on the ground and as a backup power plant in the flight. RAT is activated due to keeping the essential system in the case of an emergency situation. Both systems are optimized on the conventional aircraft in which hydraulic, pneumatic and electric are supplied for the control and equipment. Although a conventional aircraft needs hydro pumps and air compressors, the coming of a new era of more electric architecture for aircraft and propulsion stimulates to improve the aircraft systems. In more electric aircraft, authors focus on the low pressure spool generation system of aero-engines.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2414
Carsten Dunker, Riko Bornholdt, Frank Thielecke, Robert Behr
The More-Electric Aircraft is considered to be one of the main goals for future aircraft systems. An important milestone of this aim, the All-Electric Engine without hydraulic pumps and bleed-air systems, could be realized by using electro-hydraulic power generation and central hydraulic distribution systems. These systems are powered by electric motor pumps and use cost-efficient and state of the art hydraulic actuator technologies. Additionally, this approach would comply with the present incremental development strategy of the airplane manufacturers. Although changes seem to be small these architectures have a major effect on the hydraulic system sizing. Therefore a methodology for an initial architecture optimization of hydraulic power systems and a subsequent parameter optimization is presented to evaluate the design space for future electro-hydraulic architectures.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2482
Riko Bornholdt, Tobias Kreitz, Frank Thielecke
The trend towards all-electric aircrafts leads to an increased complexity and extent of the electrical power system and its interactions with adjacent systems. These interactions need to be analyzed in detail, to identify safety bottlenecks as well as beneficial synergies. Consequently, the system specific design paradigm has to be dissolved, to utilize the full potential of more-electric applications. In this regard, an approach to investigate the interactions between the power systems and innovative flight controls of a regional aircraft is pursued at the Hamburg University of Technology. In a first step, flight dynamics analyses were conducted to identify the distinct requirements for the flight controls. The design of electrically actuated flight controls and an electrical power system architecture for the regional aircraft shall be presented in the intended paper.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2479
Stefan Benischke, Frank Thielecke
Future high lift system configurations without mechanical interconnection of the flaps would allow for novel functionalities. Through a differential setting of the individual flap surfaces, an optimization of aerodynamic performance can be achieved. Single flap drive systems are possible solutions to implement this kind of multifunctional high lift systems. The previously mechanical coupling needs to be replaced by approved equivalent means. This directly results in high demands on control and monitoring of the multiple single drive systems in order to preserve a safe operation. Control strategies for a new concept of a multifunctional high lift system are presented in this paper. The presented concept comprises four single flap surfaces, each driven by a local transmission system powered by a local power control unit. This architecture requires an innovative control strategy for a safe operation of a single drive system as well as synchronous movement of multiple systems.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2523
Pierre Coustal, Franck Tailliez
In the Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) domain, THALES developed a high performance communication network named SAEN (Self Adaptive Embedded Network). SAEN is a switchless network solution, fully embedded in a single Network Component Interface (NCI), aimed to easily interconnect several modules of a system, in any mesh network topology. Once each module is equipped with its network component, just connect them together to realize the wanted topology and switch ‘on’ the modules power supplies. A power-on, all the nodes of the network aggregate them to form a whole global and coherent network, managing autonomously its configuration and the optimal static routing between any emitter and receiver. The constituted network is deterministic, autonomous, self-discovery, auto-adaptive to the network variations and guarantees an optimal routing in any situation of the graph, as long as a path exists.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2456
Roberto Sabatini, Terry Moore, Chris Hill
The integration of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) integrity augmentation functionalities in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) architectures has the potential to provide an integrity-augmented DAA solution suitable for cooperative and non-cooperative scenarios. In this paper, we evaluate the opportunities offered by this integration, proposing a novel approach that maximizes the synergies between Avionics Based Integrity Augmentation (ABIA) and UAV cooperative/non-cooperative DAA architectures. In the proposed architecture, the risk of collision is evaluated by setting a threshold on the Probability Density Function (PDF) of a Near Mid-Air Collision (NMAC) event over the separation area in both cooperative and non-cooperative cases.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2522
Mirko Jakovljevic, Jan Radke, Perry Rucker
In this paper, we will describe basic principles for design of open IMA architectures using VPX standard, and describe based on space avionics architetcure, how those components can be used for definition of open VPX-based architectures for IMA and integrated systems. VPX, as a switched fabric, supports the design of advanced integrated systems using technologies such as deterministic Ethernet, which can be used in backplane and backbone applications. In cases where functional interrelationships and Ethernet network bandwidth sharing is deterministic and all logical links among critical function have configurable quality of service with guaranteed timing, the complexity challenges in design of advanced integrated architectures can be much simpler to handle and mitigate. This enables design of truly open and flexible modular embedded systems, which can host hard real-time, real-time, and soft functions at lower system lifecycle costs.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2527
Mirko Jakovljevic, Jan Radke
In this paper we will provide an overview o tools and methods required for design and verification fo complex AFDX/TTEthenret networks. One of key aspects is the toolchain discussion and verification of timing guarantees and configuration.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2388
Luis Rabelo, Tom Clark
For many critical space operation systems, timely recognition of an anomalous condition immediately starts the evaluation process. For complex systems, isolating the fault to a component or subsystem results in corrective action sooner so that undesired consequences may be minimized. These beneficial anomaly detection and fault isolation capabilities are widely recognized and have resulted in the development of innovative techniques for quickly discovering underlying system problems. This paper will address augmenting a legacy system with additional detector/isolator capabilities best suited for that system. A cryogenic liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank pressurization subsystem (from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pad) is the basis for the model. This system is operated remotely and supports time-critical and high-risk operations making it a good candidate to supplement with this technology. The proposed approach models the existing system using the System Modeling Language (SysML).
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2403
Jennifer C. Shaw, Steven Fletcher, Patrick Norman, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt
A number of concepts have been proposed to meet future aircraft performance goals as championed by NASA. One such aircraft concept under consideration is Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP). This features a large number of thrust-producing superconducting motors powered by two superconducting generators placed on each turbofan engine and connected through a DC distribution network. A key aspect in any design concept is the ability to prove that the system will exhibit a satisfactory reliability for all intended operating conditions. To be completed in full, this requires extensive safety and failure analysis from the architectural down to the component level. The purpose of this paper is to support this safety and failure analysis by performing a high level architectural failure analysis of the electrical propulsion network of a TeDP aircraft to help determine how faults and failures may influence its operation.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2404
Catherine E. Jones, Karen Davies, Patrick Norman, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt, Michael Armstrong, Andrew Bollman
Distributed electrical propulsion has been predicted as a possible solution to enable air travel to continue to grow at high levels, whilst meeting noise, emissions and system performance targets. Such aircraft will require a complex electrical power system, to deliver power to propulsor motors from gas turbine driven generators. In order ensure high enough power densities can be reached, it is well documented in the literature that such systems should be superconducting. Hence the development of a suitable power system which is sufficiently light and efficient, in order to be viable for the aerospace application, is challenging due to a number of unanswered questions regarding the best choice of system architecture, suitable levels of redundancy and fault management and protection strategies. Key to the development of the distributed electrical propulsion system is the understanding of how faults propagate in the network, and based on this what possible protection strategies may be.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2544
Subramanian Ramasamy, Roberto Sabatini
Novel Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) systems are currently developed, in line with the roadmap defined by large-scale research initiatives including Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) in Europe, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in US, and other programmes worldwide. The demand for improved safety, integrity and efficiency due to the rapid expansion of global air transport and the growing concern for environmental sustainability issues poses significant challenges on the development of CNS/ATM and Avionics (CNS+A) systems. High-integrity and high-reliability mission- and safety-critical ATM and avionic systems are therefore required in the context of Four Dimensional (4D) Trajectory Based Operations / Intent Based Operations (TBO/IBO).
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2583
James Hare, Shalabh Gupta, Nayeff Najjar, Paul D'Orlando, Rhonda Walthall
This paper addresses the issue of detecting and isolating faults in complex networked systems. Complex Networked Systems typically contain multiple subsystems, components, and sensors interconnected through feedback control and thermal couplings. When a fault occurs in a component of a complex networked system, the effects of the fault may cause offnominal operations in other components due to fluctuations in their input signals. Health monitoring algorithms developed in literature typically result in false alarms during these scenarios since the data observed through sensor measurements are showing unhealthy characteristics even though the components are performing correctly given their offnominal input signals. This paper proposes a System Level Isolation and DEtection (SLIDE) algorithm that will detect and isolate faults occurring in multiple subsystems while reducing the computational complexity and minimizing false alarms.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0045
Harald Dietel, Norbert Scholz
Mobile electric drives, power inverters, batteries and battery management systems, electric power management and safety, cabling and connection technologies.Patented and simple to operate electric 'Power take-off' for off-highway vehicles. Electrical system design, embeded controller software, model based software development, vehicle dynamic modelling. Torque and speed control. Integration know-how. All integrated motor drive unit with IP69K protection. High power and torque density thru active winding cooling. Speacial inverter design for demanding mobile applications. Various drive configurations. Excellent weight to torque ration. Brushless PM motors.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0060
Shyam Kulkarni, Amitabh Vaidya, R Naveen
Electric vehicles contain complicated circuits connected by different cables. Vehicle has both High Voltage & Low Voltage connections. Load current varies from 5A in low current applications to around 200A load during fast charging. Hence, various sizes of cables are required to meet the safety and thermal requirements. Current carrying capacity in the cable is very important aspect in the electric vehicles from safety and life perspective. Wrong cable selection can be very dangerous in case of continuous current applications. If the size of the cable is less than required maximum continuous current rating of the circuit, over load current may lead to temperature rise, melting of the cables and also cause short circuits. This may cause fire hazards and stall the intended operation. Hence many factors are to be considered while selection of cables If the size of the cables is more than the current rating of the circuit, cables will not be fully utilized which is uneconomical.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0061
Vishnuraj Lakshmanan, Ravikanth GV, Varun Mohan, Vinod Shigarkanthi, Rahul Jangid
There is a major market pull in India that calls for improving the fuel economy for passenger vehicles. Indian government has launched the Electric Mobility Mission Plan that calls for giving subsidies to hybrid electric vehicles. Amongst different possible hybrids the mid hybrid systems seem to be viable option for Indian market considering the cost involved. One of the key requirements for the hybrid system is the right size of the motor for a mild hybrid vehicle which directly decides the size of the entire hybrid system including battery and power electronics. In order to work out the Indian market requirements, this paper aims to determine the correct sizing of the electric motor under Indian driving conditions both for real world and test cycle. The motor sizing for emerging markets is a trade-off study between cost involved versus the level of electrification. Hence the sizing of the electric machine is both critical and challenging.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0054
Hruday Konduri
This paper introduces different types of architectures in Hybrid Electric Vehicles.It is intended to provide a fundamental level of understanding of modelling and designing by using Simulink to design efficient components in HEV. Modeling different power train architectures including battery electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles and plug-in-hybrid vehicles,constructing power loss models of every components including conventional engines, traction motor, driveline by using simulink.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0056
Abhishek Kumar Saxena, Jaydeep Shah, Ambica Tyagi
Batteries mounted on electric vehicles (EVs) are often damaged by high peak power and rapid charging/discharging cycles, which are originated from repetitive acceleration/deceleration of vehicles. To reduce battery damage, the battery/ultracapacitor (SC) hybrid energy storage system (HESS) has been considered as a solution because the SC can act as a buffer against large magnitudes and rapid fluctuations in power increasing the overall efficiency of an electric vehicle. In this paper we propose a HESS system for the hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and also state some control strategies for the hybrid electric vehicle. Environmentally-friendly and renewable energy resources are becoming increasingly important in industrial, commercial and residential applications. The shift to electric mobility has become necessary on account of fast depletion of fossil fuels, rapid increase in energy costs, impact of transportation on the environment and concerns over climate change.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0067
Shrikant Uttam Gunjal
A Hybrid Vehicle that uses rechargeable batteries, which can be fully charged through normal wall sockets, is termed as Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). It stands in between the conventional Hybrid and the All Electric Vehicle. This paper throws light on what exactly is a Plug-in Hybrid, its classification, what are its advantages, what are the challenges, the Future of Plug-ins, etc. A Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (referred to as PHEV hereafter) is just a normal hybrid but what makes it different from the other hybrids is its method of recharging the batteries. A PHEV, unlike a normal hybrid, can be charged from a regular wall socket. A PHEV is defined by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 as a vehicle that draws motive power from a battery with a capacity of at least 4 kilowatt hours, can be recharged from an external source of electricity for motive power and is a light-, medium-, or heavy-duty motor vehicle or non-road vehicle.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0075
Karthikeyan P, Vishnuraj Lakshmanan, Ravikanth GV, Arup Jana, Kumpatla Naidu, Pankaj Sarwe
There is a major market pull in India that calls for improving the fuel economy of the passenger vehicles. Indian government has launched the Electric Mobility Mission Plan that calls for giving subsidies to hybrid electric vehicles. One of the options to increase the fuel economy is to electrify the powertrain by having an electric machine (motor) and an energy storage system (battery). There is wide range of Hybrid solutions ranging from Micro Hybrid to Strong hybrids and electric vehicles.. There are multiple configurations in each type of configuration. In order to work out the Indian market requirements, this paper aims to determine the appropriate architecture best suited for the India driving conditions both for real world and test cycle. The type of architecture directly determines the overall cost of the hybrid system and will impact the rate of returns to the customer.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0071
Avinash Rajendran Vallur, Prathmesh Sawarbandhe, Chandrakant Awate
The authors of this technical paper conceptualize and illustrate a novel powertrain architecture for a hybrid electric vehicle. This unique architecture utilizes a relatively low powered hybrid electric prime mover that is generally used in mild hybrid vehicles, in an arrangement similar to a parallel hybrid system. Here, the electric machine is mounted on the input shaft of the gearbox and the clutch is actuated automatically through an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) system. Therefore it is possible to completely disengage the engine from the driveline and drive the vehicle independently through an appropriately sized electric prime mover. The high gear ratio between the drivetrain and the electric prime mover at lower gears can be leveraged to provide low velocity electric creep mode during which the vehicle can function as a pure electric vehicle (EV) while engine remains off. Different factors affect the selection of suitable components.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0072
Sridhar Balaguru
Abstract: Hybrid vehicles are normally associated with a challenge of higher vehicle weight due to additional parts like Motor, Battery and controller over conventional engine vehicle. This introduces adverse effects like poor vehicle dynamics, higher fuel consumption, etc. Hence, weight reduction in the conventional vehicle system is essential while converting to hybrid electric vehicle. This paper explains the challenges in hybrid vehicle system's weight reduction along with integration and the actions taken to overcome them. The focus is more towards structural parts like frame, swingarm and wheel weight reduction (~5%) without compromise on strength and stiffness. The solutions were verified through simulation & actual vehicle testing. Digest: The automotive industry in the world, focusses more on "Energy efficient" (EE) & "Green environment" (GE). The demand for EE & GE calls for different vehicle forms. "Hybrid electric vehicle" (HEV) plays a vital role among them.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0083
Ezhil Joy
The increased penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) in real time may result in voltage rise or drop at the distribution node (DN). An idea of active and reactive power exchange through EV charging station (CS) for voltage regulation at the DN is presented. A CS is modeled with multiple charging systems which enables EVs of different battery ratings to charge and discharge. The individual charging systems are composed of grid connected bidirectional three phase ac-dc and a series connected dc-dc converter with suitable controllers. The complete CS is externally controlled by a fuzzy controller and an aggregator to handle multiple EVs arrived at the CS. Voltage profile evaluation have been done with different power transfer approaches to foresee the CS behavior. Validation of the study is carried out using a realistic distribution system of a typical city considering 35 EVs of different battery ratings connected at the DN via CS.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0085
Bhanwar Lal Bishnoi
The widely adoption of Electric Vehicle (EV) has been identified as a major challenge for future development of smart grids where effective integration of Renewable Energy e.g. Solar Net Metering can make Smart Grid self-healing & sustainable. The ever increasing electric vehicle charging further increases the energy demand. This paper reports the development of an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) as an effective tool to reshape the dynamic load profile of EV charging by adopting appropriate demand side management strategy. This paper presents a total solution for EV charging service platform (AMI-EV) based on Sub GHz RF Mesh Network with Routers and Collectors with Head End System ( HES & MDMS ), power line carrier communications (PLC) and internet communication. The Hybrid of RF & PLC will create high Reliability data availability to HES.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0079
Bharat Singh, Mukesh Singh, Anish Jindal, Neeraj Kumar, Praveen Kumar
In smart homes, consumers have the advantage of proper management of smart devices by scheduling them in different time slots in a day. Scheduling is done based on the price of electricity offered in a particular time slot which results in better cost and power saving. In this paper, the design of the Smart Home Energy Management System (SHEMS) is presented which gives the choice between comfort or cost saving to the consumers. The role of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) i.e. Solar PV panels in the optimal scheduling of devices and electric vehicles (EVs) is also studied.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0081
Nupur Rathore, Priyanka Bhartiya, Deepak Fulwani
A photovoltaic source's behaviour is strongly dependent on the weather. Hence, the converters used in conjunction with the PV sources are required to be tested for the different operating conditions of PV. These testing under real conditions are not encouraged on account of the space requirement, cost attached and the fact that repeating the ambient conditions, for the tests, is next to impossible. Therefore an Emulator, which behaves electrically in a similar way as that of a PV source, comes handy to perform these testing. In this paper a DC-DC Buck-boost Converter based Photovoltaic source emulator design is presented. It takes solar radiation and temperature, representing the weather conditions, as user inputs. The computation of operating point is done according to the load resistance and required I-V characteristics of PV source. PI Controller and Sliding mode control schemes have been implemented, separately, on the FPGA based NI GPIC card.
2015-08-20
Technical Paper
2015-28-0090
Megha Singh, Ritesh Keshri
With the increase in demand for power, researches are going on to find optional and renewable sources of energy, piezoelectric energy being one of them. Piezoelectric energy harness has emerged as one of the prime methods for transforming mechanical energy into electrical energy. This paper deals with the on-board power sources which can replace the batteries, through wheel dynamics of an electric assisted bicycle, piezoelectric material being embedded in the rim of the front wheel of the bicycle. A brief discussion is also presented on the selection of piezoelectric material. Analytical equivalent models of piezoelectric materials are also provided along with the net dynamic force which will be exerted on the piezoelectric material at the point of contact of the front wheel with the ground. Various simulation results are also included to estimate the net power generated by each piezoelectric crystal.
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