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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1843
2017-04-11
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0020
Mark Zachos
Since 2001, all sensitive information by U.S. Federal Agencies has been protected by strong encryption mandated by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)140-2 Security Requirements. Today, this same strong security protection has become possible for vehicle networks using modern, cost-effective hardware. This paper describes strong FIPS 140-2 encryption for vehicle communications, using as an example the J1939 protocol. The encrypted J1939 data and commands are tamper-proof, since they cannot be changed or altered -- accidentally or otherwise. The encrypted J1939 data and proprietary commands can be stored and transported securely, giving no unauthorized read access. The examples will show J1939 encryption, including both wired and wireless communication. Two-factor authentication is achieved, since both the hardware and a decryption key are need to decrypt.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1248
Ming Su, Chingchi Chen, Krishna Prasad Bhat, Jun Kikuchi, Shrivatsal Sharma, Thomas Lei
Due to global trends and government regulations for CO2 emission reduction, the automotive industry is actively working toward vehicle electrification to improve fuel efficiency and minimize tail-pipe pollutions. For the traction inverter systems in today’s hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), silicon IGBTs and power diodes are the main control devices. These mature components are reliable and cost-effective, but have their limitation on energy losses. SiC wide bandgap semiconductor, on the other hand, has potential to offer additional boost of efficiency for the HEV drive system. In recent years, commercial SiC MOSFETs are significantly improved in terms of conduction and switching losses. However, reliability concerns and high prices still place a limit on their overall competitiveness against silicon. Ford Motor Company has partnered with major semiconductor manufacturers to evaluate SiC products for the HEV inverter system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1209
Zhichao Luo, Xuezhe Wei
Nowadays, wireless power transfer (WPT) gradually prevails and many researchers has devoted themselves to it because it is a safe, convenient and reliable way for recharging electric vehicles comparing to the conventional plug-in contact-based methods . Square coils are one of the most commonly used in WPT systems. However, there is few theoretical analysis of self- and mutual inductance of square coils between two magnetic shielding materials. In this paper, in order to study the spatial magnetic field distribution, the analytical model of n-turn square planar spiral coils between two semi-infinite multilayer media is developed based on the Maxwell equations and the Dual Fourier transformation. And then, by means of surface integrals, the self- and mutual inductance can be carried out, with respect to the main parameters of the WPT systems such as the operating frequency, the geometry feature of the coupling coils and the properties of the multilayer media.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1617
Sherif Aly
A major automotive trend is the consolidation of multiple domains on single powerful SoCs. This paper will explore the reasons for this trend and available architectures for achieving this consolidation. AUTOSAR on Linux has been popular in ADAS and infotainment applications, allowing complex functions to smoothly integrate into the vehicle network.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0071
Vahid Taimouri, Michel Cordonnier, Kyoung Min Lee, Bryan Goodman
While operating a vehicle in either autonomous or occupant piloted mode, an array of sensors can be used to guide the vehicle including stereo cameras. The state-of-the-art distance map estimation algorithms, e.g. stereo matching, usually detect corresponding features in stereo images, and estimate disparities to compute the distance map in a scene. However, depending on the image size, content and quality, the feature extraction process can become inaccurate, unstable and slow. In contrast, we employ deep convolutional neural networks, and propose two architectures to estimate distance maps from stereo images. The first architecture is a simple and generic network that identifies which features to extract, and how to combine them in a multi-resolution framework. The second architecture is a more specialized one that extracts local similarity information from two images, which are used for stereo feature matching, and fuses them at multiple resolutions to generate the distance map.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0021
Takashi Yasuda, Hideki Goto, Hiroki Keino, Kaoru Yoshida, Hiroyuki Mori, Miyuki Mizoguchi
In recent years, demands for high-speed/high-bandwidth communication for in-vehicle networks are increasing. This is because the usage of high-resolution displays and high-performance Rear Seat Entertainment (RSE) System are expanding, and also due to the increase of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and introduction of autonomous driving system in the future. Large-volume data such as high definition sensor image or obstacle information are necessary in order to realize these systems. As a consequence, Automotive Ethernet which meets the requirements of high-speed/high-bandwidth communication attracts many attentions. When Automotive Ethernet applies to in-vehicle networks, it is necessary for technology developments to satisfy our EMC performance requirements. In-vehicle EMC requirements comprise of two parts, 'Emission' and 'Immunity'. 'Emission' requirement is to restrict the electro-magnetic noise emitted from vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0013
Gaurav Gupta, Ujjwal Modi
Flickering problems in automotive vehicles have been predominant since long. After assessing numerous vehicles it was observed that whenever the hazard lights in a vehicle are activated, it leads to flickering problems in lights/small electrical components. This paper is to provide the solution for flickering snags in electrical components in a vehicle. The lights that are analyzed to be flickering/wavering are generally small loads such as LEDs in saloon area in the buses, small parking lamps, LEDs used in the instrument clusters, cabin lamps, etc. The flickering in lights can turn out to be very unappealing at certain times. This absurd behavior can lead to extreme discomfort to the passengers and can also be a source of major distraction to the driver. This study presents the design and development for a vehicle platform & implementation that assesses the problem. Because of abrupt behavior of flasher circuits voltage surges are observed, leading to flickering problems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0068
Pablo Sauras-Perez, Andrea Gil, Jasprit Singh Gill, Pierluigi Pisu, Joachim Taiber
In the next 20 years fully autonomous vehicles are expected to be in the market. The advance on their development is creating paradigm shifts on different automotive related research areas. Vehicle interiors design and human vehicle interaction are evolving to enable interaction flexibility inside the cars. However, today’s vehicle manufacturers’ autonomous car concepts maintain the steering wheel as a control element. While this approach allows the driver to take over the vehicle route if needed, it causes a constraint in the previously mentioned interaction flexibility. Other approaches, such as the one proposed by Google, enable interaction flexibility by removing the steering wheel and accelerator and brake pedals. However, this prevents the users to take control over the vehicle route if needed, not allowing them to make on-route spontaneous decisions, such as stopping at a specific point of interest.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1661
Georg Macher, Richard Messnarz, Eric Armengaud, Andreas Riel, Eugen Brenner, Christian Kreiner
The replacement of safety-critical mechanical components with electro-mechanical systems has led to the fact that safety aspects play a central role in development of embedded automotive systems. Recently, consumer demands connectivity (e.g., infotainment, car-2-car or car-2-infrastructure communication) as well as new advances toward advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) or even autonomous driving functions make cybersecurity another key factor to be taken into account by vehicle suppliers and manufacturers. Although these can capitalize on experiences from many other domains, they still have to face several unique challenges when gearing up for specific cybersecurity challenges. A key challenge is related to the increasing interlacing of automotive systems with networks (such as Car2X) and thus it is no longer acceptable to assume that safety-critical systems are immune to security risks and vice versa.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1655
Paul Wooderson, David Ward
An essential part of any cybersecurity engineering process is testing the implementation of a system for vulnerabilities and validating the effectiveness of cybersecurity countermeasures. The SAE J3061 Cybersecurity Guidebook for Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems provides a recommended framework which organizations can use to implement a cybersecurity engineering process, which includes activities such as integration and testing, penetration testing and verification/validation of cybersecurity requirements at the hardware, software and system levels. This paper explores the different kinds of testing that are appropriate at each of these process steps and discusses some important differences between cybersecurity testing and more familiar forms of testing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1227
Ali Najmabadi, Michael Kress, Brett Dryer, Ahmad Arshan Khan
This paper studies different switching schemes for loss reduction in a traction motor drive. The system under examination is composed of a battery, a 2 level Voltage Source Inverter, and an Interior Permanent Magnet motor. Discontinuous PWM (DPWM) control strategy is widely used in this type of motor drive for the reduction of losses. In some publications, the effect of the DPWM modulation scheme is compared to the reduction of the switching frequency which can also cause a reduction in switching losses of the inverter. Extensive studies have examined the effect of variation of the switching frequency on the motor and inverter losses. However, the effect of applying both switching schemes simultaneously has not been explored. This paper will use a system that is operated at a fixed switching frequency as the baseline. Afterwards, three different switching schemes will be studied and compared to the baseline.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0022
Holger Zeltwanger
The automotive industry requests different communication technologies for in-vehicle networking. It is a challenge to integrate different bus systems and networks from different implementors. Conformance and interoperability testing is only successful, if the tests are standardized. The paper describes the actual status of automotive-oriented communication technologies submitted for international standardization. It discusses the challenges and the pros and cons of standardized solutions ("frozen" technology). Another topic are the gaps still exisiting in standardization, e.g. gateways, middleware, etc. The presentation will also address the administrational and bureaucratic hurdles in the standardization bodies. Of course, there is a survey provided on the currently networks under standardization and those which under submission. This includes an attemp to classify in-vehicle networks and to evelaute the overlapping.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1247
Mohammed Khorshed Alam, Lihua Chen, Yan Zhou, Fan Xu, Shuitao Yang
Direct bypass to DC-DC boost converter in traction inverter increases converter’s capability and efficiency significantly by providing a lower loss path for power flow between the battery and DC-link terminal. A bypass using diode is an excellent solution to achieve this capability at low cost and system complexity. The bypass diode operates in the linear operating region (DC Q-point) when the battery discharges through the bypass diode to drive the electric motors. Therefore, thermal stress on the DC-link capacitor is shared between the input and DC-link capacitors through the bypass diode. Inverters introduce voltage oscillation in the DC-link terminal during battery charging through regenerative operation and results in unwanted power oscillation through the bypass diode. Both of these phenomena have been investigated in details.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1695
Kuang-I Shu
Much like how mobile phones ceased to be only person-to-person communications devices and became technical platforms, in-vehicle electronic devices will too cease to be solely information devices and become technical platforms incorporating all-encompassing features, including but not limited to ADAS, navigation, communication, and entertainment. This fundamental shift however will require a transformation and redesign of the vehicle’s technical architecture. Today, a vehicle’s ADAS, communications, and entertainment features exist isolated in separate devices and systems and are purpose built, leading to duplicative functions, increased costs, and difficult control, management, maintenance, and upgrade of the system. This presentation will illustrate a central control system architecture built around an IoV Gateway, an open hardware platform that integrates ICT devices for future vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0018
Jeong Chan Kim, Kai Richter, Myung Hyun Koo, Matthias Hagner, Chung Hi Lee
Along with the efforts to cope with the increase of functions which require higher communication bandwidth in vehicle networks using CAN-FD and vehicle Ethernet protocols, we have to deal with the problems of both the increased busload and more stringent response time requirement issues based on the current CAN systems. The widely used CAN busload limit guideline in the early design stage of vehicle network development is basically intended for the further frame extensions. However in case of it is inevitable to increase the current busload design limit, we need to analysis the actual levels of the maximum frame response time delays and the differences with the estimation and measurement. To estimate the maximum frame latency at the design phase, since the current worst case response time analysis method is only providing the upper bounds, the efficient evaluation methods should be applied without using the control unit level information.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1658
Qingwu Zou, Wai Keung Chan, Kok Cheng Gui, Qi Chen, Klaus Scheibert, Laurent Heidt, Eric Seow
Cyber security is becoming increasingly critical in the car industry. Not only the entry points to the external world in the car need to be protected against potential attack, but also the on-board communication in the car require to be protected against attackers who may try to send unauthorized CAN messages. However, the current CAN network was not designed with security in mind. As a result, the extra measures have to be taken to address the key security properties of the secure CAN communication, including data integrity, authenticity, confidentiality and freshness. While integrity and authenticity can be achieved by using a relatively straightforward algorithms such as CMAC (Cipher-based Message Authentication Code) and Confidentiality can be handled by a symmetric encryption algorithm like AES128 (128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard), it has been recognized to be more challenging to achieve the freshness of CAN message.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0012
Zia Hossain, Shengling Deng, Jim Sellers, Gary Loechelt, Mo Grimaldi, Irene Wan, Emily Linehan, Alexander Young, Ali Salih
With an increasing demand for lower RDS(ON) FET in automotive applications, the use of shielded gate trench MOSFET architecture is gaining traction in medium voltage area for its ability to achieve lower RDS(ON) X AREA, and consequently, smaller chip size and lower cost. Additionally, shielded gate trench architecture features smaller gate-to-drain overlap, leading to lower G-D charge (QGD) and increased DV/DT immunity. Optimization of various elements of the shielded gate structure plays a critical role in achieving low specific RDS(ON), low gate charge (QG), low output capacitance (QOSS), and finally the best-in-class figure-of-merits (FOMs) - RDS(ON) X QG, RDS(ON) X QOSS. The optimization work includes TCAD simulation, process/device design of experiments of EPI thickness/doping profile in the drift region, trench gate and shield-plate structure optimization - trench depth, trench gate and shield-plate oxide thicknesses, and Si-mesa between the shield-plate trenches.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0056
Naveen Mohan, Martin Törngren, Sagar Behere
With the advent of ISO 26262 there is an increased emphasis on top-down design in the automotive industry. While the standard delivers a best practice framework and a reference safety lifecycle, it lacks detailed requirements for its various constituent phases. The lack of guidance becomes especially evident for the reuse of legacy components and subsystems, the most common scenario in the cost-sensitive automotive domain, leaving vehicle architects and safety engineers to rely on experience without methodological support for their decisions. This poses particular challenges in the industry which is currently undergoing many significant changes due to new features like connectivity, servitization, electrification and automation. In this paper we focus on automated driving where multiple subsystems, both new and legacy, need to coordinate to realize a safety-critical function.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0070
Longxiang Guo, Sagar Manglani, Xuehao Li, Yunyi Jia
Autonomous driving technologies can provide better safety, comfort and efficiency for future transportation. Most research in this area main focus on developing sensing and control approaches to achieve autonomous driving functions such as model based approaches and neural network based approaches. However, even if the autonomous driving functions are ideally achieved, the performance of the system is still subject to sensing exceptions. Few research has studied how to efficiently handle such sensing exceptions. In existing autonomous approaches, sensors, such as cameras, radars and lidars, usually need to be full calibrated or trained after mounted on the vehicles and before being used for autonomous driving. A simple unexpected on the sensors, e.g., mounting position or angle of a camera is changed, may lead the autonomous driving function to fail.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0072
Yang Zheng, Navid Shokouhi, Amardeep Sathyanarayana, John Hansen
The proliferation of smartphone application has made a great impact in the automotive industry. Smartphones contain a variety of useful sensors including cameras, microphones, as well as their Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) such as accelerometer, gyroscope, and GPS. These multi-channel signals would also be synchronized to provide a comprehensive description of driving scenarios. Therefore, the smartphone could potentially be leveraged for in-vehicle data collection, monitoring, and added safety options/feedback strategies. In our previous study, a smartphone/tablet solution with our Android App - MobileUTDrive - was developed. This platform provides a cost effective approach, which allows for a wider range of naturalistic driving study opportunities for drivers operating their own vehicles. The most meaningful reason for introducing the smartphone platform is its potential ability to be integrated with intelligent telematics services.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0006
Harald Bucher, Clemens Reichmann, Juergen Becker
The increasing complexity of electric/electronic architectures (EEA) in the automotive domain raised the necessity of model-based development processes for the design of such heterogeneous systems, which combine different engineering principles with different viewpoints. High-level simulation is a great means to evaluate the EEA in the concept phase of the design, since it avoids costly real-world experiments. However, model-based EEA design and analysis as well as its simulation are often separate processes in the development lifecycle. In this paper, we present a novel approach that extends state-of-the-art model-based systems engineering principles of EEA by a functional behavior specification reusing library components. The specification is seamlessly integrated in the development process of a single source EEA model. Therewith, the starting point is the abstract logical function architecture of the EEA.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0069
Venkatesh Raman, Mayur Narsude, Damodharan Padmanaban
This paper describes main challenges encountered during data enrichment phase of connected vehicle experiments. It also compares data imputation approaches for data coming from actual driving scenarios and obtained using in-vehicle data acquisition devices. Three distinct window-based approaches were used for cleaning and imputing the missing values in different CAN-bus (Controller Area Network) signals. Lengths of windows used for data imputation for the three approaches were: 1) entire time-course, 2) day, and 3) trip (defined as duration between vehicle engine ON to OFF). An algorithm for identification of engine ON and OFF events will also be presented, in case this signal is not explicitly captured during the data acquisition phase. As a case study, these imputation techniques were applied to the data from vehicle’s CAN information in a driver behavior classification experiment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1233
Mohamed A. Elshaer, Allan Gale, Chingchi Chen
Vehicle safety is of a paramount importance when it comes to plugging the vehicle to the electric utility grid. The impact of high voltage ground fault has been neglected or, if not, addressed by guidelines extracted from general practices, written in international standards. The agile accession in Electric Vehicle (EV) development deems an exhaustive study on safety risks pertaining to fault occurrence. While vehicle electrification offers a vital solution to oil scarcity, it is essential that the fast development of the number of electric vehicles on the road does not compromise safety. Meanwhile, the link between technology and demands of society must be governed by vehicle safety. In this paper a comprehensive study on high voltage (HV) fault conditions occurring in an EV will be conducted. In the next decade EVs are expected to be prevalent worldwide. Ground fault characteristics are significantly dependent on the earthing system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1228
Masaya Nakanishi
Motor vehicle industry is expected to reduce CO2 emission more and more for protecting the environment. Alternator, which supplies electric energy to battery and electrical loads when it is rotated by engine via belt, is one of key components to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. That’s because actual one is greatly affected by electrical loads, and improving alternator efficiecy is effective to enhance actual one. We have reduced rectification loss from AC to DC with MOSFET instead of rectifier diode because on voltage of MOSFET is much lower than diode drop, which results in improving alternator efficiency. Control circuit is required to drive MOSFET because it is an active element. It is important to turn MOSFET ON and OFF during rectification period “synchronous control”. It is turned ON while a rectifier current flows through MOSFET as alternator output, and turned OFF while the current doesn’t flow to avoid drawing in a reverse current from battery.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1250
Tomokazu Ishikawa, Kouhei Ikebuchi, Kenji Nakamura, Osamu Ichinokura, Naoki Kurimoto, Yoshiaki Nishijima
An electromagnetic and motion-coupled analysis is made for a switched reluctance motor based on a reluctance network analysis. Electric and hybrid vehicles are attractive choice due to its high potential for reducing CO2 emissions. In order to make those vehicles highly competitive in the market, cost reduction is essential. A switched reluctance motor without expensive rare earth magnets has been of great interest as a traction motor. Particularly, a full-pitch winding switched reluctance motor is promising since it has a high torque constant. Since the motor characteristics such as driving torque significantly depend on commutation pattern, an analysis coupled with motor motion and its drive circuit is requisite for the performance prediction.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0023
Naoya Tsuchiya, Tomohisa Kishigami, Eiichirou Kawakami
Toward the relief and safe car society, the in-vehicle network communication is evolving speedup and high capability, to connect the each information that ECU and sensor have, with the in-vehicle electronic systems continuing developing. The in-vehicle network developer designs it based on recommended network topology learned by experience or prescribed in ISO or CiA. However, with the evolution of the complicated degree of the network, it becomes difficult to develop it without a verification of an actual machine. On the other hand, as for the verification means at the logic level or physical level that is necessary for a network design, verification in the whole vehicle is difficult by a speedup and large of the system. Therefore it is applicable only for the system which limited to a domain or an area. Even if we cleared the problem mentioned above and was able to build verification environment, the flexible and timely utilization is difficult for the specifications change.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0114
Jorge De-J. Lozoya Santos, J. C. Tudon-Martinez
A high automation of a small vehicle is under study. This work introduces a system for a partial automation (level 2) of a Supermillage SAE vehicle. The X-by-wire concept is implemented for the actuation of the steering and throttle systems. This modification reduces the mechanical interaction for the steering, braking and steering systems. By means of the description of the vehicle dynamics and the use of well-known techniques in industry and academy as Hardware and Software in the Loop, this work seeds an interface and a system to implement computer vision, steering and throttle algorithms to allow degree of autonomy to the vehicle. The system consists of a throttle, brake and steering system, connected through CAN protocol. The system is simulated using Simulink, and also runs in a simulation using V rep and a Matlab script. Throttle and brake are actuated by servomotors, and the steering system by a DC motor.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1657
Jesse Edwards, Ameer Kashani
In the past few years, automotive electronic control units (ECUs) have been the focus of many studies regarding the ability to affect the deterministic operation of safety critical cyber-physical systems. Researchers have been able to successfully demonstrate flaws in security design that have considerable, dramatic impacts on the functional safety of a target vehicle. With the rapid increase in data connectivity within a modern automobile, the attack surface has been greatly broadened to allow adversaries remote access to vehicle control system software and networks. This has serious implications, as a vast number of vulnerability disclosures released by security researchers point directly to common programming bugs and software quality issues as the root cause of successful exploits which can compromise the vehicle as a whole. In this paper, we aim to bring to light the most prominent categories of bugs found during the software development life cycle of an automotive ECU.
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