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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1100
2017-11-13
Tech Insights
TI-0002
While all-electric aircraft remain at the bleeding edge of the aviation industry, incorporating technologies like proton exchange membrane fuel cells into existing aircraft can result in considerable auxiliary capability with low environmental impact. However, proper consideration must be given to supporting systems to achieve a reliable balance of plant-especially when those systems interface with existing aircraft architectures. The scope of the BoP is to manage and condition the reactant flows to and from the fuel-cell module and to provide power to system components.
2017-10-25
White Paper
WP-0002
The environmental impact of hydrocarbon-burning aircraft, both from the perspective of gas emissions and that of noise, is one of the main motivations for the move to electric propulsion. The added benefit from this shift to electric propulsion is that it has resulted in lowering the costs of electrical components such as motors, power electronic (PE) circuits, and batteries that are essential to this technology. This white paper seeks to explore the history, architecture, electrical components, and future trends of electric flight technology.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2007
Fang Li, Lifang Wang, Yan Wu
Abstract With the rapid development of vehicle intelligent and networking technology, the IT security of automotive systems becomes an important area of research. In addition to the basic vehicle control, intelligent advanced driver assistance systems, infotainment systems will all exchange data with in-vehicle network. Unfortunately, current communication network protocols, including Controller Area Network (CAN), FlexRay, MOST, and LIN have no security services, such as authentication or encryption, etc. Therefore, the vehicle are unprotected against malicious attacks. Since CAN bus is actually the most widely used field bus for in-vehicle communications in current automobiles, the security aspects of CAN bus is focused on. Based on the analysis of the current research status of CAN bus network security, this paper summarizes the CAN bus potential security vulnerabilities and the attack means.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2065
Sebastian Bandycki, Michele Trancossi, Jose Pascoa
Abstract This paper presents a comparison between different hypotheses of propulsion of a spherical UAS. Different architectures have been analyzed assessing their specific aerodynamic, energetic, and flight mechanics features. The comparison has been performed assuming the robustness of flight control in different wind conditions, defining for each the specific operative ranges, mission profiles, and energy assessment. An effective energy assessment and comparison against a commercial UAS has been produced. Even if the paper considers a preliminary simplified configuration, it demonstrates clearly to be competitive against traditional quadcopters in a predefined reference mission.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2108
Denis Buzdalov, Alexey Khoroshilov
Different modelling techniques intended to deal with complexity of modern IMA systems are widely used now. Models can be used to help developers to lay out relevant information structurally. They can also be used to perform different formal analyses on machine-readable models like schedulability analysis, network load checks, WCET for software parts, FTA and FMEA and etc. For some kinds of analyses, special models are created on different stages of development. We suppose that reuse of models for different aspects and development stages is generally a good thing. In some cases it allows to reduce costs on development process; also it allows to make preservation of consistency between models more automatic. We are aware that using the same model for different stages or aspects can cause additional cost in the model maintenance. In this paper we are trying to make a step to further (including practical) research on this topic.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2103
Bernd Hirschler, Mirko Jakovljevic
Abstract Cybersecurity attacks exploit vulnerabilities related to the increased complexity and connectivity of critical infrastructure systems. This paper investigates the context and use of key security technologies, processes, challenges and use cases for the design of advanced integrated architectures with security, safety, and real-time performance considerations. In such architectures, deterministic Ethernet standards are used as a baseline for system integration in closed embedded systems or open mixed criticality systems. Security-informed safety development processes for integrated architectures are required to prevent catastrophic failures caused by environmental and cyber threats, due to expanding number of security vulnerabilities in complex and increasingly open systems. State-of-art safety/security processes for integrated systems in cross-industry environments are considered and similarities examined, for different types of integrated architectures.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2101
Jon Barton Shields, Brian Peirce Barker
Abstract This paper discusses the merits, benefits and usage of autonomous key management (with implicit authentication) (AKM) solutions for securing Electronic Module to Electronic Module (i.e. ECUs, FCC, REUs, etc.) communication within air (and defense) vehicles and IoT applications; particularly for transmissions between externally exposed, edge Electronic Module sensors connected to Electronic Modules within the air (and defense) vehicle infrastructure. Specific benefits addressed include reductions of communication latency, implementation complexity, processing power and energy consumption. Implementation issues discussed include provisioning, key rotation, synchronization, re-synchronization, digital signatures and enabling high entropy.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2111
Andrew Loveless, Christian Fidi, Stefan Wernitznigg
Abstract Over the last couple decades, there has been a growing interest in incorporating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies and open standards in the design of human-rated spacecraft. This approach is intended to reduce development and upgrade costs, lower the need for new design work, eliminate reliance on individual suppliers, and minimize schedule risk. However, it has not traditionally been possible for COTS solutions to meet the high reliability and fault tolerance requirements of systems implementing critical spacecraft functions. Byzantine faults are considered particularly dangerous to such systems because of their ability to escape traditional means of fault containment and disrupt consensus between system components. In this paper, we discuss the design of a voting protocol using Time-Triggered Ethernet capable of achieving data integrity in the presence of a single Byzantine fault.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2159
Federico Cappuzzo, Olivier Broca, Jeremy Leboi
Abstract To allow greater confidence in an aircraft system design in an ever increasing complex set of requirements, it becomes important to assess the interactions among systems and sub-systems earlier and with higher confidence. This study presents the Virtual Integrated Aircraft (VIA) methodology, which allows the integration of aircraft systems with virtual means. It aims to complement and precede physical integration, which is usually completed at the end of the validation and integration phase. LMS Imagine.Lab platform provides a means for applying this methodology. A simulation architecture, integrating models from different platforms, is built and simulations are run on a High Performance Computing (HPC) machine to cover multiple scenarios and therefore validate the selected architecture and pre-design in the early system development phases. A balanced selection of equipment, systems and subsystems are essential for the performance, safety, reliability and comfort.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2117
Dirk H. Martinen, Marc Lagalaye, Julien Pfefferkorn, Jean Casteres
Abstract Currently, aircraft system Test Benches are often proprietary systems, specifically designed and configured for a dedicated System Under Test (SUT). Today, no standards for configuration, data communication, and data exchange formats are available for avionics Test Benches. This leads to high Test Bench development costs and redundant activities between aircraft system suppliers and airframers. In the case of obsolescence issues for test system components, it is very costly to replace the respective parts as a high integration and reconfiguration effort is required. In the scope of an R&T project, involving several test system suppliers and aircraft system suppliers as well as Airbus as an aircraft manufacturer, a generic and modular architecture for an open test environment is under development. A further goal of the Virtual and Hybrid Testing Next Generation (VHTNG) research project is to prepare a set of open standards for the interfaces to this architecture.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2126
Ashutosh Kumar Jha, Gaurav Sahay, Adishesha Sivaramasastry
Abstract In aerospace industry, the concept of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) has gained momentum and is becoming need of the hour for entire value chain in the industry. The expected benefits of lesser time for maintenance reduced operating cost and ever busy airports are motivating aircraft manufacturers to come up with tools, techniques and technologies to enable advanced diagnostic and prognostic systems in aircrafts. At present, various groups are working on different systems and platforms for health monitoring of an aircraft e.g. SHM (Structural Health Monitoring), PHM (Prognostics Health Monitoring), AHM (Aircraft Health Monitoring), and EHM (Engine Health Monitoring) and so on.
2017-08-25
Technical Paper
2017-01-1945
Dr. Raimund Varnhagen
Abstract During recent years, all major North American and European commercial vehicle OEMs have introduced predictive functionalities based on an electronic horizon for their on-highway fleets. This is a system concept that lets vehicles know what is happening on the road ahead and allows them to react to that information without driver involvement. When an electronic horizon is used in heavy-duty trucks, a significant reduction in fuel consumption is possible as a key application. This is achieved by optimizing the algorithms in the engine control unit, the transmission control device or other control units in the vehicle. There is a clear business case for the vehicle owners. In this paper we review the long development from early navigation technologies to an in-vehicle sensor, called an electronic horizon. We present an overview of different architectures from several perspectives as well as multiple use cases for commercial vehicles.
2017-06-26
Solution Notes
SN-0001
Automating a manufacturing process often comes with substantial investment or sustained operational costs of complex subsystems. But, by reducing complexity and using technologically mature components, it is possible to develop viable scaled and robust automated solutions. For the past several years, aerospace manufacturers have endeavored to automate manufacturing processes as much as possible for both production efficiencies and competitive advantage. Automating processes like drilling, fastening, sealing, painting, and composite material production have reaped a wide range of benefits; from improving quality and productivity to lowering worker ergonomic risks. The results have improved supply chains from small component manufacturers all the way up to airframe assemblers. That said, automation can be very expensive, and difficult to introduce when a product is anywhere beyond the beginning of its life cycle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1695
Kuang-I Shu
Abstract Much like how mobile phones ceased to be only person-to-person communications devices and became technical platforms, in-vehicle electronic devices will too cease to be solely information devices and become technical platforms incorporating all-encompassing features, including but not limited to ADAS, navigation, communication, and entertainment. This fundamental shift however will require a transformation and redesign of the vehicle’s technical architecture. Today, a vehicle’s ADAS, communications, and entertainment features exist isolated in separate devices and systems and are purpose built, leading to duplicative functions, increased costs, and difficult control, management, maintenance, and upgrade of the system. This presentation will illustrate a central control system architecture built around an IoV Gateway, an open hardware platform that integrates ICT devices for future vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0067
Wei Han, Xinyu Zhang, Jialun Yin, Yutong Li, Deyi Li
Abstract Safety of buses is crucial because of the large proportion of the public transportation sector they constitute. To improve bus safety levels, especially to avoid driver error, which is a key factor in traffic accidents, we designed and implemented an intelligent bus called iBus. A robust system architecture is crucial to iBus. Thus, in this paper, a novel self-driving system architecture with improved robustness, such as to failure of hardware (including sensors and controllers), is proposed. Unlike other self-driving vehicles that operate either in manual driving mode or in self-driving mode, iBus offers a dual-control mode. More specifically, an online hot standby mechanism is incorporated to enhance the reliability of the control system, and a software monitor is implemented to ensure that all software modules function appropriately. The results of real-world road tests conducted to validate the feasibility of the overall system confirm that iBus is reliable and robust.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0070
Longxiang Guo, Sagar Manglani, Xuehao Li, Yunyi Jia
Abstract Autonomous driving technologies can provide better safety, comfort and efficiency for future transportation systems. Most research in this area has mainly been focused on developing sensing and control approaches to achieve various autonomous driving functions. Very little of this research, however, has studied how to efficiently handle sensing exceptions. A simple exception measured by any of the sensors may lead to failures in autonomous driving functions. The autonomous vehicles are then supposed to be sent back to manufacturers for repair, which takes both time and money. This paper introduces an efficient approach to make human drivers able to online teach autonomous vehicles to drive under sensing exceptions. A human-vehicle teaching-and-learning framework for autonomous driving is proposed and the human teaching and vehicle learning processes for handling sensing exceptions in autonomous vehicles are designed in detail.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0069
Venkatesh Raman, Mayur Narsude, Damodharan Padmanaban
Abstract This manuscript compares window-based data imputation approaches for data coming from connected vehicles during actual driving scenarios and obtained using on-board data acquisition devices. Three distinct window-based approaches were used for cleansing and imputing the missing values in different CAN-bus (Controller Area Network) signals. Lengths of windows used for data imputation for the three approaches were: 1) entire time-course for each vehicle ID, 2) day, and 3) trip (defined as duration between vehicle's ignition statuses ON to OFF). An algorithm for identification of ignition ON and OFF events is also presented, since this signal was not explicitly captured during the data acquisition phase. As a case study, these imputation techniques were applied to the data from a driver behavior classification experiment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0072
Yang Zheng, Navid Shokouhi, Amardeep Sathyanarayana, John Hansen
Abstract With the embedded sensors – typically Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and GPS, the smartphone could be leveraged as a low-cost sensing platform for estimating vehicle dynamics. However, the orientation and relative movement of the smartphone inside the vehicle yields the main challenge for platform deployment. This study proposes a solution of converting the smartphone-referenced IMU readings into vehicle-referenced accelerations, which allows free-positioned smartphone for the in-vehicle dynamics sensing. The approach is consisted of (i) geometry coordinate transformation techniques, (ii) neural networks regression of IMU from GPS, and (iii) adaptive filtering processes. Experiment is conducted in three driving environments which cover high occurrence of vehicle dynamic movements in lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions. The processing effectiveness at five typical positions (three fixed and two flexible) are examined.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1651
Douglas Thornburg, John Schmotzer, MJ Throop
Abstract Onboard, embedded cellular modems are enabling a range of new connectivity features in vehicles and rich, real-time data set transmissions from a vehicle’s internal network up to a cloud database are of particular interest. However, there is far too much information in a vehicle’s electrical state for every vehicle to upload all of its data in real-time. We are thus concerned with which data is uploaded and how that data is processed, structured, stored, and reported. Existing onboard data processing algorithms (e.g. for DTC detection) are hardcoded into critical vehicle firmware, limited in scope and cannot be reconfigured on the fly. Since many use cases for vehicle data analytics are still unknown, we require a system which is capable of efficiently processing and reporting vehicle deep data in real-time, such that data reporting can be switched on/off during normal vehicle operation, and that processing/reporting can be reconfigured remotely.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0023
Naoya Tsuchiya, Tomohisa Kishigami, Eiichirou Kawakami
Abstract In-vehicle network communication is evolving faster speeds and higher performance capabilities, connecting the information possessed by ECU and sensors with the in-vehicle electronic systems which are continuing to develop. With the evolution of the complicated networks, it is becoming difficult to develop them without many verification of actual machine. On the other hand, as for the verification means required at the logic level or physical level for a network verification through ECU design, virtual verification in the whole vehicle is difficult due to speed increases and the sheer size of the system. Therefore, it is only applicable for systems which are limited to a domain or an area, and flexible and timely utilization would be difficult due to the changes in specifications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0006
Harald Bucher, Clemens Reichmann, Juergen Becker
Abstract The increasing complexity of electric/electronic architectures (EEA) in the automotive domain raised the necessity of model-based development processes for the design of such heterogeneous systems, which combine different engineering principles with different viewpoints. High-level simulation is a great means to evaluate the EEA in the concept phase of the design, since it reduces costly real-world experiments. However, model-based EEA design and analysis as well as its simulation are often separate processes in the development lifecycle. In this paper, we present a novel approach that extends state-of-the-art model-based systems engineering principles of EEA by a behavior specification reusing library components. The specification is seamlessly integrated in the development process of a single source EEA model. Therewith, the starting point is the abstract logical function architecture of the EEA.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0012
Zia Hossain, Shengling Deng, Jim Sellers, Gary Loechelt, Mo Grimaldi, Irene Wan, Emily Linehan, Alexander Young, Ali Salih
Abstract To meet the increasing demand for lower RDS(ON) MOSFETs in medium voltage automotive applications, the shielded gate trench MOSFET architecture is becoming increasingly popular in recent years for its ability to achieve both lower RDS(ON) and faster switching speed. The lower specific drain-to-source resistance (RDS(ON).Area) translates into smaller chip size and consequently cheaper die cost for the end customers. Furthermore, shielded gate trench architecture offers smaller gate-to-drain capacitance by utilizing the shielding effect from the shield-poly, leading to lower G-D charge (QGD), faster switching speed, and increased dv/dt immunity. A comprehensive portfolio of medium voltage shielded gate power MOSFET products in several voltage classes (40V, 60V, 80V, and 100V) in automotive and industrial markets is presented in this paper.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0013
Gaurav Gupta, Ujjwal Modi
Abstract Flickering problems in automotive vehicles have been observed from long time. After assessing numerous vehicles it was observed that whenever the hazard lights in a vehicle are activated, it leads to flickering problems in lights/small electrical components. This paper is to provide the solution for flickering snags in electrical components in a vehicle. The lights that are analyzed to be flickering/wavering are generally small loads such as LEDs in the bus roof area, small parking lamps, LEDs used in instrument clusters, cabin lamps, etc. The flickering in lights can turn out to be very unappealing at certain times. This absurd behavior can lead to extreme discomfort to the passengers and can also be a source of major distraction to the driver. This study presents the design & development for a vehicle platform & implementation that assesses the problem. Because of abrupt behavior of flasher circuits, voltage surges are observed, leading to flickering problems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0022
Holger Zeltwanger
Abstract In-vehicle networks (IVN) have been standardized from the beginning. The story of IVN standardization started at the beginning of the 90s. Today, several IVN technologies have been internationally standardized by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) including the related conformance test plans. But as all electronic technologies, IVNs are a matter of improvement and change due to new requirements and gained experiences. This makes it difficult to always keep the standard backwards compatible, in particular if immature approaches are submitted. Furthermore, new communication protocols are knocking on the door of international standardization bodies. The automotive industry itself is conservative and adapts new IVNs slowly. There are also concerns regarding too many different bus systems and networks in one vehicle. This paper discusses the benefits and challenges of the standardization of IVNs.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0065
Bülent Sari, Hans-Christian Reuss
Abstract Safety is becoming more and more important with the ever increasing level of safety related E/E Systems built into the cars. Increasing functionality of vehicle systems through electrification of power train and autonomous driving leads to complexity in designing system, hardware, software and safety architecture. The application of multicore processors in the automotive industry is becoming necessary because of the needs for more processing power, more memory and higher safety requirements. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the safety solutions particularly for Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL-D) Systems. This brings additional challenges because of additional requirements of ISO 26262 for ASIL-D safety concepts. This paper presents an approach for model-based “dependent failure analysis” which is required from ISO 26262 for ASIL-D safety concepts with decomposition approach.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0114
Jorge De-J. Lozoya Santos, J. C. Tudon-Martinez
Abstract The project consists on the mechanical and electronic instrumentation of an existing vehicle (built at Universidad de Monterrey for the SAE Supermileage Competition) to be able to control its steering, braking and throttle systems “by wire”. Insight to the stages of turning the vehicle into an autonomous one is presented. This includes identification of the current mechanical properties, choosing adequate components and the use of a simulation to allow early work on the software involving cameras and motors to provide autonomy to the vehicle. Using software in the loop methodology mathematical models of the dynamics of the vehicle are run in Simulink and update the position and orientation of the 3D model of the vehicle in V-REP, a robot simulator.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1147
Hyunjun Kim, Jingeon Kang, Dongsuk Kum
Abstract Input- and output-split hybrids using a single planetary gear (PG) can provide high fuel economy, but they tend to suffer from low acceleration performance. In order to improve their acceleration performance, speed reduction (multiplication) gears (SRG/SMG) have often been employed in various mass-produced split hybrids. In fact, adding one SRG (SMG) to input- or output-split hybrids can improve not only the acceleration performance, but also the fuel economy. Nevertheless, the full potentials of using SRGs (SMGs) have not yet been thoroughly investigated because the design space of input- and output-split configurations using one SRG (SMG) is huge; 432 configurations can be generated using two PGs where one PG is used as an SRG/SMG. Thus, in order to investigate the impacts of SRG (SMG) within a reasonable time, an efficient analysis procedure is required.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1228
Masaya Nakanishi
Abstract Alternator, which supplies electric energy to a battery and electrical loads when it is rotated by engine via belt, is one of key components to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. We have reduced rectification loss from AC to DC with a MOSFET instead of a rectifier diode. It is important to turn on the MOSFET and off during a rectification period, called synchronous control, to avoid a current flow in the reverse direction from the battery. We turn it off so as to remain a certain conduction period through a body diode of the MOSFET before the rectification end. It is controlled by making a feedback process to coincide with an internal target conduction period based on the rotational speed of the alternator. We reduced a voltage surge risk at turn-off by changing the feedback gain depending on the sign of the time difference between the measured period and the target.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1247
Mohammed Khorshed Alam, Lihua Chen, Yan Zhou, Fan Xu, Shuitao Yang
Abstract Direct bypass to DC-DC boost converter in traction inverter increases converter's capability and efficiency significantly by providing a lower loss path for power flow between the battery and DC-link terminal. A bypass using diode is an excellent solution to achieve this capability at low cost and system complexity. Bypass diode operates in the linear operating region (DC Q-point) when the battery discharges through the bypass diode to drive the electric motors. Therefore, thermal stress on the DC-link capacitor is shared between the input and DC-link capacitors through the bypass diode. On the other hand, inverters introduce voltage oscillation in the DC-link terminal which results in unwanted energy oscillation through the bypass diode during battery charging. Both of these phenomena have been explained in details.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1654
Arun Ganesan, Jayanthi Rao, Kang Shin
Abstract Modern vehicles house many advanced components; sensors and Electronic Control Units (ECUs) — now numbering in the 100s. These components provide various advanced safety, comfort and infotainment features, but they also introduce additional attack vectors for malicious entities. Attackers can compromise one or more of these sensors and flood the vehicle’s internal network with fake sensor values. Falsified sensor values can confuse the driver, and even cause the vehicle to misbehave. Redundancy can be used to address compromised sensors, but adding redundant sensors will increase the cost per vehicle and is therefore less attractive. To balance the need for security and cost-efficiency, we exploit the natural redundancy found in vehicles. Natural redundancy occurs when the same physical phenomenon causes symptoms in multiple sensors. For instance, pressing the accelerator pedal will cause the engine to pump faster and increase the speed of the vehicle.
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