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2017-10-31
White Paper
WP-0002
The environmental impact of hydrocarbon-burning aircraft, both from the perspective of gas emissions and that of noise, is one of the main motivations for the move to electric propulsion. The added benefit from this shift to electric propulsion is that it has resulted in lowering the costs of electrical components such as motors, power electronic (PE) circuits, and batteries that are essential to this technology. This white paper seeks to explore the history, architecture, electrical components, and future trends of electric flight technology.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2007
Fang Li, Lifang Wang, Yan Wu
Abstract With the rapid development of vehicle intelligent and networking technology, the IT security of automotive systems becomes an important area of research. In addition to the basic vehicle control, intelligent advanced driver assistance systems, infotainment systems will all exchange data with in-vehicle network. Unfortunately, current communication network protocols, including Controller Area Network (CAN), FlexRay, MOST, and LIN have no security services, such as authentication or encryption, etc. Therefore, the vehicle are unprotected against malicious attacks. Since CAN bus is actually the most widely used field bus for in-vehicle communications in current automobiles, the security aspects of CAN bus is focused on. Based on the analysis of the current research status of CAN bus network security, this paper summarizes the CAN bus potential security vulnerabilities and the attack means.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2126
Ashutosh Kumar Jha, Gaurav Sahay, Adishesha Sivaramasastry
Abstract In aerospace industry, the concept of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) has gained momentum and is becoming need of the hour for entire value chain in the industry. The expected benefits of lesser time for maintenance reduced operating cost and ever busy airports are motivating aircraft manufacturers to come up with tools, techniques and technologies to enable advanced diagnostic and prognostic systems in aircrafts. At present, various groups are working on different systems and platforms for health monitoring of an aircraft e.g. SHM (Structural Health Monitoring), PHM (Prognostics Health Monitoring), AHM (Aircraft Health Monitoring), and EHM (Engine Health Monitoring) and so on.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2159
Federico Cappuzzo, Olivier Broca, Jeremy Leboi
Abstract To allow greater confidence in an aircraft system design in an ever increasing complex set of requirements, it becomes important to assess the interactions among systems and sub-systems earlier and with higher confidence. This study presents the Virtual Integrated Aircraft (VIA) methodology, which allows the integration of aircraft systems with virtual means. It aims to complement and precede physical integration, which is usually completed at the end of the validation and integration phase. LMS Imagine.Lab platform provides a means for applying this methodology. A simulation architecture, integrating models from different platforms, is built and simulations are run on a High Performance Computing (HPC) machine to cover multiple scenarios and therefore validate the selected architecture and pre-design in the early system development phases. A balanced selection of equipment, systems and subsystems are essential for the performance, safety, reliability and comfort.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2108
Denis Buzdalov, Alexey Khoroshilov
Different modelling techniques intended to deal with complexity of modern IMA systems are widely used now. Models can be used to help developers to lay out relevant information structurally. They can also be used to perform different formal analyses on machine-readable models like schedulability analysis, network load checks, WCET for software parts, FTA and FMEA and etc. For some kinds of analyses, special models are created on different stages of development. We suppose that reuse of models for different aspects and development stages is generally a good thing. In some cases it allows to reduce costs on development process; also it allows to make preservation of consistency between models more automatic. We are aware that using the same model for different stages or aspects can cause additional cost in the model maintenance. In this paper we are trying to make a step to further (including practical) research on this topic.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2112
Mirko Jakovljevic
A specific set of architecture design patterns and computational models, used in integrated modular architectures for commercial domains can be deployed in other avionics, automotive and transportation domains. With the combination of different deterministic Ethernet protocol capabilities and selective application of best practices on non-blocking models of computation and communication, with strong resource sharing, isolation/partitioning and fault detection mechanisms, it is possible to design open Ethernet-based architectures which can host non-critical/soft-time and critical (hard RT, real-time) functions, and at the same time can support incremental modernization, reuse, and upgrades at significantly reduced system complexity and lifecycle costs.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2101
Jon Barton Shields, Brian Peirce Barker
Abstract This paper discusses the merits, benefits and usage of autonomous key management (with implicit authentication) (AKM) solutions for securing Electronic Module to Electronic Module (i.e. ECUs, FCC, REUs, etc.) communication within air (and defense) vehicles and IoT applications; particularly for transmissions between externally exposed, edge Electronic Module sensors connected to Electronic Modules within the air (and defense) vehicle infrastructure. Specific benefits addressed include reductions of communication latency, implementation complexity, processing power and energy consumption. Implementation issues discussed include provisioning, key rotation, synchronization, re-synchronization, digital signatures and enabling high entropy.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2103
Bernd Hirschler, Mirko Jakovljevic
Abstract Cybersecurity attacks exploit vulnerabilities related to the increased complexity and connectivity of critical infrastructure systems. This paper investigates the context and use of key security technologies, processes, challenges and use cases for the design of advanced integrated architectures with security, safety, and real-time performance considerations. In such architectures, deterministic Ethernet standards are used as a baseline for system integration in closed embedded systems or open mixed criticality systems. Security-informed safety development processes for integrated architectures are required to prevent catastrophic failures caused by environmental and cyber threats, due to expanding number of security vulnerabilities in complex and increasingly open systems. State-of-art safety/security processes for integrated systems in cross-industry environments are considered and similarities examined, for different types of integrated architectures.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2117
Dirk H. Martinen, Marc Lagalaye, Julien Pfefferkorn, Jean Casteres
Abstract Currently, aircraft system Test Benches are often proprietary systems, specifically designed and configured for a dedicated System Under Test (SUT). Today, no standards for configuration, data communication, and data exchange formats are available for avionics Test Benches. This leads to high Test Bench development costs and redundant activities between aircraft system suppliers and airframers. In the case of obsolescence issues for test system components, it is very costly to replace the respective parts as a high integration and reconfiguration effort is required. In the scope of an R&T project, involving several test system suppliers and aircraft system suppliers as well as Airbus as an aircraft manufacturer, a generic and modular architecture for an open test environment is under development. A further goal of the Virtual and Hybrid Testing Next Generation (VHTNG) research project is to prepare a set of open standards for the interfaces to this architecture.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2065
Sebastian Bandycki, Michele Trancossi, Jose Pascoa
Abstract This paper presents a comparison between different hypotheses of propulsion of a spherical UAS. Different architectures have been analyzed assessing their specific aerodynamic, energetic, and flight mechanics features. The comparison has been performed assuming the robustness of flight control in different wind conditions, defining for each the specific operative ranges, mission profiles, and energy assessment. An effective energy assessment and comparison against a commercial UAS has been produced. Even if the paper considers a preliminary simplified configuration, it demonstrates clearly to be competitive against traditional quadcopters in a predefined reference mission.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2111
Andrew Loveless, Christian Fidi, Stefan Wernitznigg
Abstract Over the last couple decades, there has been a growing interest in incorporating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies and open standards in the design of human-rated spacecraft. This approach is intended to reduce development and upgrade costs, lower the need for new design work, eliminate reliance on individual suppliers, and minimize schedule risk. However, it has not traditionally been possible for COTS solutions to meet the high reliability and fault tolerance requirements of systems implementing critical spacecraft functions. Byzantine faults are considered particularly dangerous to such systems because of their ability to escape traditional means of fault containment and disrupt consensus between system components. In this paper, we discuss the design of a voting protocol using Time-Triggered Ethernet capable of achieving data integrity in the presence of a single Byzantine fault.
2017-08-25
Technical Paper
2017-01-1945
Dr. Raimund Varnhagen
Abstract During recent years, all major North American and European commercial vehicle OEMs have introduced predictive functionalities based on an electronic horizon for their on-highway fleets. This is a system concept that lets vehicles know what is happening on the road ahead and allows them to react to that information without driver involvement. When an electronic horizon is used in heavy-duty trucks, a significant reduction in fuel consumption is possible as a key application. This is achieved by optimizing the algorithms in the engine control unit, the transmission control device or other control units in the vehicle. There is a clear business case for the vehicle owners. In this paper we review the long development from early navigation technologies to an in-vehicle sensor, called an electronic horizon. We present an overview of different architectures from several perspectives as well as multiple use cases for commercial vehicles.
2017-06-26
Solution Notes
SN-0001
Automating a manufacturing process often comes with substantial investment or sustained operational costs of complex subsystems. But, by reducing complexity and using technologically mature components, it is possible to develop viable scaled and robust automated solutions. For the past several years, aerospace manufacturers have endeavored to automate manufacturing processes as much as possible for both production efficiencies and competitive advantage. Automating processes like drilling, fastening, sealing, painting, and composite material production have reaped a wide range of benefits; from improving quality and productivity to lowering worker ergonomic risks. The results have improved supply chains from small component manufacturers all the way up to airframe assemblers. That said, automation can be very expensive, and difficult to introduce when a product is anywhere beyond the beginning of its life cycle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1695
Kuang-I Shu
Abstract Much like how mobile phones ceased to be only person-to-person communications devices and became technical platforms, in-vehicle electronic devices will too cease to be solely information devices and become technical platforms incorporating all-encompassing features, including but not limited to ADAS, navigation, communication, and entertainment. This fundamental shift however will require a transformation and redesign of the vehicle’s technical architecture. Today, a vehicle’s ADAS, communications, and entertainment features exist isolated in separate devices and systems and are purpose built, leading to duplicative functions, increased costs, and difficult control, management, maintenance, and upgrade of the system. This presentation will illustrate a central control system architecture built around an IoV Gateway, an open hardware platform that integrates ICT devices for future vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0067
Wei Han, Xinyu Zhang, Jialun Yin, Yutong Li, Deyi Li
Abstract Safety of buses is crucial because of the large proportion of the public transportation sector they constitute. To improve bus safety levels, especially to avoid driver error, which is a key factor in traffic accidents, we designed and implemented an intelligent bus called iBus. A robust system architecture is crucial to iBus. Thus, in this paper, a novel self-driving system architecture with improved robustness, such as to failure of hardware (including sensors and controllers), is proposed. Unlike other self-driving vehicles that operate either in manual driving mode or in self-driving mode, iBus offers a dual-control mode. More specifically, an online hot standby mechanism is incorporated to enhance the reliability of the control system, and a software monitor is implemented to ensure that all software modules function appropriately. The results of real-world road tests conducted to validate the feasibility of the overall system confirm that iBus is reliable and robust.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0070
Longxiang Guo, Sagar Manglani, Xuehao Li, Yunyi Jia
Abstract Autonomous driving technologies can provide better safety, comfort and efficiency for future transportation systems. Most research in this area has mainly been focused on developing sensing and control approaches to achieve various autonomous driving functions. Very little of this research, however, has studied how to efficiently handle sensing exceptions. A simple exception measured by any of the sensors may lead to failures in autonomous driving functions. The autonomous vehicles are then supposed to be sent back to manufacturers for repair, which takes both time and money. This paper introduces an efficient approach to make human drivers able to online teach autonomous vehicles to drive under sensing exceptions. A human-vehicle teaching-and-learning framework for autonomous driving is proposed and the human teaching and vehicle learning processes for handling sensing exceptions in autonomous vehicles are designed in detail.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0069
Venkatesh Raman, Mayur Narsude, Damodharan Padmanaban
Abstract This manuscript compares window-based data imputation approaches for data coming from connected vehicles during actual driving scenarios and obtained using on-board data acquisition devices. Three distinct window-based approaches were used for cleansing and imputing the missing values in different CAN-bus (Controller Area Network) signals. Lengths of windows used for data imputation for the three approaches were: 1) entire time-course for each vehicle ID, 2) day, and 3) trip (defined as duration between vehicle's ignition statuses ON to OFF). An algorithm for identification of ignition ON and OFF events is also presented, since this signal was not explicitly captured during the data acquisition phase. As a case study, these imputation techniques were applied to the data from a driver behavior classification experiment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0071
Vahid Taimouri, Michel Cordonnier, Kyoung Min Lee, Bryan Goodman
Abstract While operating a vehicle in either autonomous or occupant piloted mode, an array of sensors can be used to guide the vehicle including stereo cameras. The state-of-the-art distance map estimation algorithms, e.g. stereo matching, usually detect corresponding features in stereo images, and estimate disparities to compute the distance map in a scene. However, depending on the image size, content and quality, the feature extraction process can become inaccurate, unstable and slow. In contrast, we employ deep convolutional neural networks, and propose two architectures to estimate distance maps from stereo images. The first architecture is a simple and generic network that identifies which features to extract, and how to combine them in a multi-resolution framework.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0072
Yang Zheng, Navid Shokouhi, Amardeep Sathyanarayana, John Hansen
Abstract With the embedded sensors – typically Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and GPS, the smartphone could be leveraged as a low-cost sensing platform for estimating vehicle dynamics. However, the orientation and relative movement of the smartphone inside the vehicle yields the main challenge for platform deployment. This study proposes a solution of converting the smartphone-referenced IMU readings into vehicle-referenced accelerations, which allows free-positioned smartphone for the in-vehicle dynamics sensing. The approach is consisted of (i) geometry coordinate transformation techniques, (ii) neural networks regression of IMU from GPS, and (iii) adaptive filtering processes. Experiment is conducted in three driving environments which cover high occurrence of vehicle dynamic movements in lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions. The processing effectiveness at five typical positions (three fixed and two flexible) are examined.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1651
Douglas Thornburg, John Schmotzer, MJ Throop
Abstract Onboard, embedded cellular modems are enabling a range of new connectivity features in vehicles and rich, real-time data set transmissions from a vehicle’s internal network up to a cloud database are of particular interest. However, there is far too much information in a vehicle’s electrical state for every vehicle to upload all of its data in real-time. We are thus concerned with which data is uploaded and how that data is processed, structured, stored, and reported. Existing onboard data processing algorithms (e.g. for DTC detection) are hardcoded into critical vehicle firmware, limited in scope and cannot be reconfigured on the fly. Since many use cases for vehicle data analytics are still unknown, we require a system which is capable of efficiently processing and reporting vehicle deep data in real-time, such that data reporting can be switched on/off during normal vehicle operation, and that processing/reporting can be reconfigured remotely.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0021
Takashi Yasuda, Hideki Goto, Hiroki Keino, Kaoru Yoshida, Hiroyuki Mori, Miyuki Mizoguchi
Abstract In recent years, the demand for high-speed/high-bandwidth communication for in-vehicle networks has been increasing. This is because the usage of high-resolution screens and high-performance rear seat entertainment (RSE) systems is expanding. Additionally, it is also due to the higher number of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and the future introduction of autonomous driving systems. High-volume data such as high definition sensor images or obstacle information is necessary to realize these systems. Consequently, automotive Ethernet, which meets the requirements for high-speed/high-bandwidth communication, is attracting a lot of attention. The application of automotive Ethernet to in-vehicle networks requires that technology developments satisfy EMC performance requirements. In-vehicle EMC requirements consist of two parts: emission and immunity. The emission requirement is to restrict the electromagnetic noise emitted from vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0018
Jeong Chan Kim, Kai Richter, Myung Hyun Koo, Matthias Hagner, Chung Hi Lee
Abstract Along with the efforts to cope with the increase of functions which require higher communication bandwidth in vehicle networks using CAN-FD and vehicle Ethernet protocols, we have to deal with the problems of both the increased busload and more stringent response time requirement issues based on the current CAN systems. The widely used CAN busload limit guideline in the early design stage of vehicle network development is primarily intended for further frame extensions. However, when we cannot avoid exceeding the current busload design limit, we need to analyze in more detail the maximum frame response times and message delays, and we need good estimation and measurement techniques. There exist two methods for estimating the response time at the design phase, a mathematical worst-case analysis that provides upper bounds, and a probability based distributed response time simulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0023
Naoya Tsuchiya, Tomohisa Kishigami, Eiichirou Kawakami
Abstract In-vehicle network communication is evolving faster speeds and higher performance capabilities, connecting the information possessed by ECU and sensors with the in-vehicle electronic systems which are continuing to develop. With the evolution of the complicated networks, it is becoming difficult to develop them without many verification of actual machine. On the other hand, as for the verification means required at the logic level or physical level for a network verification through ECU design, virtual verification in the whole vehicle is difficult due to speed increases and the sheer size of the system. Therefore, it is only applicable for systems which are limited to a domain or an area, and flexible and timely utilization would be difficult due to the changes in specifications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0006
Harald Bucher, Clemens Reichmann, Juergen Becker
Abstract The increasing complexity of electric/electronic architectures (EEA) in the automotive domain raised the necessity of model-based development processes for the design of such heterogeneous systems, which combine different engineering principles with different viewpoints. High-level simulation is a great means to evaluate the EEA in the concept phase of the design, since it reduces costly real-world experiments. However, model-based EEA design and analysis as well as its simulation are often separate processes in the development lifecycle. In this paper, we present a novel approach that extends state-of-the-art model-based systems engineering principles of EEA by a behavior specification reusing library components. The specification is seamlessly integrated in the development process of a single source EEA model. Therewith, the starting point is the abstract logical function architecture of the EEA.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0012
Zia Hossain, Shengling Deng, Jim Sellers, Gary Loechelt, Mo Grimaldi, Irene Wan, Emily Linehan, Alexander Young, Ali Salih
Abstract To meet the increasing demand for lower RDS(ON) MOSFETs in medium voltage automotive applications, the shielded gate trench MOSFET architecture is becoming increasingly popular in recent years for its ability to achieve both lower RDS(ON) and faster switching speed. The lower specific drain-to-source resistance (RDS(ON).Area) translates into smaller chip size and consequently cheaper die cost for the end customers. Furthermore, shielded gate trench architecture offers smaller gate-to-drain capacitance by utilizing the shielding effect from the shield-poly, leading to lower G-D charge (QGD), faster switching speed, and increased dv/dt immunity. A comprehensive portfolio of medium voltage shielded gate power MOSFET products in several voltage classes (40V, 60V, 80V, and 100V) in automotive and industrial markets is presented in this paper.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0013
Gaurav Gupta, Ujjwal Modi
Abstract Flickering problems in automotive vehicles have been observed from long time. After assessing numerous vehicles it was observed that whenever the hazard lights in a vehicle are activated, it leads to flickering problems in lights/small electrical components. This paper is to provide the solution for flickering snags in electrical components in a vehicle. The lights that are analyzed to be flickering/wavering are generally small loads such as LEDs in the bus roof area, small parking lamps, LEDs used in instrument clusters, cabin lamps, etc. The flickering in lights can turn out to be very unappealing at certain times. This absurd behavior can lead to extreme discomfort to the passengers and can also be a source of major distraction to the driver. This study presents the design & development for a vehicle platform & implementation that assesses the problem. Because of abrupt behavior of flasher circuits, voltage surges are observed, leading to flickering problems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0017
Azeem Hafeez, Hafiz Malik, Omid Avatefipour, Prudhvi Raj Rongali, Shan Zehra
Abstract Technological advances in automotive industry have resulted in an increased number of Electronic Control Units (ECU)s. These ECUs are used for sensing and controlling actuators in the modern vehicles. Various network protocols have been proposed to achieve scalable and reliable communication amonglarge number ECUs in modern vehicles.Various network protocols have been proposed for invehicle communication,such as Controlled Area Network (CAN), Local Interconnected Network (LIN), Media Oriented System Transport (MOST), and FlexRay. This study compares latency and reliability of CAN-Bus and FlexRay communication protocols. The HSC12 microcontroller is used to implement these protocols, and for secure communication data is encrypted.Our experimental results indicate that the CAN-Bus communication protocol is a better option for hard real-time systems and FlexRay protocol is appropriate for deterministic data transmission, e.g., priority-less message communication.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0022
Holger Zeltwanger
Abstract In-vehicle networks (IVN) have been standardized from the beginning. The story of IVN standardization started at the beginning of the 90s. Today, several IVN technologies have been internationally standardized by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) including the related conformance test plans. But as all electronic technologies, IVNs are a matter of improvement and change due to new requirements and gained experiences. This makes it difficult to always keep the standard backwards compatible, in particular if immature approaches are submitted. Furthermore, new communication protocols are knocking on the door of international standardization bodies. The automotive industry itself is conservative and adapts new IVNs slowly. There are also concerns regarding too many different bus systems and networks in one vehicle. This paper discusses the benefits and challenges of the standardization of IVNs.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0068
Pablo Sauras-Perez, Andrea Gil, Jasprit Singh Gill, Pierluigi Pisu, Joachim Taiber
Abstract In the next 20 years fully autonomous vehicles are expected to be in the market. The advance on their development is creating paradigm shifts on different automotive related research areas. Vehicle interiors design and human vehicle interaction are evolving to enable interaction flexibility inside the cars. However, most of today’s vehicle manufacturers’ autonomous car concepts maintain the steering wheel as a control element. While this approach allows the driver to take over the vehicle route if needed, it causes a constraint in the previously mentioned interaction flexibility. Other approaches, such as the one proposed by Google, enable interaction flexibility by removing the steering wheel and accelerator and brake pedals. However, this prevents the users to take control over the vehicle route if needed, not allowing them to make on-route spontaneous decisions, such as stopping at a specific point of interest.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0020
Mark Zachos
Abstract Since 2001, all sensitive information of U.S. Federal Agencies has been protected by strong encryption mandated by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 140-2 Security Requirements. The requirements specify a formal certification process. The process ensures that validated encryption modules have implemented the standard, and have passed a rigorous testing and review processes. Today, this same strong security protection has become possible for vehicle networks using modern, cost-effective encryption in hardware. This paper introduces the motivation and context for the encryption diagnostics security in terms of all vehicles in general, not just trucks which use SAE J1939 communications. Several practical scenarios for using such encryption hardware and the advantages of using hardware compared to software private-key encryption and public-key encryption are described.
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