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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1227
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2401
Michael Schmidt, Philipp Nguyen, Mirko Hornung
Abstract The projected uptick in world passenger traffic challenges the involved stakeholders to optimise the current aviation system and to find new solutions being able to cope with this trend. Since especially large hub airports are congested, operate at their capacity limit and further extensions are difficult to realise. Delays due to late arrival of aircraft or less predictable ground operation processes disrupt the airport operations in a serious way. Various concepts improving the current turnaround processes have been presented thus far, whereby radical aircraft design changes have little chances for realisation in the short term. By maintaining the established overall aircraft configuration, the concepts promote higher probability to become commercially available for aircraft manufactures and operators.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2440
Robert Moehle, Jason Clauss
Abstract Labor costs rank second only to fuel in expenses for commercial air transports. Labor issues are a growing concern in the airline industry, with an impending worldwide pilot shortage. One solution proposed and requested by some of the industry leaders is to allow a single flight crew member to operate the aircraft. Safety concerns represent the dominant barrier to single-pilot Part 121 operations. The FAA and Congress consistently demonstrate a bias toward conservatism in their regulation of airlines and commercial aircraft. Bureaucrats and the general public fall prey to isolated news stories that highlight pilot error and anchor their viewpoint on further regulating a two-person crew. Yet, in an alarming spate of recent airline accidents, the presence of multiple crewmembers did nothing to prevent, and actually may have contributed to, the crash. Technology is not the problem.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2397
Angelo C. Conner, Luis Rabelo
Abstract In planning, simulation models create microcosms, small universes that operate based on assumed principles. While this can be powerful, the information it can provide is limited by the assumptions made and the designed operation of the model. When performing schedule planning and analysis, modelers are often provided with timelines representing project tasks, their relationships, and estimates related to durations, resource requirements, etc. These timelines can be created with programs such as Microsoft Excel or Microsoft Project. There are several important attributes these timelines have; they represent a nominal flow (meaning they do not represent stochastic processes), and they are not necessarily governed by dates or subjected to a calendar. Attributes such as these become important in project planning since timelines often serve as the basis for creating schedules.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2097
Timothy A. Shannon, Stephen T. McClain
Abstract Changes in convection coefficient caused by the changes in surface roughness characteristics along an iced NACA 0012 airfoil were investigated in the 61-cm by 61-cm (24 in. by 24 in.) Baylor Subsonic Wind Tunnel using a 91.4-cm (36-in.) long heated aerodynamic test plate and infrared thermometry. A foam insert was constructed and installed on the wind tunnel ceiling to create flow acceleration along the test plate replicating the scaled flow acceleration the along the leading 17.1% (3.6 in.) of a 53.3-cm (21-in.) NACA 0012 airfoil. Two sets of rough surface panels were constructed for the study, and each surface used the same basic random droplet pattern created using the Lagrangian droplet simulator of Tecson and McClain (2013). For the first surface, the roughness pattern was replicated with the same geometry over the plate following a smooth-to-rough transition location noted in historical literature for the case being replicated.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2102
Guilin Lei, Wei Dong, Jianjun Zhu, Mei Zheng
Abstract The numerical simulation of ice melting process on an iced helicopter rotor blade is presented. The ice melting model uses an enthalpy-porosity formulation, and treats the liquid-solid mushy zone as a porous zone with porosity equal to the liquid fraction. The ice shape on the blade section is obtained by the icing code with a dynamic mesh module. Both of the temperature change and the ice-melting process on the rotor blade section surface are analyzed. The phenomenon of ice melting is analyzed through the change of temperature and liquid fraction on the abrasion/ice interface. The liquid fraction change as with time on the abrasion/ice surface is observed, which describes the ice-melting process well. The numerical results show that the ice melting process can be simulated effectively by the melting model. The de-icing process can be monitored by observing the change of the liquid fraction of the area around the abrasion/ice interface.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2093
Maxime Henno
Abstract Advanced sizing of the thermal wing ice protection system (WIPS) requires an improved and a robust manner to simulate the system operation in unsteady phases and particularly in de-icing operations. A two dimensional numerical tool has been developed to enable the simulation of unsteady anti-icing and de-icing operations. For example, the WIPS may be activated with delay after entering into the icing conditions. In this case, ice starts to accrete on the leading edge before the WIPS heats up the skin. Another example is the ground activation of the WIPS for several seconds to check its functionality: low external cooling may cause high thermal constraints that must be estimated with accuracy to avoid adverse effects on the structure. Thermal de-icing WIPS integrated in composite structures intrinsically have unsteady behaviors; the tool enables the computation of the skin temperature evolution with the time.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2135
Martin Schulz, Michael Sinapius
Abstract A designer of a new mechanical ice protection system for airplanes needs to know how much and in which way he has to deform the surface to break off the ice. The ice adhesion strength is often used as a design value. Several methods have been published to measure the adhesive strength of ice. This paper analyzes the interface stresses created by those methods and discusses the way the adhesion strength is derived. A finite element method tool is used to provide insight into the stress state for different load cases. The implication of these illustrations is that equations which use only ultimate force and total interfacial area to calculate adhesion strength miss local stress concentrations and crack nucleation. Hence, the derived adhesion strength may not be comparable within different testing methods, because each testing procedure neglects different parameters like specimen size, substrate thickness and stiffness.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2120
Yong Han Yeong, Eric Loth, Jack Sokhey, Alexis Lambourne
Researchers have recently focused on superhydrophobic coatings as an ice-mitigation tool. These surfaces have a high degree of water-repellency and were shown in previous low-speed droplet studies to reduce surface ice adhesion strength. However, there is little research regarding testing in aerospace icing conditions, i.e. high-speed super-cooled droplet impact (> 50 m/s) on a freezing substrate and air temperature. A detailed set of experiments were conducted in an icing wind tunnel to measure the ice adhesion strength of various superhydrophobic coatings by subjecting the surfaces to a super-cooled icing cloud consisting of 20 μm droplets and at a constant LWC of 0.4 g/m3. Test conditions include air speeds of 50 m/s and 70 m/s and in glaze (−5°C) and rime ice regimes (−15°C). The accreted ice was then removed by pressurized nitrogen in a mode 1 (tensile) adhesion test.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2092
David M. Orchard, Catherine Clark, Myron Oleskiw
Abstract Simulations of supercooled large droplet (SLD) icing environments within the NRC's Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel (AIWT) have been performed in which broad band mass distribution spectra are achieved that include a distinct pattern of liquid water content (LWC) over a range of droplet sizes (i.e., bi-modal distribution). The mass distribution is achieved through modification of the existing spray system of the AIWT to allow two spray profiles with differing LWC and median volumetric diameter (MVD) to be simultaneously injected into the flow. Results of spray profile distributions measured in the test section have demonstrated that freezing drizzle conditions, where MVD is either less than or greater than 40 μm, can be achieved.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2078
Alric Rothmayer, Hui Hu
Abstract A strong air/water interaction theory is used to develop a fast simplified model for the trapping of water in a film that flows over sub-grid surface roughness. The sub-grid model is used to compute correction factors that can alter mass transport within the film. The sub-grid model is integrated into a covariant film mass transport model of film flow past three-dimensional surfaces in a form that is suitable for use in aircraft icing codes. Sample calculations are presented to illustrate the application of the model.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2158
Tatsuma Hyugaji, Shigeo Kimura, Haruka Endo, Mitsugu Hasegawa, Hirotaka Sakaue, Katsuaki Morita, Yoichi Yamagishi, Nadine Rehfeld, Benoit Berton, Francesc Diaz, Tarou Tanaka
Coating has been recently considered as having good potential for use in preventing in-cloud icing on the leading edge of the lifting surfaces of an aircraft in cold climates. In terms of wettability, a coat may exhibit hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity depending on its specific properties. The same applies to the ice adhesion strength, which may be either high or low. It is thus necessary to determine which type of anti-icing or de-icing coat would be appropriate for a particular application in order to fully utilize its specific properties. Notwithstanding, a coat is incapable of preventing ice accretion by itself, and a perfect icephobic coat is yet to be developed. Coating is also sometimes applied to the surfaces of electrical heaters and load-applying machines to enable them to function more effectively and use less energy. The coating used for an electric heater, for instance, should be hydrophobic because of the need for rapid removal of molten water from the surface.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2159
Philipp Grimmer, Swarupini Ganesan, Michael Haupt, Jakob Barz, Christian Oehr, Thomas Hirth
Abstract As known de-icing methods use a high amount of energy or environmentally harmful chemicals, research has focused lately on passive de-icing by functional surfaces with an improved removal of ice (de-icing) or a reduced formation of it (anti-icing). Inspired by the Lotus plant leaf, a “superhydrophobic” surface can be produced by the combination of a hierarchical micro/nanoscale roughness and a hydrophobic surface coating. By a hot stamping process we have generated differently shaped microstructures (cylinders, ellipses) on polyurethane (PU) films which were afterwards coated by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process with thin, hydrophobic fluorocarbon films. This combination of methods could be a process for the production of large area functionalized films. PU films are suitable for outdoor use, because they are resistant against erosion and UV radiation. The films can be glued to different geometries and can easily be exchanged if damaged.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2160
Alidad Amirfazli
Abstract The surfaces that shed drops helps with mitigation of icing. Shedding of drop depends on surface hydrophobicity, which becomes affected when exposed to water and/or UV. The hydrophobicity degradation of six (Spray SHS, Etched Al SHS, Hydrobead, Neverwet, Waterbeader, and WX2100) different super-hydrophobic surfaces (SHS), exposed to water or UV, were studied from the drop shedding perspective. Two methods were adopted for the hydrophobicity analysis. Among them, one is to study the contact angles (CA) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) change at static state (i.e., no airflow) compared to the untreated surface. The other one is to analyze the change in critical air velocity (Uc) for a given drop exposed to airflow, on water/UV treated surfaces at room temperature (22 °C) and icing conditions (−1 and −7 °C).
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2157
Mengyao Leng, Shinan Chang, Yuanyuan Zhao
Abstract Aircraft icing causes a great threaten to flight safety. With the development of anti-icing or de-icing systems for aircraft, some attention has been paid on coating strategies for an efficient way to prevent water remaining on the surface. By application of hydrophobic or super-hydrophobic coatings, characterized by low surface adhesion, shedding of liquid from the surface can be enhanced. The motivation behind this work is to identify the way that wettability affects the motion of runback water, and establish an empirical formula of critical departure diameter. The surface property is characterized by the equilibrium contact angle and the hysteresis angle. The relationship between the air speed and the droplet shedding diameter is studied, corresponding to different surfaces.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2076
Caroline Laforte, Neal Wesley, Marc Mario Tremblay
Abstract This study presents a new method to evaluate and compare the anti-icing performance, i.e., the ability to delay the reformation of ice, of runways and taxiways deicing/anti-icing fluids (RDF) under icing precipitation, based on the skid resistance values, obtained with the Portable Skid Resistance Tester (PSRT). In summary, the test consists of applying, on a standardized concrete pavement sample, a given quantity of de-icing fluid. Following this application, the concrete sample is submitted to low freezing drizzle intensities, in a cold chamber at −5.0 ± 0.3°C. The skid resistance of concrete is measured at 5 minute intervals, until the concrete becomes completely iced. The anti-icing performance of 5 different fluids, both experimental and commercial, was assessed in comparison with a reference solution of 50% w/w K-formate. The anti-icing performance is analyzed based on two parameters: the duration (Icing Protection Time, IPT) and the effectiveness of this protection.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2149
Caroline Laforte, Caroline Blackburn, Jean Perron
Abstract This paper depicts icephobic coating performances of 274 different coatings, including 11 grease-type coatings, which were tested over the past 10 years in various research projects at the Anti-Icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL). Icephobic performance is evaluated using two comparative test methods. The first method, the ice Centrifuge Adhesion Test (CAT), measures the force required to separate the accreted ice from the coating (e.g. adhesive failure). The test involves simultaneously icing, under supercooled precipitation, the extremity of bare reference and freshly coated aluminum samples. The ice adhesion shear stress is calculated from the ice detachment rotation speed. The results are reported as Adhesion Reduction Factor (ARF), which is the ice adhesion stress on the bare aluminum reference samples divided by the ice adhesion stress on the coated samples.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0146
Tiago Stival, Claudia Regina de Andrade
Abstract Nowadays, the most common technologies used in the aircraft ice protection systems use indirect methods that identify atmospheric conditions prone to ice accretion, and not in fact the ice accretion over the surfaces, not measuring this accreted ice. On top of that, the ice protection systems are designed based on a certain flight phase considered the most critical for the system and its operation does not depend on the severity of the ice condition. Using direct methods for detecting the ice accretion on the protected areas and a control system based on the feedback of these sensors, it is possible to reduce the energetic consumption and measuring the ice accreted, optimize it, reducing the penalties for the propulsion system and the aircraft design.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2315
Raphael Van Der Vorst, Jean Louis Magerman, Bruno Bernay, Swen Vandenberk, Alex Carrella
Wing Anti-Icing Systems (WAIS) are integral part of a wing design. Their presence ensures safety in all-weather conditions. In standard designs, the WAIS are fitted in the slat internal structure and runs throughout its span in between the ribs. Given its critical function, such a system has to pass qualification test. The test specification is dictated by international standards. In the case discussed in this article, the standard adopted is the RTCA DO-160G “Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment”. In particular, the work presented here concerns with the Vibration environmental test. The standard prescribes a number of dynamic tests to be carried out on the AIS: random, shock and sine excitation tests have to be performed in order to study their effect on the parts composing the Anti-Icing System. The standard prescribes vibration levels at the attachment locations of the AIS to the wings' ribs.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2106
Hitoshi Oyori, Noriko Morioka
With airlines increasingly directing their attention to operating costs and environmental initiatives, the More Electric Architecture for Aircraft and Propulsion (MEAAP) is emerging as a viable solution for improved performance and eco-friendly aircraft operations. This paper focuses on electric taxiing that does not require the use of jet engines or the auxiliary power unit (APU) during taxiing, either from the departure gate to take-off or from landing to the arrival gate. Many researchers and engineers are considering introducing electric taxiing systems as part of efforts to improve airport conditions. To help cut aircraft emissions at airports, MEAAP seeks to introduce an electric taxiing system that would reduce the duration for which engines and APUs operate while on the ground. Given this goal, the aircraft electrical system deployed for use at airports must rely on a power source other than the jet engines or APU.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2101
Ivana Durickovic, Mario Marchetti, Stephanie Poissonnier, Guillaume Casteran, Rachel Mansour, Nathalie Schweigert, Benoit Mars
Winter maintenance is based on the intervention of operating services, as well as the use of deicers. Each year, in France, thousands of tons of deicers are spread through runways and taxiways. On the airport sector, the main deicers are sodium or potassium acetates and formates. All these deicers aim to prevent ice formation (preventive strategy) and/or improve the ice melting of snow residual film (curative strategy) at temperatures below 0°C. The operating principle of these compounds is based on the lowering of the solution's freezing point once dissolved in water. The phase diagram's knowledge is predominant to determine the deicer's amount to be applied on the surface. It provides a way to optimize their amounts applied with respect to weather conditions, present or forecasted. The Center for Technical Studies of Equipment in East of France (CETE de l'Est) developed and implemented a method based on Raman spectroscopy to characterize aqueous solutions of airport de-icers.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2301
Yao Wang, Shon Grabbe
When the demand for either a region of airspace or an airport approaches or exceeds the available capacity, miles-in-trail (MIT) restrictions are the most frequently issued traffic management initiatives (TMIs) that are used to mitigate these imbalances. Miles-in-trail operations require aircraft in a traffic stream to meet a specific inter-aircraft separation in exchange for maintaining a safe and orderly flow within the stream. This stream of aircraft can be departing an airport, over a common fix, through a sector, on a specific route or arriving at an airport. This study begins by providing a high-level overview of the distribution and causes of arrival MIT restrictions for the top ten airports in the United States. This is followed by an in-depth analysis of the frequency, duration and cause of MIT restrictions impacting the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL) from 2009 through 2011.
2012-02-29
Technical Paper
2012-01-1507
Antonio Dumas, Michele Trancossi, Mauro Madonia, Maurizio Bonnici, Piergiorgio Scaccaglia, Mario Guareschi
This paper presents a novel concept of acclimatized container to increase people comfort in case of temporary housing. It is based on the ZEBRA concept (Zero Energy Building Renewable Addicted) concept studied by Università of Modena e Reggio Emilia. The original concept developed for industrial building has been extended to mobile metallic housing systems such as the containers transported by trucks which are used for troops and military command during field operations. This system does not require any external source of energy. It requires only the presence of a water well or drilling a hole to place inside a closed loop exchanger which is used to stabilize temperature of internal water which is used as a dynamic thermal barrier which maintains in the wellness conditions inside the mobile housing equipment. Energetic costs of this system are related only to the very reduced energy necessary for water pumping operations.
2012-02-29
Technical Paper
2012-01-1501
G. Patrick Brown
Examination of existing GSE site and building layouts and specific building elements lead to keys to improved GSE maintenance productivity that can be created with proper building design: Which site layouts provide proper staging and storage areas? Which building configurations help create the most efficient operations? What special building design features and equipment help to expedite vehicle throughput? Conclusions are drawn from design and construction experience, and from the examination of existing facilities, that provide guidelines for planning the new facility. How big should the facility be? How does air traffic growth influence GSE maintenance planning? What factors should be considered in planning a GSE maintenance facility? The paper also offers a brief checklist for the GSE Maintenance Facility planning process.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2523
Enrique Soriano, Pedro Del Valle
The optimization of the available energy within a vehicle is one of the key drivers for all the ongoing projects. This topic is even more critical when the possibility of recharge energy into the vehicle it is quite improbable or even impossible. Hence all the system involved in the energy management shall create synergies. The Thermal Management is based on two paramount bases. The first one is the location of thermal sources (it can rather been cold sinks or heat sources). The second is the transportation of the energy from one source to a sink. The identification of the sources is based on the vehicle necessities. The definition of the transportation means depend on the vehicle capacities. Traditional system to transport the heat from one place to another are based on fluid displacement. Therefore they need some energy to pump this fluid. In the last years the use of passive transportation means is being developed in the aerospace industry.
2011-06-13
Technical Paper
2011-38-0035
Colin Hatch, Richard Moser, Roger Gent, Peter Hicks
The demand for low power ice protection systems and the introduction of further regulations for flight into known icing will stretch current technologies and the analytical tools required to support them. This paper considers an approach in the development of an analysis tool for the assessment of a combined electro-thermal and electro-mechanical deicing system. The tool development is part of a 4 year EU programme (project ‘HETEMS’ - Hybrid ElectroThermal and ElectoMechanical Simulation) and will include the icing wind tunnel testing of a hybrid deicing system to provide validation data. The various analytical components required by the system are presented and some of the issues in applying them are discussed. The tool will aim to provide both a 2D and 3D capability and allow both conceptual and detailed design strategies.
2011-06-13
Technical Paper
2011-38-0045
Guy Fortin, Ilham Enneji, Arlene Beisswenger, Jean Perron
Deicing and anti-icing fluids are used to remove and prevent ice formation on aircraft before takeoff. Holdover times (HOT) published by the FAA are used by pilots as guidelines indicating the amount of effective time of a fluid under certain freezing precipitation types. However, the times on these tables are based on endurance time tests involving a visual estimate of failure on a flat plate [1]: when 30% of the fluid is covered with white snow under snow precipitation, although the times have been correlated to aircraft wing tests [2] they do not address the mechanism of fluid failure. To measure and understand the fluid mechanisms conducting to failure, the Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL) developed a simplified test with a generic deicing propylene glycol-based fluid. The test consisted of pouring 400 mL of the generic deicing fluid on a 5 dm by 3 dm level flat plate where the plate edges were rimmed with insolated walls to make a waterproof open box.
2011-06-13
Technical Paper
2011-38-0058
Arlene Beisswenger, Caroline Laforte, Jean Perron
Deicing fluids are used to remove and prevent ice formation on aircraft before takeoff. These fluids are essentially composed of water, a freeze point depressant (FPD) usually glycol, a surfactant or wetting agent and a corrosion inhibitor. All commercial fluids are qualified to SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) specifications, which test for aerodynamic acceptance, anti-icing endurance, corrosion inhibition, material compatibility, fluid stability and environment. However, these tests have been built around a fluid with a glycol FPD. More recently, with environmental pressure, fluids with other FPDs have been developed and qualified. The other FPDs include: acetates and formate salts, sorbitol, and other undisclosed FPDs. The acetates and formates, which came out in the early 1990s led to suspected corrosion problems. This led to the additional requirement for corrosion tests for non-glycol deicing fluids in paragraph 3.1.1 of AMS1424.
2011-06-13
Technical Paper
2011-38-0098
Austin Overmeyer, Jose Luis Palacios, Edward C. Smith, Roger Royer
Ultrasonic excitation has proven to provide ice interface transverse shear stresses exceeding the adhesion strength of freezer and wind tunnel ice to various metals, promoting instantaneous ice delamination. Prior proof-of-concept testing presented issues related to piezoelectric actuator cracking under ultrasonic tensile excitation, as well as actuator debonding from the host structure. The aim of this research is to provide solutions to the actuator reliability issues encountered during prior research and to perform rotor icing testing to validate the proposed solutions. Three different approaches are taken to solve the issues related with actuator failure during de-icing processes: custom-designed controllers to ensure the excitation of desired ultrasonic resonance modes, compression only driving of the actuator, and optimization of actuator thickness.
2011-06-13
Technical Paper
2011-38-0096
Shinan Chang
Electro-thermal deicing process was an unsteady heat transfer process including phase change. Based on the investigation of such a process, a code was developed to numerically simulate electro-thermal deicing process. Phase change was performed by an enthalpy method. A staircase approach was used to describe the variable ice thicknesses along the icing surface. The control volume method was adopted to discretize the governing equations. Tri-diagonal matrix method, alternating direction implicit method and block-correction technique were used to solve the discrete equations. Results of temperature distribution in this investigation were compared with experimental results of previous study. Their good agreements indicate the validity of our simulation. The effects of icing conditions, such as ambient temperature, liquid water content (LWC) and flight velocity, etc., were analyzed through a case. Some useful conclusions were achieved.
2011-06-13
Technical Paper
2011-38-0104
Mariusz Kubryn, Robert Flemming, Ben Bernstein, Janusz Pietruszka
PZL Mielec is in the process of certificating the ice protection systems installed on the M28 turboprop aircraft so that customers of that aircraft may operate in icing conditions. The M28 airplane is derived from the Antonov An-28, which was certificated in Russia to their icing certification requirements many decades ago. The M28 is equipped with a lot of western equipment, including Pratt and Whitney Canada engines and Hartzell propellers, and now has a no-hazard certification for the use of the installed ice protection system. The M28 ice protection equipment includes wing and tail anti-icing, engine inlet anti-icing, propeller deicing, and wing strut deicing. These systems have undergone a series of development flight tests and icing wind tunnel tests. This paper presents an overview of the flight tests and wind tunnel tests conducted to date.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1227

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