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2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2441
Ahmet Oztekin
Air Traffic Control System (ATCS) provides organizational, operational, and technical infrastructure necessary to maintain air traffic separation and prevent collision between aircraft operating within civil airspace. Current aviation safety research focuses mainly on aircraft and human vs. machine interactions. There is a gap in literature regarding research that explores ATCS’s potential impact on aviation safety. For complex systems, such as ATCS, safety is primarily a product of potential interactions among its various sub-systems. For example, over the phases of flight, separation of air traffic is maintained by different types of air traffic control (ATC) facilities. This paper outlines an analytical framework to perform a data-driven, risk-based assessment of ATC facilities. Safety associated with an ATC facility is modeled as an influence network using a set of risk factors.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2443
Nivedita Chanda
Aircrafts use Transponder for transmitting data to Air Traffic Control. Transponders automatically transmit a unique four-digit code when they receive a radio signal sent by radar. Code gives the plane's identity and radar stations establish speed and direction by monitoring successive transmissions. This data is then relayed to air traffic controllers. However, the aircraft mishaps have risen alarmingly in the past few decades resulting in unpredictable losses of human lives, nature, economically along with commotion of systems. This has necessitated active research work to fundamentally design better and effective systems. At present, there is no evident redundant system to transponder unlike in case of Power-Plants, three-fold reliable, safety cum redundant power supply system are present.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2458
Giuseppe Sirigu, Manuela Battipede, Piero Gili, Mario Cassaro
Abstract The future revolution of the air traffic system imposes the development of a new class of Flight Management Systems (FMS), capable of providing the aircraft with real-time reference flight parameters, necessary to fly the aircraft through a predefined sequence of waypoints, while minimizing fuel consumption, noise and pollution emissions. The main goal is to guarantee safety operations while reducing the aircraft environmental impact, according to the main international research programs. This policy is expected to affect also the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs), as soon as they will be allowed to fly beyond the restricted portions of the aerospace where they are currently confined. In the future, in fact, UASs are expected to fly within the whole civilian airspace, under the same requirements deriving from the adoption of the Performance Based Navigation (PBN).
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2520
Thabet Kacem, Jeronymo Carvalho, Duminda Wijesekera, Paulo Costa, Márcio Monteiro, Alexandre Barreto
Abstract Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) [1] is a technology that can be viewed either as a complement or as an alternative to current radar-based surveillance techniques. Despite its many benefits, this technology suffers from the security flaw of having its messages sent as clear text broadcasts, which makes it vulnerable to several kinds of attacks affecting the authenticity and integrity of ADS-b messages - a problem we addressed with a security framework presented in previous work [2]. In this paper, we propose to enhance that initial work by using keyed-hash message authentication code [3] (HMAC) to ensure the authenticity and integrity of ADS-B messages. The proposed improvements include changing the structure of the security-related data and, more importantly, adding a cognitive risk adaptive module. These improvements resulted in four main contributions.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2392
Matthew Marino, Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini
Abstract This paper gives the concepts and mathematically models required for the development of the Multi Objective Trajectory Optimization (MOTO) functionalities to be implemented into the next generation of ATM system. MOTO algorithms are introduced whereby data from various sources are utilized to optimize flight paths for various user defined objectives. The algorithms require digital resources of weather, aircraft data, metrological maps and air traffic. These will be used in conjunction with various mathematical models to compute trajectories that minimize various objectives such as fuel, emissions and operational cost. The automated 4D trajectory computation algorithms are restricted to single flight level to not violate the current layered vertical air route structure for the cruise phase of flight.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2538
Yixiang Lim, Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini
Abstract Contrails and aircraft-induced cirrus clouds are reputed being the largest components of aviation-induced global warming, even greater than carbon dioxide (CO2) exhaust emissions by aircraft. This article presents a contrail model algorithm specifically developed to be integrated within a multi-objective flight trajectory optimization software framework. The purpose of the algorithm is to supply to the optimizer a measure of the estimated radiative forcing from the contrails generated by the aircraft while flying a specific trajectory. In order to determine the precise measure, a comprehensive model is employed exploiting the Schmidt-Appleman criterion and ice-supersaturation regions. Additional parameters such as the solar zenith angle, contrail lifetime and spread are also considered.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2539
Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini, Subramanian Ramasamy, Matthew Marino, Trevor Kistan
Abstract As part of the current initiatives aimed at enhancing safety, efficiency and environmental sustainability of aviation, a significant improvement in the efficiency of aircraft operations is currently pursued. Innovative Communication, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) technologies and operational concepts are being developed to achieve the ambitious goals for efficiency and environmental sustainability set by national and international aviation organizations. These technological and operational innovations will be ultimately enabled by the introduction of novel CNS/ATM and Avionics (CNS+A) systems, featuring higher levels of automation. A core feature of such systems consists in the real-time multi-objective optimization of flight trajectories, incorporating all the operational, economic and environmental aspects of the aircraft mission.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2544
Subramanian Ramasamy, Roberto Sabatini
Abstract Avionic system developers are currently working on innovative technologies that are required in view of the rapid expansion of global air transport and growing concerns for environmental sustainability of aviation sector. Novel Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) system designs are being developed in the CNS/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) and Avionics (CNS+A) context for mission-and safety-critical applications. The introduction of dedicated software modules in Next Generation Flight Management Systems (NG-FMS), which are the primary providers of automated navigation and guidance services in manned aircraft and Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), has the potential to enable the significant advances brought in by time and trajectory based operations. High-integrity, high-reliability and all-weather services are required in the context of four dimensional Trajectory Based Operations / Intent Based Operations (TBO/IBO).
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2299
Rafael Fernandes de Oliveira
Trajectory optimization methods have been successfully used to minimize pollutant emissions during departure and arrivals, and noise over communities near the airports. This has led to the development, within the CleanSky European research project, of a trajectory optimization framework capable of finding optimal flight paths that minimize emissions, flight cost and noise impact on the population, while still taking into account aircraft limitations and operational restrictions. While this can be very useful when the next generation of trajectory-based air-traffic management systems arrives, as being proposed by SESAR and NextGen, it can still provide benefits in the current context, if implemented taking into account the air navigation rules.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2301
Yao Wang, Shon Grabbe
When the demand for either a region of airspace or an airport approaches or exceeds the available capacity, miles-in-trail (MIT) restrictions are the most frequently issued traffic management initiatives (TMIs) that are used to mitigate these imbalances. Miles-in-trail operations require aircraft in a traffic stream to meet a specific inter-aircraft separation in exchange for maintaining a safe and orderly flow within the stream. This stream of aircraft can be departing an airport, over a common fix, through a sector, on a specific route or arriving at an airport. This study begins by providing a high-level overview of the distribution and causes of arrival MIT restrictions for the top ten airports in the United States. This is followed by an in-depth analysis of the frequency, duration and cause of MIT restrictions impacting the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL) from 2009 through 2011.
2012-05-30
Magazine
Efficient, low-cost power converters for EVs Losses when power converters change the currents, voltages, and frequencies of electrical fees mean efficiencies are in high demand for EVs and everything else electric.
2012-05-16
Magazine
New blades turning Industry is in the midst of new initiatives to develop lighter, stronger aero engine fan blades. ATM revolution-on the way at last A look at one of the biggest issues facing the air transport sector: integrating air traffic management policies and solutions. A new positioning system for aircraft structural assembly The EcoPositioner is a modular and reconfigurable positioning technology that takes into consideration the positioning task as well as operational conditions and environmental influences.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2718
Benjamin Knoblauch, Patricia Best, Vijay Ragothaman, Ravi Pendse
While most industries have already adopted the use of IP networks to exploit the many advantages of network connectivity, the aircraft industry still has not significantly deployed networked devices in the aircraft. Security and reliability are two main concerns that have slowed the transition to this technology. The ability for Air Traffic Control to send digital communications to aircraft could significantly improve the aircraft safety by improving the speed and efficiency of communications. In addition, if devices could offload flight data to servers on the ground for analysis, the accuracy and efficiency of maintenance and other decisions impacting the aircraft could significantly improve. The purpose of this research is to propose an IP-based LAN architecture for the aircraft which provides a scalable solution without jeopardizing flight safety.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2710
Stefano T. Chiadò, Valter Basso, Mauro Pasquinelli, Laura Quinale
This paper aims to show how it is possible to blend a Tool Chain approach with a Model Based Engineering Environment approach during preliminary phases of a space project. Attention is not focused on the whole spacecraft lifecycle but on a preliminary phase that is very helpful in itself to test methodology, technologies and processes. This blended model may allow for cost reduction and reduced development times along the supply chain whereas there are heterogeneous IT systems and tools. The aim of this work has been to make engineering data exchange among different engineering groups easier whilst guaranteeing compliancy to a common spacecraft data model. This methodology has been applied to a test case comprising the preliminary design of a Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR).
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2560
Guillaume Brat
As the US is getting ready for the Next Generation (NextGen) of Air Traffic System, there is a growing concern that the current techniques for verification and validation will not be adequate for the changes to come. The JPDO (in charge of implementing NextGen) has given NASA a mandate to address the problem and it resulted in the formulation of the V&V of Flight-Critical Systems effort. This research effort is divided into four themes: argument-based safety assurance, distributed systems, authority and autonomy, and, software intensive systems. This paper presents an overview of the technologies that will address the problem.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2709
Sonja Straussberger, Florence Reuzeau
The vision of SESAR is to integrate and implement new technologies to improve air traffic management (ATM) performance. Enhanced automation and new separation modes characterize the future concept of operations, where the role of the human operator will remain central by integrating more managing and decision-making functions. The expected changes represent challenges for the human actors in the aircraft and on ground and must be taken into account during the development phase. Integrating the human in the ATM system development starting from the early design phase is a key factor for future acceptability. This paper describes the adaptation of currently applied Cockpit Human Factors processes in order to be able to design the aircraft for the future ATM environment.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2708
Rajkumar Thirumalainambi
Accuracy on weather prediction is a significant factor on present models of air traffic and planning, and will be a key factor on future advanced models in many areas and activities, and we can envision advanced human emotion models with weather as a key component. As part of this research effort, this paper addresses the development of three-layer architecture for hourly distribution of an accurate 24-hour global aviation weather prediction and a multivariate analysis of the aviation weather data provided by NOAA's National Weather Service.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2716
Jorge Bardina
A review of the research accomplished in 2009 in the System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools (SLDAST) of the NASA's Airspace Systems Program is presented. This research thrust focuses on the integrated system-level assessment of component level innovations, concepts and technologies of the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) under research in the ASP program to enable the development of revolutionary improvements and modernization of the National Airspace System. The review includes the accomplishments on baseline research and the advancements on design studies and system-level assessment, including the cluster analysis as an annualization standard of the air traffic in the U.S. National Airspace, and the ACES-Air MIDAS integration for human-in-the-loop analyzes within the NAS air traffic simulation.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2660
Silvia Larghi, Marco Villa, Michele Tumminelli, Maria Nogarino, Antonio Ottolia, Massimo Traversone
The SCARLETT European Research Project has the goal to define, develop and validate the concepts of the next generation of IMA (IMA2G). Enhanced File Management capability is central to support next generation IMA Platform properties and the increasing usage of memory mass storage. IMA2G Applications require access to data stored on mass memory independent from their physical location across the Platform; Platform-wide File Services are required. We provide, in the framework of the SCARLETT project, a distributed approach to File Management, which meets the IMA2G requirements. The proposed design aims to move from a module-centric File Management, typical in IMA1G, to a Platform-centric File Management based on a distributed file stack. After examining existing IMA standard solutions concerning File Management, an overview of the ‘Platform File Management’ architecture is given.
2011-09-06
Magazine
Back to the future- the Honda way In a far-ranging discussion, the company's President of R&D opens the curtains a little on the inner workings of research and development from the CVCC engine to the new two-motor hybrid system. Mazda takes off "Skyactiv-ward" Senior Managing Executive Officer Hirotaka Kanazawa, whi is in charge of R&D, discusses the Skyactiv package of technologies that he hopes will lift the company's eco prospects. Chrysler pushes ICE limits with Multi-fuel, MultiAir R&D program Chrysler Powertrain engineers, in a collaborative research program with the U.S. Department of Energy, aim to squeeze a lot more efficiency out of the good old internal combustion engine. No longer a blip on the screen Luxury vehicles have used radar for years, but now systems are poised to enter the mainstream as safety demands rise and costs come down.
2011-02-25
Magazine
Formula SAE-a winners again Monash University took the top spot in the 2010 Formula SAE-Australasia student competition for the second year in a row. Dual-fuel lab engines achieve high efficiencies, low emissions Experiments conducted by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison as well as at Oak Ridge National laboratory demonstrate that partial blending of two fuels in the cylinder can promote a more ideal combustion process. Detroit motor show Small and efficient cars stole the show at the recent North American International auto show. nextgen today and tomorrow The FAA has reached a major milestone on the next generation air transportation system initiative to modernize America's national airspace system.
2010-09-30
Technical Paper
2010-01-1660
Jean Francois Bousquie
This paper describes the Airbus plans to use ADS-B in the future concept of operations in both the European SESAR and the US NEXTGEN concepts of operations. It details the different steps that are currently considered by Airbus roadmap to deploy ADS-B services and functions. In particular, the following points are described: Use of ADS-B OUT in Non Radar Airspace Use of ADS-B IN and the associated Airbus functions to offer a better Air Traffic Situation Awareness (ATSAW) package: the various applications for airborne, in trail climb/descent procedures or enhanced visual acquisition are particularly detailed. Use of ADS-B for the future Spacing function as currently considered in the initial ASAS implementation for SESAR: the three “Remain Behind”, “Merge at Waypoint then Remain behind” and the “Heading then merge behind” applications are explained.
2010-09-30
Technical Paper
2010-01-1663
Ratan Khatwa, Jeff Lancaster, Kevin Conner, Howard Glover
This paper presents the results of a human factors flight test evaluation of a display of Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA). The study is an element of the FAA-sponsored Surface Conflict Detection and Alerting with Consideration of Arrival Applications program. The objective of the flight test was to conduct a comparative evaluation of two candidate SURF IA displays: a detailed Airport Surface Situation Awareness (ASSA) display and a runways-only Final Approach Runway Occupancy Awareness (FAROA) display. Six pilots with a current Air Transport Pilot Certificate each completed 18 scenarios. A Beechcraft King Air C-90 and a Cessna Citation Sovereign aircraft were deployed for the flight tests. The scenarios were conducted at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport and at Snohomish County Paine Field Airport, with each aircraft acting as ‘traffic’ for the other aircraft.
2010-07-07
Magazine
NextGen soon With ADS-B operations under way in Philadelphia and Louisville, the FAA takes another major step forward to NextGen.
2010-05-12
Magazine
Safer flight on the horizon Development in avionics, communications, and air-traffic management enable more affordable and better ways to fly and navigate.
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3202
Peter A. Jarvis, Shawn R. Wolfe, Maarten Sierhuis, Robert A. Nado, Francis Y. Enomoto
The air traffic demand on the US national airspace frequently exceeds its available capacity. In current operations, the Air Traffic Service Provider designs and implements air traffic management initiatives with minimal interaction with the airlines. NASA and its partners have developed a new collaborative air traffic flow management concept of operations that involves the users of the airspace to a greater degree. In this paper, we describe an agent-based simulation of the new concept of operations and our planned experimentation to determine if the new concept of operations will lead to better utilization of the national airspace.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 255

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