Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 247
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2299
Rafael Fernandes de Oliveira
Trajectory optimization methods have been successfully used to minimize pollutant emissions during departure and arrivals, and noise over communities near the airports. This has led to the development, within the CleanSky European research project, of a trajectory optimization framework capable of finding optimal flight paths that minimize emissions, flight cost and noise impact on the population, while still taking into account aircraft limitations and operational restrictions. While this can be very useful when the next generation of trajectory-based air-traffic management systems arrives, as being proposed by SESAR and NextGen, it can still provide benefits in the current context, if implemented taking into account the air navigation rules. This paper describes the optimal control based framework for on-board optimal flight planning, providing an overview of its preliminary human-machine interface, and demonstrates the trade-off that can be obtained by using such a tool when planning a full flight plan for distinct cost criteria.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2301
Yao Wang, Shon Grabbe
When the demand for either a region of airspace or an airport approaches or exceeds the available capacity, miles-in-trail (MIT) restrictions are the most frequently issued traffic management initiatives (TMIs) that are used to mitigate these imbalances. Miles-in-trail operations require aircraft in a traffic stream to meet a specific inter-aircraft separation in exchange for maintaining a safe and orderly flow within the stream. This stream of aircraft can be departing an airport, over a common fix, through a sector, on a specific route or arriving at an airport. This study begins by providing a high-level overview of the distribution and causes of arrival MIT restrictions for the top ten airports in the United States. This is followed by an in-depth analysis of the frequency, duration and cause of MIT restrictions impacting the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL) from 2009 through 2011. Then, machine-learning methods for predicting (1) situations in which MIT restrictions for ATL arrivals are implemented under low demand scenarios, and (2) days in which a large number of MIT restrictions are required to properly manage and control ATL arrivals are presented.
2012-05-30
Magazine
Efficient, low-cost power converters for EVs Losses when power converters change the currents, voltages, and frequencies of electrical fees mean efficiencies are in high demand for EVs and everything else electric.
2012-05-16
Magazine
New blades turning Industry is in the midst of new initiatives to develop lighter, stronger aero engine fan blades. ATM revolution-on the way at last A look at one of the biggest issues facing the air transport sector: integrating air traffic management policies and solutions. A new positioning system for aircraft structural assembly The EcoPositioner is a modular and reconfigurable positioning technology that takes into consideration the positioning task as well as operational conditions and environmental influences.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2660
Silvia Larghi, Marco Villa, Michele Tumminelli, Maria Nogarino, Antonio Ottolia, Massimo Traversone
The SCARLETT European Research Project has the goal to define, develop and validate the concepts of the next generation of IMA (IMA2G). Enhanced File Management capability is central to support next generation IMA Platform properties and the increasing usage of memory mass storage. IMA2G Applications require access to data stored on mass memory independent from their physical location across the Platform; Platform-wide File Services are required. We provide, in the framework of the SCARLETT project, a distributed approach to File Management, which meets the IMA2G requirements. The proposed design aims to move from a module-centric File Management, typical in IMA1G, to a Platform-centric File Management based on a distributed file stack. After examining existing IMA standard solutions concerning File Management, an overview of the ‘Platform File Management’ architecture is given. We present and discuss the key design drivers: a distributed approach, localization, the communication protocol between File Clients and File Servers, IMA1G compatibility and reuse, replication and linked error handling aspects, health monitoring, management of write access and network topology considerations.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2710
Stefano T. Chiadò, Valter Basso, Mauro Pasquinelli, Laura Quinale
This paper aims to show how it is possible to blend a Tool Chain approach with a Model Based Engineering Environment approach during preliminary phases of a space project. Attention is not focused on the whole spacecraft lifecycle but on a preliminary phase that is very helpful in itself to test methodology, technologies and processes. This blended model may allow for cost reduction and reduced development times along the supply chain whereas there are heterogeneous IT systems and tools. The aim of this work has been to make engineering data exchange among different engineering groups easier whilst guaranteeing compliancy to a common spacecraft data model. This methodology has been applied to a test case comprising the preliminary design of a Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR).
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2709
Sonja Straussberger, Florence Reuzeau
The vision of SESAR is to integrate and implement new technologies to improve air traffic management (ATM) performance. Enhanced automation and new separation modes characterize the future concept of operations, where the role of the human operator will remain central by integrating more managing and decision-making functions. The expected changes represent challenges for the human actors in the aircraft and on ground and must be taken into account during the development phase. Integrating the human in the ATM system development starting from the early design phase is a key factor for future acceptability. This paper describes the adaptation of currently applied Cockpit Human Factors processes in order to be able to design the aircraft for the future ATM environment. Starting with the Airbus experience in successfully integrating Human Factors (HF) in the design and certification of aircraft, factors are described that identify how human actors can be integrated during the system engineering process when taking an air/ground perspective.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2708
Rajkumar Thirumalainambi
Accuracy on weather prediction is a significant factor on present models of air traffic and planning, and will be a key factor on future advanced models in many areas and activities, and we can envision advanced human emotion models with weather as a key component. As part of this research effort, this paper addresses the development of three-layer architecture for hourly distribution of an accurate 24-hour global aviation weather prediction and a multivariate analysis of the aviation weather data provided by NOAA's National Weather Service.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2716
Jorge Bardina
A review of the research accomplished in 2009 in the System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools (SLDAST) of the NASA's Airspace Systems Program is presented. This research thrust focuses on the integrated system-level assessment of component level innovations, concepts and technologies of the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) under research in the ASP program to enable the development of revolutionary improvements and modernization of the National Airspace System. The review includes the accomplishments on baseline research and the advancements on design studies and system-level assessment, including the cluster analysis as an annualization standard of the air traffic in the U.S. National Airspace, and the ACES-Air MIDAS integration for human-in-the-loop analyzes within the NAS air traffic simulation.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2718
Benjamin Knoblauch, Patricia Best, Vijay Ragothaman, Ravi Pendse
While most industries have already adopted the use of IP networks to exploit the many advantages of network connectivity, the aircraft industry still has not significantly deployed networked devices in the aircraft. Security and reliability are two main concerns that have slowed the transition to this technology. The ability for Air Traffic Control to send digital communications to aircraft could significantly improve the aircraft safety by improving the speed and efficiency of communications. In addition, if devices could offload flight data to servers on the ground for analysis, the accuracy and efficiency of maintenance and other decisions impacting the aircraft could significantly improve. The purpose of this research is to propose an IP-based LAN architecture for the aircraft which provides a scalable solution without jeopardizing flight safety. While LAN architectures have been proposed in the past, this research modeled its architecture off the commonly used firewall approach for securing networks.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2560
Guillaume Brat
As the US is getting ready for the Next Generation (NextGen) of Air Traffic System, there is a growing concern that the current techniques for verification and validation will not be adequate for the changes to come. The JPDO (in charge of implementing NextGen) has given NASA a mandate to address the problem and it resulted in the formulation of the V&V of Flight-Critical Systems effort. This research effort is divided into four themes: argument-based safety assurance, distributed systems, authority and autonomy, and, software intensive systems. This paper presents an overview of the technologies that will address the problem.
2011-09-06
Magazine
Back to the future- the Honda way In a far-ranging discussion, the company's President of R&D opens the curtains a little on the inner workings of research and development from the CVCC engine to the new two-motor hybrid system. Mazda takes off "Skyactiv-ward" Senior Managing Executive Officer Hirotaka Kanazawa, whi is in charge of R&D, discusses the Skyactiv package of technologies that he hopes will lift the company's eco prospects. Chrysler pushes ICE limits with Multi-fuel, MultiAir R&D program Chrysler Powertrain engineers, in a collaborative research program with the U.S. Department of Energy, aim to squeeze a lot more efficiency out of the good old internal combustion engine. No longer a blip on the screen Luxury vehicles have used radar for years, but now systems are poised to enter the mainstream as safety demands rise and costs come down.
2011-02-25
Magazine
Formula SAE-a winners again Monash University took the top spot in the 2010 Formula SAE-Australasia student competition for the second year in a row. Dual-fuel lab engines achieve high efficiencies, low emissions Experiments conducted by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison as well as at Oak Ridge National laboratory demonstrate that partial blending of two fuels in the cylinder can promote a more ideal combustion process. Detroit motor show Small and efficient cars stole the show at the recent North American International auto show. nextgen today and tomorrow The FAA has reached a major milestone on the next generation air transportation system initiative to modernize America's national airspace system.
2010-09-30
Technical Paper
2010-01-1663
Ratan Khatwa, Jeff Lancaster, Kevin Conner, Howard Glover
This paper presents the results of a human factors flight test evaluation of a display of Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA). The study is an element of the FAA-sponsored Surface Conflict Detection and Alerting with Consideration of Arrival Applications program. The objective of the flight test was to conduct a comparative evaluation of two candidate SURF IA displays: a detailed Airport Surface Situation Awareness (ASSA) display and a runways-only Final Approach Runway Occupancy Awareness (FAROA) display. Six pilots with a current Air Transport Pilot Certificate each completed 18 scenarios. A Beechcraft King Air C-90 and a Cessna Citation Sovereign aircraft were deployed for the flight tests. The scenarios were conducted at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport and at Snohomish County Paine Field Airport, with each aircraft acting as ‘traffic’ for the other aircraft. A within-subjects experimental design was used for the evaluation.
2010-09-30
Technical Paper
2010-01-1660
Jean Francois Bousquie
This paper describes the Airbus plans to use ADS-B in the future concept of operations in both the European SESAR and the US NEXTGEN concepts of operations. It details the different steps that are currently considered by Airbus roadmap to deploy ADS-B services and functions. In particular, the following points are described: Use of ADS-B OUT in Non Radar Airspace Use of ADS-B IN and the associated Airbus functions to offer a better Air Traffic Situation Awareness (ATSAW) package: the various applications for airborne, in trail climb/descent procedures or enhanced visual acquisition are particularly detailed. Use of ADS-B for the future Spacing function as currently considered in the initial ASAS implementation for SESAR: the three “Remain Behind”, “Merge at Waypoint then Remain behind” and the “Heading then merge behind” applications are explained. The use of the ASAS function within the TMA as a complement to the other pillar of a future ATM concept (4D-Trajectory) is discussed in a dedicated paragraph.
2010-07-07
Magazine
NextGen soon With ADS-B operations under way in Philadelphia and Louisville, the FAA takes another major step forward to NextGen.
2010-05-12
Magazine
Safer flight on the horizon Development in avionics, communications, and air-traffic management enable more affordable and better ways to fly and navigate.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3202
Peter A. Jarvis, Shawn R. Wolfe, Maarten Sierhuis, Robert A. Nado, Francis Y. Enomoto
The air traffic demand on the US national airspace frequently exceeds its available capacity. In current operations, the Air Traffic Service Provider designs and implements air traffic management initiatives with minimal interaction with the airlines. NASA and its partners have developed a new collaborative air traffic flow management concept of operations that involves the users of the airspace to a greater degree. In this paper, we describe an agent-based simulation of the new concept of operations and our planned experimentation to determine if the new concept of operations will lead to better utilization of the national airspace.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3253
Ramanathan Viswanathan, Mark Darnell
The strategic planning and tactical execution of Air Traffic Control (ATC) provided by Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSP) are often not aligned and lead to inefficiencies in the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system. This paper proposes an analytical framework for the air traffic control system based on a system-of-systems paradigm, with a hierarchy of nested and cascaded feedback control loops—one or more for each type of control service. The framework is then used to assess the stability and response to random variables, such as poor weather and equipment failures. The performance of each control loop is then described qualitatively and validates the framework for investigating the benefit of new policies and technologies.
2008-08-19
Technical Paper
2008-01-2261
William R. Knecht
Map displays are veridical representations of realistic information. State spaces are nonveridical representations of arbitrary n-dimensional information. In this experiment, flight performance using a map-based cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) was compared to performance augmented by a state space-based 4D collision avoidance system (CDTI+4CAS). 4CAS displayed state information about the safety of ownship maneuvers and their available maneuver time. Twelve general aviation pilots each flew eight scenarios, trying to deviate as little as possible from course while still maintaining standard enroute separation from traffic. The CDTI+4CAS condition showed performance superiority over the CDTI-only condition for five of five dependent measures of maneuver efficiency, four of four measures of maneuver safety, and six of nine measures of workload. Human factors issues are discussed.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3807
Regina Egelhofer, Christine Bickerstaff, Serge Bonnet
A two-level approach for the consideration of climate change in the aircraft design process is proposed. Depending on the availability of suitable atmospheric metrics, the methodology has been put into practice only recently. The assessment of technology and design changes is enabled with regard to the impact of aircraft on climate. First example applications show that the methodology is not yet ready for full industrial application, but that it can give useful hints for the orientation of aircraft concepts for the future aviation system.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3836
Deepak Kulkarni
Linear regression is the primary data analysis method used in the development of air traffic delay models. When the data being studied does indeed have an underlying linear model, this approach would produce the best-fitting model as expected. However, it has been argued by ATM researchers [Wieland2005, Evans2004] that the underlying delay models are primarily non-linear. Furthermore, the delays being modeled often depend not only on the observable independent variables being studied but also on other variables not being considered. The traditional regression approach alone may not be best suited to study these type of problems. In this paper, we propose an alternate methodology based on partitioning the data using statistical and decision tree learning methods. We then show the utility of this model in a variety of different ATM modeling problems.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3854
Swapan Mitra, Giles Pateman
The ATM systems are required to meet the integrity and performance objectives set by service providers' business and safety needs and its regulatory regime. The composability property of architecture is important for assuring safety and performance of ATM systems as it ensures that the integrity properties of the overall system on which its safety and performance depends, can be achieved by combining the integrity properties of its individual components. This paper highlights an example framework for an ATM system architecture and identifies the integrity requirements for its components and middleware. The basic design and development principles for a robust and sustainable architecture are identified from different standards and best practices. How these principles should be applied to determine the integrity principles for ATM middleware is explained. The integrity principles for an ATM system architecture include system design guidelines; hardware and software measures for fault detection, isolation and resilience; criteria for ensuring message integrity and confidentiality; and functional integrity of the horizontal and vertical services.
2005-11-22
Technical Paper
2005-01-4020
Nivaldo Cristofani, Sandro Aparecido Baldacim, José Rui Lautenschlager
The imprecision of altimeter system in higher altitudes, utilized by aircrafts in past decades, although adequate for lower levels, imposed that minimum separation between flights levels FL290 (29000 feet) and above had to be 2000 feet. This higher separation limits aircraft capacity on these levels where jets are more efficient and, therefore, is undesirable to airline companies, taking account, principally, the fuel economy. The advance of electronic technology in altimetry system has permitted to obtain a better precision of altitude measurements and, thus, reducing the minimum vertical separation between these levels to 1000 feet became safer, showed by figure 1. This process is called RVSM (reduced vertical separation minimum) and presents some characteristics such as introduction of 6 news flight levels. This process defines special requirements related to airspace and it was implemented in North America and Europe in last years. In Latin America (including Brazil), the RVSM process was implemented in the beginning of this year.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3384
Todd J. Callantine, Paul U. Lee, Joey Mercer, Thomas Prevôt, Everett Palmer
Controller and pilot decision support tools for operations with airborne spacing in the terminal area were evaluated in a simulation conducted at NASA Ames Research Center as part of the NASA Advanced Air Transportation Technologies project Distributed Air Ground Traffic Management element. The results indicate that airborne spacing improves spacing accuracy and may help reduce go-arounds. Controller workload is acceptable and spacing clearances containing lead aircraft callsigns are clear. Expected operational benefits depend on traffic flow coordination and predictable spacing guidance and support tool behavior.
2004-01-01
Magazine
Toward safer skies The mechanical safety of aircraft has made great strides over the years, allowing some engineers to focus on other aspects of flight safety. CFD in space Computational fluid dynamics provided a powerful tool in protecting astronauts on the ISS from CO2. Simulating safety Bombardier Aerospace simulates airflow in nacelles to prevent engine foreign-object damage.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 247

Filter

  • Magazine
    23
  • Technical Paper
    222
  • Standard
    2
  • Collection
    0
  • Book
    0
  • Article
    0