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Viewing 1 to 30 of 231
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-1976
Kiran Thupakula, Adishesha Sivaramasastry, Srikanth Gampa
Abstract Aviation safety is one of the key focus areas of the aerospace industry as it involves safety of passengers, crew, assets etc. Due to advancements in technology, aviation safety has reached to safest levels compared to last few decades. In spite of declining trends in in-air accident rate, ground accidents are increasing due to ever increasing air traffic and human factors in the airport. Majority of the accidents occur during initial and final phases of the flight. Rapid increase in air traffic would pose challenge in ensuring safety and best utilization of Airports, Airspace and assets. In current scenario multiple systems like Runway Debris Monitoring System, Runway Incursion Detection System, Obstacle avoidance system and Traffic Collision Avoidance System are used for collision prediction and alerting in airport environment. However these approaches are standalone in nature and have limitations in coverage, performance and are dependent on onboard equipment.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2443
Nivedita Chanda
Abstract Aircrafts use Transponder for transmitting data to Air Traffic Control ground stations. Transponders automatically transmit a unique four-digit code when they receive a radio signal sent by radar. But when Transponder is shut down, and the redundant transponder fails to operate, there is no system within the aircraft which can continue transmitting altitude and important data to ATC ground stations. This has necessitated active research work to fundamentally design better and effective communication systems. At present, there is no evident redundant system to transponder unlike in case of Power-Plants, three-fold reliable, safety cum redundant power supply system are present. The present work introduces a novel design ‘RTSA’ which can be effective in catering safe transmission of emergency signal.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2458
Giuseppe Sirigu, Manuela Battipede, Piero Gili, Mario Cassaro
Abstract The future revolution of the air traffic system imposes the development of a new class of Flight Management Systems (FMS), capable of providing the aircraft with real-time reference flight parameters, necessary to fly the aircraft through a predefined sequence of waypoints, while minimizing fuel consumption, noise and pollution emissions. The main goal is to guarantee safety operations while reducing the aircraft environmental impact, according to the main international research programs. This policy is expected to affect also the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs), as soon as they will be allowed to fly beyond the restricted portions of the aerospace where they are currently confined. In the future, in fact, UASs are expected to fly within the whole civilian airspace, under the same requirements deriving from the adoption of the Performance Based Navigation (PBN).
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2441
Ahmet Oztekin
Abstract This paper outlines an analytical framework to perform a data-driven, risk-based assessment of Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities. Safety associated with an ATC facility is modeled as an influence network using a set of risk factors. A novel hybrid approach employing Adaptive-Network based Fuzzy Inference Systems is introduced to propagate the model. Statistical analysis of system-wide data for each risk factor is performed to identify outliers and understand underlying distributions. They are then used to define Fuzzy Membership Functions for model variables. Analytical Hierarch Process (AHP) is used to determine rules required by the model's inference engine. Finally, the methodology is applied to a set of ATC facilities using real data.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2520
Thabet Kacem, Jeronymo Carvalho, Duminda Wijesekera, Paulo Costa, Márcio Monteiro, Alexandre Barreto
Abstract Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) [1] is a technology that can be viewed either as a complement or as an alternative to current radar-based surveillance techniques. Despite its many benefits, this technology suffers from the security flaw of having its messages sent as clear text broadcasts, which makes it vulnerable to several kinds of attacks affecting the authenticity and integrity of ADS-b messages - a problem we addressed with a security framework presented in previous work [2]. In this paper, we propose to enhance that initial work by using keyed-hash message authentication code [3] (HMAC) to ensure the authenticity and integrity of ADS-B messages. The proposed improvements include changing the structure of the security-related data and, more importantly, adding a cognitive risk adaptive module. These improvements resulted in four main contributions.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2539
Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini, Subramanian Ramasamy, Matthew Marino, Trevor Kistan
Abstract As part of the current initiatives aimed at enhancing safety, efficiency and environmental sustainability of aviation, a significant improvement in the efficiency of aircraft operations is currently pursued. Innovative Communication, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) technologies and operational concepts are being developed to achieve the ambitious goals for efficiency and environmental sustainability set by national and international aviation organizations. These technological and operational innovations will be ultimately enabled by the introduction of novel CNS/ATM and Avionics (CNS+A) systems, featuring higher levels of automation. A core feature of such systems consists in the real-time multi-objective optimization of flight trajectories, incorporating all the operational, economic and environmental aspects of the aircraft mission.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2544
Subramanian Ramasamy, Roberto Sabatini
Abstract Avionic system developers are currently working on innovative technologies that are required in view of the rapid expansion of global air transport and growing concerns for environmental sustainability of aviation sector. Novel Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) system designs are being developed in the CNS/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) and Avionics (CNS+A) context for mission-and safety-critical applications. The introduction of dedicated software modules in Next Generation Flight Management Systems (NG-FMS), which are the primary providers of automated navigation and guidance services in manned aircraft and Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), has the potential to enable the significant advances brought in by time and trajectory based operations. High-integrity, high-reliability and all-weather services are required in the context of four dimensional Trajectory Based Operations / Intent Based Operations (TBO/IBO).
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2392
Matthew Marino, Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini, Trevor Kistan
RETRACTED: This paper gives the concepts and mathematically models required for the development of the Multi Objective Trajectory Optimization (MOTO) functionalities to be implemented into the next generation of ATM system. MOTO algorithms are introduced whereby data from various sources are utilized to optimize flight paths for various user defined objectives. The algorithms require digital resources of weather, aircraft data, metrological maps and air traffic. These will be used in conjunction with various mathematical models to compute trajectories that minimize various objectives such as fuel, emissions and operational cost. The automated 4D trajectory computation algorithms are restricted to single flight level to not violate the current layered vertical air route structure for the cruise phase of flight.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2538
Yixiang Lim, Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini
Abstract Contrails and aircraft-induced cirrus clouds are reputed being the largest components of aviation-induced global warming, even greater than carbon dioxide (CO2) exhaust emissions by aircraft. This article presents a contrail model algorithm specifically developed to be integrated within a multi-objective flight trajectory optimization software framework. The purpose of the algorithm is to supply to the optimizer a measure of the estimated radiative forcing from the contrails generated by the aircraft while flying a specific trajectory. In order to determine the precise measure, a comprehensive model is employed exploiting the Schmidt-Appleman criterion and ice-supersaturation regions. Additional parameters such as the solar zenith angle, contrail lifetime and spread are also considered.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2301
Yao Wang, Shon Grabbe
When the demand for either a region of airspace or an airport approaches or exceeds the available capacity, miles-in-trail (MIT) restrictions are the most frequently issued traffic management initiatives (TMIs) that are used to mitigate these imbalances. Miles-in-trail operations require aircraft in a traffic stream to meet a specific inter-aircraft separation in exchange for maintaining a safe and orderly flow within the stream. This stream of aircraft can be departing an airport, over a common fix, through a sector, on a specific route or arriving at an airport. This study begins by providing a high-level overview of the distribution and causes of arrival MIT restrictions for the top ten airports in the United States. This is followed by an in-depth analysis of the frequency, duration and cause of MIT restrictions impacting the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL) from 2009 through 2011.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2299
Rafael Fernandes de Oliveira
Trajectory optimization methods have been successfully used to minimize pollutant emissions during departure and arrivals, and noise over communities near the airports. This has led to the development, within the CleanSky European research project, of a trajectory optimization framework capable of finding optimal flight paths that minimize emissions, flight cost and noise impact on the population, while still taking into account aircraft limitations and operational restrictions. While this can be very useful when the next generation of trajectory-based air-traffic management systems arrives, as being proposed by SESAR and NextGen, it can still provide benefits in the current context, if implemented taking into account the air navigation rules.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2718
Benjamin Knoblauch, Patricia Best, Vijay Ragothaman, Ravi Pendse
While most industries have already adopted the use of IP networks to exploit the many advantages of network connectivity, the aircraft industry still has not significantly deployed networked devices in the aircraft. Security and reliability are two main concerns that have slowed the transition to this technology. The ability for Air Traffic Control to send digital communications to aircraft could significantly improve the aircraft safety by improving the speed and efficiency of communications. In addition, if devices could offload flight data to servers on the ground for analysis, the accuracy and efficiency of maintenance and other decisions impacting the aircraft could significantly improve. The purpose of this research is to propose an IP-based LAN architecture for the aircraft which provides a scalable solution without jeopardizing flight safety.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2660
Silvia Larghi, Marco Villa, Michele Tumminelli, Maria Nogarino, Antonio Ottolia, Massimo Traversone
The SCARLETT European Research Project has the goal to define, develop and validate the concepts of the next generation of IMA (IMA2G). Enhanced File Management capability is central to support next generation IMA Platform properties and the increasing usage of memory mass storage. IMA2G Applications require access to data stored on mass memory independent from their physical location across the Platform; Platform-wide File Services are required. We provide, in the framework of the SCARLETT project, a distributed approach to File Management, which meets the IMA2G requirements. The proposed design aims to move from a module-centric File Management, typical in IMA1G, to a Platform-centric File Management based on a distributed file stack. After examining existing IMA standard solutions concerning File Management, an overview of the ‘Platform File Management’ architecture is given.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2710
Stefano T. Chiadò, Valter Basso, Mauro Pasquinelli, Laura Quinale
This paper aims to show how it is possible to blend a Tool Chain approach with a Model Based Engineering Environment approach during preliminary phases of a space project. Attention is not focused on the whole spacecraft lifecycle but on a preliminary phase that is very helpful in itself to test methodology, technologies and processes. This blended model may allow for cost reduction and reduced development times along the supply chain whereas there are heterogeneous IT systems and tools. The aim of this work has been to make engineering data exchange among different engineering groups easier whilst guaranteeing compliancy to a common spacecraft data model. This methodology has been applied to a test case comprising the preliminary design of a Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR).
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2708
Rajkumar Thirumalainambi
Accuracy on weather prediction is a significant factor on present models of air traffic and planning, and will be a key factor on future advanced models in many areas and activities, and we can envision advanced human emotion models with weather as a key component. As part of this research effort, this paper addresses the development of three-layer architecture for hourly distribution of an accurate 24-hour global aviation weather prediction and a multivariate analysis of the aviation weather data provided by NOAA's National Weather Service.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2560
Guillaume Brat
As the US is getting ready for the Next Generation (NextGen) of Air Traffic System, there is a growing concern that the current techniques for verification and validation will not be adequate for the changes to come. The JPDO (in charge of implementing NextGen) has given NASA a mandate to address the problem and it resulted in the formulation of the V&V of Flight-Critical Systems effort. This research effort is divided into four themes: argument-based safety assurance, distributed systems, authority and autonomy, and, software intensive systems. This paper presents an overview of the technologies that will address the problem.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2716
Jorge Bardina
A review of the research accomplished in 2009 in the System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools (SLDAST) of the NASA's Airspace Systems Program is presented. This research thrust focuses on the integrated system-level assessment of component level innovations, concepts and technologies of the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) under research in the ASP program to enable the development of revolutionary improvements and modernization of the National Airspace System. The review includes the accomplishments on baseline research and the advancements on design studies and system-level assessment, including the cluster analysis as an annualization standard of the air traffic in the U.S. National Airspace, and the ACES-Air MIDAS integration for human-in-the-loop analyzes within the NAS air traffic simulation.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2709
Sonja Straussberger, Florence Reuzeau
The vision of SESAR is to integrate and implement new technologies to improve air traffic management (ATM) performance. Enhanced automation and new separation modes characterize the future concept of operations, where the role of the human operator will remain central by integrating more managing and decision-making functions. The expected changes represent challenges for the human actors in the aircraft and on ground and must be taken into account during the development phase. Integrating the human in the ATM system development starting from the early design phase is a key factor for future acceptability. This paper describes the adaptation of currently applied Cockpit Human Factors processes in order to be able to design the aircraft for the future ATM environment.
2010-09-30
Technical Paper
2010-01-1660
Jean Francois Bousquie
This paper describes the Airbus plans to use ADS-B in the future concept of operations in both the European SESAR and the US NEXTGEN concepts of operations. It details the different steps that are currently considered by Airbus roadmap to deploy ADS-B services and functions. In particular, the following points are described: Use of ADS-B OUT in Non Radar Airspace Use of ADS-B IN and the associated Airbus functions to offer a better Air Traffic Situation Awareness (ATSAW) package: the various applications for airborne, in trail climb/descent procedures or enhanced visual acquisition are particularly detailed. Use of ADS-B for the future Spacing function as currently considered in the initial ASAS implementation for SESAR: the three “Remain Behind”, “Merge at Waypoint then Remain behind” and the “Heading then merge behind” applications are explained.
2010-09-30
Technical Paper
2010-01-1663
Ratan Khatwa, Jeff Lancaster, Kevin Conner, Howard Glover
This paper presents the results of a human factors flight test evaluation of a display of Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA). The study is an element of the FAA-sponsored Surface Conflict Detection and Alerting with Consideration of Arrival Applications program. The objective of the flight test was to conduct a comparative evaluation of two candidate SURF IA displays: a detailed Airport Surface Situation Awareness (ASSA) display and a runways-only Final Approach Runway Occupancy Awareness (FAROA) display. Six pilots with a current Air Transport Pilot Certificate each completed 18 scenarios. A Beechcraft King Air C-90 and a Cessna Citation Sovereign aircraft were deployed for the flight tests. The scenarios were conducted at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport and at Snohomish County Paine Field Airport, with each aircraft acting as ‘traffic’ for the other aircraft.
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3202
Peter A. Jarvis, Shawn R. Wolfe, Maarten Sierhuis, Robert A. Nado, Francis Y. Enomoto
The air traffic demand on the US national airspace frequently exceeds its available capacity. In current operations, the Air Traffic Service Provider designs and implements air traffic management initiatives with minimal interaction with the airlines. NASA and its partners have developed a new collaborative air traffic flow management concept of operations that involves the users of the airspace to a greater degree. In this paper, we describe an agent-based simulation of the new concept of operations and our planned experimentation to determine if the new concept of operations will lead to better utilization of the national airspace.
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3253
Ramanathan Viswanathan, Mark Darnell
The strategic planning and tactical execution of Air Traffic Control (ATC) provided by Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSP) are often not aligned and lead to inefficiencies in the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system. This paper proposes an analytical framework for the air traffic control system based on a system-of-systems paradigm, with a hierarchy of nested and cascaded feedback control loops—one or more for each type of control service. The framework is then used to assess the stability and response to random variables, such as poor weather and equipment failures. The performance of each control loop is then described qualitatively and validates the framework for investigating the benefit of new policies and technologies.
2008-08-19
Journal Article
2008-01-2261
William R. Knecht
Map displays are veridical representations of realistic information. State spaces are nonveridical representations of arbitrary n-dimensional information. In this experiment, flight performance using a map-based cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) was compared to performance augmented by a state space-based 4D collision avoidance system (CDTI+4CAS). 4CAS displayed state information about the safety of ownship maneuvers and their available maneuver time. Twelve general aviation pilots each flew eight scenarios, trying to deviate as little as possible from course while still maintaining standard enroute separation from traffic. The CDTI+4CAS condition showed performance superiority over the CDTI-only condition for five of five dependent measures of maneuver efficiency, four of four measures of maneuver safety, and six of nine measures of workload. Human factors issues are discussed.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3836
Deepak Kulkarni
Linear regression is the primary data analysis method used in the development of air traffic delay models. When the data being studied does indeed have an underlying linear model, this approach would produce the best-fitting model as expected. However, it has been argued by ATM researchers [Wieland2005, Evans2004] that the underlying delay models are primarily non-linear. Furthermore, the delays being modeled often depend not only on the observable independent variables being studied but also on other variables not being considered. The traditional regression approach alone may not be best suited to study these type of problems. In this paper, we propose an alternate methodology based on partitioning the data using statistical and decision tree learning methods. We then show the utility of this model in a variety of different ATM modeling problems.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3854
Swapan Mitra, Giles Pateman
The ATM systems are required to meet the integrity and performance objectives set by service providers' business and safety needs and its regulatory regime. The composability property of architecture is important for assuring safety and performance of ATM systems as it ensures that the integrity properties of the overall system on which its safety and performance depends, can be achieved by combining the integrity properties of its individual components. This paper highlights an example framework for an ATM system architecture and identifies the integrity requirements for its components and middleware. The basic design and development principles for a robust and sustainable architecture are identified from different standards and best practices. How these principles should be applied to determine the integrity principles for ATM middleware is explained.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3807
Regina Egelhofer, Christine Bickerstaff, Serge Bonnet
A two-level approach for the consideration of climate change in the aircraft design process is proposed. Depending on the availability of suitable atmospheric metrics, the methodology has been put into practice only recently. The assessment of technology and design changes is enabled with regard to the impact of aircraft on climate. First example applications show that the methodology is not yet ready for full industrial application, but that it can give useful hints for the orientation of aircraft concepts for the future aviation system.
2005-11-22
Technical Paper
2005-01-4020
Nivaldo Cristofani, Sandro Aparecido Baldacim, José Rui Lautenschlager
The imprecision of altimeter system in higher altitudes, utilized by aircrafts in past decades, although adequate for lower levels, imposed that minimum separation between flights levels FL290 (29000 feet) and above had to be 2000 feet. This higher separation limits aircraft capacity on these levels where jets are more efficient and, therefore, is undesirable to airline companies, taking account, principally, the fuel economy. The advance of electronic technology in altimetry system has permitted to obtain a better precision of altitude measurements and, thus, reducing the minimum vertical separation between these levels to 1000 feet became safer, showed by figure 1. This process is called RVSM (reduced vertical separation minimum) and presents some characteristics such as introduction of 6 news flight levels. This process defines special requirements related to airspace and it was implemented in North America and Europe in last years.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3384
Todd J. Callantine, Paul U. Lee, Joey Mercer, Thomas Prevôt, Everett Palmer
Controller and pilot decision support tools for operations with airborne spacing in the terminal area were evaluated in a simulation conducted at NASA Ames Research Center as part of the NASA Advanced Air Transportation Technologies project Distributed Air Ground Traffic Management element. The results indicate that airborne spacing improves spacing accuracy and may help reduce go-arounds. Controller workload is acceptable and spacing clearances containing lead aircraft callsigns are clear. Expected operational benefits depend on traffic flow coordination and predictable spacing guidance and support tool behavior.
2003-09-08
Technical Paper
2003-01-2999
Lesley de Repentigny
All it takes to cause a disaster is a single runway incursion. For example.: Tene Rief. Safety officials have identified the risks associated with runway incursions as one of the most urgent issues facing today's aviation community; as pilots, airport vehicle operators, air traffic controllers and flight service specialists continue to find themselves involved in runway incursion incidents The continued reduction of Runway Incursion Incidents (RII) and increased airport safety is a priority at the FAA as well as other agencies. Key to achieving these goals are continued research and analysis, identification of problems, prototyping and validation of proposed solutions, and, of course, education and training. Simulation is clearly an effective tool that can be used to reduce the number of runway incursion incidents.
2003-09-08
Technical Paper
2003-01-2996
Kouamana Bousson
The future solution for the increasing air traffic density appears to be the free flight for which each airplane will have the possibility to choose its own trajectory and to follow it with only minor ground air traffic controllers' guides. The present paper deals with global collision avoidance which aims at separating aircraft taking into consideration the global traffic in a given area, contrarily to most of the existing approaches which are concerned with local traffic alone. The paper proposes a modeling of the global collision avoidance problem in the free flight context, in the horizontal plane, as a constrained optimization problem. A simulation example is performed in the end which shows the suitability of the proposed approach.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 231

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