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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3163
2017-10-13
Technical Paper
2017-01-5016
Apoorva Tyagi, N. Madhwesh
Abstract With the advancements of trends in Formula1 it has been quite clear that aerodynamics plays one of the most vital roles in the performance of the car. A typical aerodynamic package of a Formula1 car consists of rear wings, front wings and an under tray diffuser. This research paper is concerned with the development of an efficient under tray diffuser. The under tray diffuser is a shaped section of the car underbody to improve the aerodynamic properties of the car. Mainly it is used to generate maximum down force corresponding to minimum drag. Several studies have been carried out in recent decades to improve the vehicle performance, aerodynamic properties in particular. The present work deals with studying the performance of under tray diffuser by varying the geometric properties of the under tray diffuser such as Inlet angle, Outlet angle corresponding to varying ground clearances.
2017-09-19
Journal Article
2017-01-2024
Natasha L. Schatzman, Narayanan Komerath, Ethan A. Romander
Abstract The blade crossing event of a coaxial counter-rotating rotor is a potential source of noise and impulsive blade loads. Blade crossings occur many times during each rotor revolution. In previous research by the authors, this phenomenon was analyzed by simulating two airfoils passing each other at specified speeds and vertical separation distances, using the compressible Navier-Stokes solver OVERFLOW. The simulations explored mutual aerodynamic interactions associated with thickness, circulation, and compressibility effects. Results revealed the complex nature of the aerodynamic impulses generated by upper/lower airfoil interactions. In this paper, the coaxial rotor system is simulated using two trains of airfoils, vertically offset, and traveling in opposite directions. The simulation represents multiple blade crossings in a rotor revolution by specifying horizontal distances between each airfoil in the train based on the circumferential distance between blade tips.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2164
Markus Kintscher, Hans Peter Monner
Abstract Drag reduction technologies in aircraft design are the key enabler for reducing emissions and for sustainable growth of commercial aviation. Laminar wing technologies promise a significant benefit by drag reduction and are therefore under investigation in various European projects. However, of the established moveable concepts and high-lift systems, thus far most do not cope with the requirements for natural laminar flow wings. To this aim new leading edge high-lift systems have been the focus of research activities in the last five years. Such leading edge devices investigated in projects include a laminar flow-compatible Kruger flap [1] and the Droop Nose concept [2, 3] and these can be considered as alternatives to the conventional slat. Hybrid laminar flow concepts are also under investigation at several research institutes in Europe [4].
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2163
T. P. Aniruddhan Unni
Abstract The automotive underbody diffuser is an expansion device which works by speeding up the air flowing underneath a vehicle. This reduces the pressure below the vehicle thereby increasing downforce. When designed properly, it can lead to a massive gain in downforce and even a reduction in drag. However, a majority of the research and development is restricted to motorsport teams and supercar manufacturers and is highly secretive. Most of the publicly available research has been done for very simple shapes (bluff bodies) to study the effects of ground clearance and rake angle. Very little research has been done for complex geometries with vanes, flaps and vortex generators. This paper aims to investigate the effects of the addition of vanes/strakes and flaps, their location as well as angle, on diffuser performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations have been carried out using three dimensional, steady state RANS equations with the k-ε turbulence model on STAR CCM+ V9.06.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2162
Narayanan Komerath, Nandeesh Hiremath, Dhwanil Shukla, Joseph Robinson, Ayush Jha, Arun Palaniappan
Abstract This paper brings together three special aspects of bluff-body aeromechanics. Experiments using our Continuous Rotation method have developed a knowledge base on the 6-degree-of-freedom aerodynamic loads on over 50 different configurations including parametric variations of canonical shapes, and several practical shapes of interest. Models are mounted on a rod attached to a stepper motor placed on a 6-DOF load cell in a low speed wind tunnel. The aerodynamic loads are ensemble-averaged as phase-resolved azimuthal variations. The load component variations are obtained as discrete Fourier series for each load component versus azimuth about each of 3 primary axes. This capability has enabled aeromechanical simulation of the dynamics of roadable vehicles slung below rotorcraft. In this paper, we explore the genesis of the loads on a CONEX model, as well as models of a short and long container, using the “ROTCFD” family of unstructured Navier-Stokes solvers.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2016
Gareth Williams
Abstract In the year 2000 the Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) was established in order to provide research and policy guidance to the European Commission. “Flightpath 2050” was published in 2011 to provide a long term frame for collaborative technology research, soon followed by a “Strategic Agenda For Research and Innovation”. This agenda has been successful in providing a common and coherent reference for the 27 member states of the European Union, and others, to guide future actions in private and public research programs in order to meet societal and market needs. In June 2017 an update to the agenda was published at the Paris airshow, to reflect the rapid progress made in aviation technology and to respond multiplicity of changed circumstances which the agenda must address.
2017-08-25
Technical Paper
2017-01-7001
Johannes Haff, Mattias Jönsson, Sigfried Loose, Claus Wagner
Abstract The improved performance of heavy-duty vehicles as transport carriers is essential for economic reasons and to fulfil new emission standards in Europe. A key parameter is the aerodynamic vehicle drag. An enormous potential still exists for fuel saving and reducing exhaust emission by aerodynamic optimisation. Engineering methods are required for developments in vehicle aerodynamics. To assess the reliability of the most common experimental testing and numerical simulation methods in the industrial design process is the objective of this article. Road tests have been performed to provide realistic results, which are compared to the results obtained by scale-model wind tunnel experiments and time-averaged computational fluid dynamics (CFD). These engineering methods are evaluated regarding their deployment in the industrial development process. The investigations focus on the separated flow region behind the vehicle rear end.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1825
Takenori Miyamoto, Hiroshi Yokoyama, Akiyoshi Iida
Abstract Intense aeroacoustic feedback noises may radiate from flow around an airfoil, rearview mirror with small gaps and so on. Reductions of these noises are important issues in the development of industrial application. The intense noise from a bonnet of the automobile is one of the typical problems of acoustic feedback noise. In order to reduce this noise, plasma actuator (PA) was utilized to control flow and acoustic fields. The aim of this investigation is to clarify the effects of flow control by the PA on noise reduction and the noise reduction mechanism. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted with a half scale bonnet model and a low noise wind tunnel. Simultaneous measurements of flow and noise fields were conducted to understand the generation mechanism of the bonnet noise. Coherent output power (COP) of the velocity fluctuations with reference to far-field sound pressure was measured to visualize noise source distribution.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1783
Chris Todter, Olivier Robin, Paul Bremner, Christophe Marchetto, Alain Berry
Abstract Surface pressure measurements using microphone arrays are still challenging, especially in an automotive context with cruising speeds around Mach 0.1. The separated turbulent boundary layer excitation and the side mirror wake flow generate both acoustic and aerodynamic components, which have wavenumbers that differ by a factor of approximately 10. This calls for high spatial resolution measurements to fully resolve the wavenumber-frequency spectrum. In a previous publication [1], the authors reported a micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) surface microphone array that successfully used wavenumber analysis to quantify acoustic versus turbulence loading. It was shown that the measured surface pressure at each microphone could be strongly influenced by self-noise induced by the microphone “packaging”, which can be attenuated with a suitable windscreen.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1786
Hiroshi Yokoyama, Ryo Adachi, Taiki Minato, Akiyoshi Iida
Abstract The objective of this paper is to clarify the mechanism for the reduction of cavity tone with blowing jets aligned in the spanwise direction in the upstream boundary layer. Also, the effects of spacing of the jets on the reduction are focused. To achieve these objectives, direct aeroacoustic simulations were conducted along with wind tunnel experiments. The depth-to-length ratio of cavity was D/L = 0.5. The incoming boundary layer was laminar, where the boundary layer thickness was δ/L = 0.055. The predicted flow fields without control show that two-dimensional large-scale vortices are shed and become acoustic sources in the cavity. The effects of spanwise spacing of spanwise-aligned jets on the cavity flow and tone were clarified with computations and experiments with the different pitches of s/L = 0.1 - 1.0 (s/δ = 1.8-18.2). As a result, the largest reduction level was obtained for s/L = 0.5.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9450
Ali Reza Taherkhani, Carl Gilkeson PhD, Philip Gaskell PhD, Rob Hewson PhD, Vassili Toropov PhD, Amin Rezaienia PhD, Harvey Thompson
Abstract This paper investigates the optimization of the aerodynamic design of a police car, BMW 5-series which is popular police force across the UK. A Bezier curve fitting approach is proposed as a tool to improve the existing design of the warning light cluster in order to reduce drag. A formal optimization technique based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and moving least squares (MLS) is used to determine the control points for the approximated curve to cover the light-bar and streamline the shape of the roof. The results clearly show that improving the aerodynamic design of the roofs will offer an important opportunity for reducing the fuel consumption and emissions for police vehicles. The optimized police car has 30% less drag than the non-optimized counter-part.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1548
Max Varney, Martin Passmore, Adrian Gaylard
Abstract Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) typically have a blunt rear end shape (for design and practicality), however this is not beneficial for aerodynamic drag. Drag can be reduced by a number of passive and active methods such as tapering and blowing into the base. In an effort to combine these effects and to reduce the drag of a visually square geometry slots have been introduced in the upper side and roof trailing edges of a squareback geometry, to take air from the freestream and passively injects it into the base of the vehicle to effectively create a tapered body. This investigation has been conducted in the Loughborough University’s Large Wind Tunnel with the ¼ scale generic SUV model. The basic aerodynamic effect of a range of body tapers and straight slots have been assessed for 0° yaw. This includes force and pressure measurements for most configurations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1551
Charlie Lew, Nath Gopalaswamy, Richard Shock, Bradley Duncan, James Hoch
Abstract The aerodynamics of a rotating tire can contribute up to a third of the overall aerodynamic force on the vehicle. The flow around a rotating tire is very complex and is often affected by smallest tire features. Accurate prediction of vehicle aerodynamics therefore requires modeling of tire rotation including all geometry details. Increased simulation accuracy is motivated by the needs emanating from stricter new regulations. For example, the upcoming Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedures (WLTP) will place more emphasis on vehicle performance at higher speeds. The reason for this is to bring the certified vehicle characteristics closer to the real-world performance. In addition, WLTP will require reporting of CO2 emissions for all vehicle derivatives, including all possible wheel and tire variants. Since the number of possible derivatives can run into the hundreds for most models, their evaluation in wind tunnels might not be practically possible.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1549
Taro Yamashita, Takafumi Makihara, Kazuhiro Maeda, Kenji Tadakuma
Abstract In recent years, the automotive manufacturers have been working to reduce fuel consumption in order to cut down on CO2 emissions, promoting weight reduction as one of the fuel saving countermeasures. On the other hand, this trend of weight reduction is well known to reduce vehicle stability in response to disturbances. Thus, automotive aerodynamic development is required not only to reduce aerodynamic drag, which contributes directly to lower fuel consumption, but also to develop technology for controlling unstable vehicle behavior caused by natural wind. In order to control the unstable vehicle motion changed by external contour modification, it is necessary to understand unsteady aerodynamic forces that fluctuating natural wind in real-world environments exerts on vehicles. In the past, some studies have reported the characteristics of unsteady aerodynamic forces induced by natural winds, comparing to steady aerodynamic forces obtained from conventional wind tunnel tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1592
Jingdong Cai, Saurabh Kapoor, Tushita Sikder, Yuping He
Abstract In this research, active aerodynamic wings are investigated using numerical simulation in order to improve vehicle handling performance under emergency scenarios, such as tight cornering maneuvers at high speeds. Air foils are selected and analyzed to determine the basic geometric features of aerodynamic wings. Built upon the airfoil analysis, the 3-D aerodynamic wing model is developed. Then, the virtual aerodynamic wings are assembled with the 3-D vehicle model. The resulting 3-D geometry model is used for aerodynamic analysis based on numerical simulation using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The CFD-based simulation data and the vehicle dynamic model generated are combined to study the effects of active aerodynamic wings on handling performance of high-speed vehicles. The systematic numerical simulation method and achieved results may provide design guidance for the development of active aerodynamic wings for high-speed road vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1230
Cyrille Goldstein, Joel Hetrick
Abstract Mechanical losses in electric machines can contribute significantly to overall system losses in an electric drive [1]. With a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM), measuring mechanical losses is difficult without an un-magnetized rotor. Even with an un-magnetized rotor, physical testing can be time consuming and expensive. This paper presents a simple theoretical model of mechanical drag in an electric machine. The model was built using calculations for bearing, seal, and windage drag and was compared to experimental results from testing with un-magnetized motors. Based on this information, the model was modified to better represent the physical system. The goal of this work is to understand the contributors to mechanical drag, to be able to estimate mechanical losses without physical testing, and to be able to quickly evaluate design choices that could reduce mechanical losses.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1504
Peter Tkacik, Zachary Carpenter, Aaron Gholston, Benjamin James Cobb, Sam Kennedy, Ethan Blankenship, Mesbah Uddin, Surya Phani Krishna Nukala
Abstract Wind tunnel aerodynamic testing involving rolling road tire conditions can be expensive and complex to set up. Low cost rolling road testing can be implemented in a 0.3m2 Eiffel wind tunnel by modifying a horizontal belt sander to function as a moving road. This sander is equipped with steel supports to hold a steel plate against the bottom of the wind tunnel to stabilize the entire test section. These supports are bolted directly into the sander frame to ensure minimal vibrational losses or errors during testing. The wind tunnel design at the beginning of the project was encased in a wooden box which was removed to allow easier access to the test section for installation of the rolling road assembly. The tunnel was also modified to allow observers to view the testing process from various angles.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1510
Kisun Song, Kyung Hak Choo, Dimitri Mavris
Abstract In early phases of conceptual design stages for developing a new car in the modern automobile industry, the lack of systematic methodology to efficiently converge to an agreement between the aesthetics and aerodynamic performance tremendously increases budget and time. During these procedures, one of the most important tasks is to create geometric information which is versatilely morphable upon the demands of both of stylists and engineers. In this perspective, this paper proposes a Spline-based Modeling Algorithm (SMA) to implement into performing aerodynamic design optimization research based on CFD analysis. Once a 3-perspective schematic of a car is given, SMA regresses the backbone boundary lines by using optimum polynomial interpolation methods with the best goodness of fit, eventually reconstructing the 3D shape by linearly interpolating from the extracted boundaries minimizing loss of important geometric features.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1517
Haidong Yuan, Zhigang Yang, Qiliang Li
Abstract External rear view mirror is attached at the side of the vehicle which is to permit clear vision for the driver to the rear of the vehicle. When the vehicle is running, the flow field around external rear view mirror is highly three-dimensional, unsteady, separated and turbulent which is known to be a significant source of aerodynamic noise and a contributor to the total drag force on the vehicle. While among all the researches on the flow field around external rear view mirror, different installation environment were employed. The external rear view mirror is mounted on a production car in most researches which presents the real condition and it can also be mounted on the ground of a wind tunnel, a specially designed table, or a generic vehicle model based on the SAE model. While, the relationship between the flow field around external rear view mirror and the installation environment is not very clear.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1513
Young-Chang Cho, Chin-Wei Chang, Andrea Shestopalov, Edward Tate
Abstract The airflow into the engine bay of a passenger car is used for cooling down essential components of the vehicle, such as powertrain, air-conditioning compressor, intake charge air, batteries, and brake systems, before it returns back to the external flow. When the intake ram pressure becomes high enough to supply surplus cooling air flow, this flow can be actively regulated by using arrays of grille shutters, namely active grille shutters (AGS), in order to reduce the drag penalty due to excessive cooling. In this study, the operation of AGS for a generic SUV-type model vehicle is optimized for improved fuel economy on a highway drive cycle (part of SFTP-US06) by using surrogate models. Both vehicle aerodynamic power consumption and under-hood cooling performance are assessed by using PowerFLOW, a high-fidelity flow solver that is fully coupled with powertrain heat exchanger models.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1511
Anton Kabanovs, Graham Hodgson, Andrew Garmory, Martin Passmore, Adrian Gaylard
Abstract The motivation for this paper is to consider the effect of rear end geometry on rear soiling using a representative generic SUV body. In particular the effect of varying the top slant angle is considered using both experiment and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Previous work has shown that slant angle has a significant effect on wake shape and drag and the work here extends this to investigate the effect on rear soiling. It is hoped that this work can provide an insight into the likely effect of such geometry changes on the soiling of similarly shaped road vehicles. To increase the generality of results, and to allow comparison with previously obtained aerodynamic data, a 25% scale generic SUV model is used in the Loughborough University Large Wind Tunnel. UV doped water is sprayed from a position located at the bottom of the left rear tyre to simulate the creation of spray from this tyre.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1512
Fuliang Wang, Zhangshun Yin, Shi Yan, Jia Zhan, Heinz Friz, Bo Li, Weiliang Xie
Abstract The validation of vehicle aerodynamic simulation results to wind tunnel test results and simulation accuracy improvement attract considerable attention of many automotive manufacturers. In order to improve the simulation accuracy, a simulation model of the ground effects simulation system of the aerodynamic wind tunnel of the Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel Center was built. The model includes the scoop, the distributed suction, the tangential blowing, the moving belt and the wheel belts. The simulated boundary layer profile and the pressure distribution agree well with test results. The baseline model and multiple design changes of the new Buick Excelle GT are simulated. The simulation results agree very well with test results.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1516
Daniel B. Honeycutt, Mesbah Uddin
Abstract Although, the implementation of lift-off prevention devices such as the NASCAR roof flaps have greatly reduced the frequency and severity of race vehicle aerodynamic lift-off incidents, airborne incidents still occur occasionally in motorsports. The effectiveness of existing lift-off prevention measures and future trends in lift-off prevention are addressed in this paper. The results and analysis presented in this paper will be of paramount interest to race vehicle designers and sanctioning bodies because the effects of aerodynamics on vehicle lift-off need to be comprehended, but there exists a scarcity of reliable data in this area.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1518
Emil Ljungskog, Simone Sebben, Alexander Broniewicz, Christoffer Landström
Abstract Many aerodynamic wind tunnels used for testing of ground vehicles have advanced ground simulation systems to account for the relative motion between the ground and the vehicle. One commonly used approach for ground simulation is a five belt system, where moving belts are used, often in conjunction with distributed suction and tangential blowing that reduces the displacement thickness of the boundary layer along the wind tunnel floor. This paper investigates the effects from aft-belt tangential blowing in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic wind tunnel. First the uniformity of the boundary layer thickness downstream of the blowing slots is examined in the empty tunnel. This is followed by investigations of how the measured performance of different vehicle types in several configurations, typically tested in routine aerodynamic development work, depends on whether the tangential blowing system is active or not.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1515
Neil Lewington, Lauri Ohra-aho, Olav Lange, Klaus Rudnik
Abstract Industry trends towards lighter, more aerodynamically efficient road vehicles have the potential to degrade a vehicle’s response to crosswinds. In this paper, a methodology is outlined that indirectly couples a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the vehicle’s aerodynamic characteristics with a multi-body dynamics simulation (MBD) to determine yaw, roll and pitch response characteristics during a severe crosswind event. This one-way coupling approach mimics physical test conditions outlined in open loop test procedure ISO 12021:2010 that forms part of the vehicle sign-off criterion at Ford Motor Company. The methodology uses an overset mesh CFD method to drive the vehicle through a prescribed crosswind event, providing unfiltered predictions of vehicle force and moment responses that are used as applied forces in the MBD model. The method does not account for changes in vehicle attitude due to applied aerodynamic forces and moments.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1514
Renan F. Soares, Kevin P. Garry, Jennifer Holt
Abstract The flow field and body aerodynamic loads on the DrivAer reference model have been extensively investigated since its introduction in 2012. However, there is a relative lack of information relating to the models wake development resulting from the different rear-body configurations, particularly in the far-field. Given current interest in the aerodynamic interaction between two or more vehicles, the results from a preliminary CFD study are presented to address the development of the wake from the Fastback, Notchback, and Estateback DrivAer configurations. The primary focus is on the differences in the far-field wake and simulations are assessed in the range up to three vehicle lengths downstream, at Reynolds and Mach numbers of 5.2×106 and 0.13, respectively. Wake development is modelled using the results from a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation within a computational mesh having nominally 1.0×107 cells.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1536
Jeff Howell, David Forbes, Martin Passmore, Gary Page
Abstract In the wind tunnel the effect of a wind input on the aerodynamic characteristics of any road vehicle is simulated by yawing the vehicle. This represents a wind input where the wind velocity is constant with height above the ground. In reality the natural wind is a boundary layer flow and is sheared so that the wind velocity will vary with height. A CFD simulation has been conducted to compare the aerodynamic characteristics of a DrivAer model, in fastback and squareback form, subject to a crosswind flow, with and without shear. The yaw simulation has been carried out at a yaw angle of 10° and with one shear flow exponent. It is shown that the car experiences almost identical forces and moments in the two cases when the mass flow in the crosswind over the height of the car is similar. Load distributions are presented for the two cases. The implications for wind averaged drag are discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1537
Ananya Bhardwaj
Abstract Improving brake cooling has commanded substantial research in the automotive sector, as safety remains paramount in vehicles of which brakes are a crucial component. To prevent problems like brake fade and brake judder, heat dissipation should be maximized from the brakes to limit increasing temperatures. This research is a CFD investigation into the impact of existing wheel center designs on brake cooling through increased cross flow through the wheel. The new study brings together the complete wheel and disc geometries in a single CFD study and directly measures the effect on brake cooling, by implementing more accurately modeled boundary conditions like moving ground to replicate real conditions correctly. It also quantifies the improvement in the cooling rate of the brake disc with a change in wheel design, unlike previous studies.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1539
Vinh Long Phan, Hiroshi Tanaka, Takaaki Nagatani, Mikio Wakamatsu, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
Abstract High frequency wind noise caused by turbulent flow around the front pillars of a vehicle is an important factor for customer perception of ride comfort. In order to reduce undesirable interior wind noise during vehicle development process, a calculation and visualization method for exterior wind noise with an acceptable computational cost and adequate accuracy is required. In this paper an index for prediction of the strength of exterior wind noise, referred to as Exterior Noise Power (ENP), is developed based on an assumption that the acoustic power of exterior wind noise can be approximated by the far field acoustic power radiated from vehicle surface. Using the well-known Curle’s equation, ENP can be represented as a surface integral of an acoustic intensity distribution, referred to as Exterior Noise Power Distribution (ENPD). ENPD is estimated from turbulent surface pressure fluctuation and mean convective velocity in the vicinity of the vehicle surface.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1538
Jiaye Gan, Longxian Li, Gecheng Zha, Craig Czlapinski
Abstract This paper conducts numerical simulation and wind tunnel testing to demonstrate the passive flow control jet boat tail (JBT) drag reduction technique for a heavy duty truck rear view mirror. The JBT passive flow control technique is to introduce a flow jet by opening an inlet in the front of a bluff body, accelerate the jet via a converging duct and eject the jet at an angle toward the center of the base surface. The high speed jet flow entrains the free stream flow to energize the base flow, increase the base pressure, reduces the wake size, and thus reduce the drag. A baseline heavy duty truck rear view mirror is used as reference. The mirror is then redesigned to include the JBT feature without violating any of the variable mirror position geometric constraints and internal control system volume requirement. The wind tunnel testing was conducted at various flow speed and yaw angles.
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