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Viewing 1 to 30 of 324
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1647
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seunghee Hong, Damee Kim, Jaehak Yu
Abstract Driving is a complex activity with the continuously changing environment. Safe driving can be challenged by changes in drivers’ physical, emotional, and mental condition. Population in the developed world is aging, so the number of older drivers is increasing. Older drivers have relatively higher incidences of crashes precipitated by drivers’ medical emergencies when compared to another age group. On the elderly population, automakers are paying more attention to developing cars that can measure and monitor the drivers’ health status to protect them. In recent years, the automotive industry has been integrating health, wellness, and wellbeing technologies into cars with Internet of Things (IoT). A broad range of applications is possible for the IoT-based elderly smart healthcare monitoring systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1397
Alba Fornells, Núria Parera, Adria Ferrer, Anita Fiorentino
Abstract While accident data show a decreasing number of fatalities and serious injuries on European Union (EU) roads, recent data from ERSO (European Road Safety Observatory) show an increasing proportion of elderly in the fatality statistics. Due to the continuous increase of life expectancy in Europe and other highly-developed countries, the elderly make up a higher number of drivers and other road users such as bicyclists and pedestrians whose mobility needs and habits have been changing over recent years. Moreover, due to their greater vulnerability, the elderly are more likely to be seriously injured in any given accident than younger people. With the goal of improving the safety mobility of the elderly, the SENIORS Project, funded by the European Commission, is investigating and assessing the injury reduction that can be achieved through innovative tools and safety systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1396
Sarah S. Sharpe, Robyn Brinkerhoff, Caroline Crump, Douglas Young
Abstract Unintended acceleration events due to pedal misapplication have been shown to occur more frequently in older vs. younger drivers. While such occurrences are well documented, the nature of these movement errors is not well-characterized in common pedal error scenarios: namely, on-road, non-emergency stopping or slowing maneuvers. It is commonly assumed that drivers move in a ballistic or “direct hit” trajectory from the accelerator to the brake pedal. However, recent simulator studies show that drivers do not always move directly between pedals, with older drivers displaying more variable foot trajectories than younger drivers. Our study investigated pedal movement trajectories in older drivers ages 67.9 ± 5.2 years (7 males, 8 females) during on-road driving in response to variable traffic light conditions. Three different sedans and a pick-up truck were utilized.
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9132
Husain Kanchwala, Harutoshi Ogai
Abstract Japan is suffering from the problem of an ageing society. In Kitakyushu city more than a quarter of people are aged above 65 years. The roads in this region are narrow with steep gradient and vulnerable roadbed. A big ratio of elderly people are living on their own. These characteristics make driving unsuitable. The problem is magnified by infrequent public transportation. A need-assessment survey for an autonomous vehicle at a community event suggested the applicability of small electric vehicle Toyota COMS. The vehicle is then equipped with features like automatic driving and platooning. The autonomous drive system is built to develop an intelligent transport system (ITS) using various sensors and actuators. Stereo camera and ultrasonic sensors were used to get a judgment of obstacle. Google earth and GPS were used to generate the target path using the Bezier curve method and optimized route is chosen.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1540
Timothy Keon
Abstract The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has performed research investigating the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint 50th male (THOR-50M) response in Oblique crash tests. This research is being expanded to investigate THOR-50M in the driver position in a 56 km/h frontal impact crash. Hybrid III 5th percentile adult female (AF05) anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) were used in this testing to evaluate the RibEye Deflection Measurement System. The AF05 ATDs were positioned in the right front passenger and right rear passenger seating positions. For the right front passenger, the New Car Assessment Procedure (NCAP) seating procedure was used, except the seat fore-aft position was set to mid-track. For the right rear passenger, the seating followed the FMVSS No. 214 Side Impact Compliance Test Procedure. The NCAP frontal impact test procedure was followed with additional vehicle instrumentation and pre/post-test measurements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1444
Shayne McConomy, Johnell Brooks, Paul Venhovens, Yubin Xi, Patrick Rosopa, John DesJardins, Kevin Kopera, Kathy Lococo
Abstract The research objective was to measure and understand the preferred seat position of older drivers and younger drivers within their personal vehicles to influence recommended practices and meet the increased safety needs of all drivers. Improper selection of driver’s seat position may impact safety during a crash event and affect one’s capacity to see the roadway and reach the vehicle’s controls, such as steering wheel, accelerator, brake, clutch, and gear selector lever. Because of the stature changes associated with ageing and the fact that stature is normally distributed for both males and females, it was hypothesized that the SAE J4004 linear regression would be improved with the inclusion of gender and age terms that would provide a more accurate model to predict the seat track position of older drivers. Participants included 97 older drivers over the age of 60 and 20 younger drivers between the ages of 30 to 39.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1443
Nazan Aksan, Lauren Sager, Sarah Hacker, Benjamin Lester, Jeffrey Dawson, Matthew Rizzo
Abstract We examined relative effectiveness of heads-up visual displays for lane departure warning (LDW) 39 younger to middle aged drivers (25-50, mean = 35 years) and 37 older drivers (66-87, mean = 77 years). The LDW included yellow “advisory” visuals in the center screen when the driver started drifting toward the adjacent lane. The visuals turned into red “imminent” when the tires overlapped with the lane markers. The LDW was turned off if the driver activated the turn signal. The visuals could be easily segregated from the background scene, making them salient but not disruptive to the driver’s forward field of view. The visuals were placed adjacent to the left and right lane markers in the lower half of the center screen.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1440
Julia Seeanner, Johnell Brooks, Mary Mossey, Casey Jenkins, Paul Venhovens, Constance Truesdail
Abstract While motorcycle safety frequently focuses on topics like helmet use and engineering aspects such as anti-lock braking systems, little research has investigated aging riders’ use of technologies (i.e., phones, navigation systems, etc.) or the characteristics of older riders (defined as above the age of 40) who use them. This study surveyed a convenience sample of typical motorcycle riders in the United States in order to provide an overview of the types of technologies that riders of different age groups use while riding, problems or concerns about those technologies, as well as rider demographics and riding habits. The sample included 97 riders (84 males and 13 females) between the ages of 20 and 71 years (M= 50.9, SD= 10.6) who were divided into three age groups (under 40 years, between 40 and 50 years, 50 years and older).
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1439
Nazan Aksan, Lauren Sager, Sarah Hacker, Robert Marini, Jeffrey Dawson, Steven Anderson, Matthew Rizzo
Abstract We examined the effectiveness of a heads-up Forward Collision Warning (FCW) system in 39 younger to middle aged drivers (25-50, mean = 35 years) and 37 older drivers (66-87, mean = 77 years). The warnings were implemented in a fixed based, immersive, 180 degree forward field of view simulator. The FCW included a visual advisory component consisting of a red horizontal bar which flashed in the center screen of the simulator that was triggered at time-to-collision (TTC) 4 seconds. The bar roughly overlapped the rear bumper of the lead vehicle, just below the driver’s line-of-sight. A sustained auditory tone (∼80 dB) was activated at TTC=2 to alert the driver to an imminent collision. Hence, the warning system differed from the industry standard in significant ways. 95% Confidence intervals for the safety gains ranged from -.03 to .19 seconds in terms of average correction time across several activations. Older and younger adults did not differ in terms of safety gains.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1442
David Miller, Mishel Johns, Hillary Page Ive, Nikhil Gowda, David Sirkin, Srinath Sibi, Brian Mok, Sudipto Aich, Wendy Ju
Abstract Age and experience influence driver ability to cope with transitions between automated and manual driving, especially when drivers are engaged in media use. This study evaluated three age cohorts (young/new drivers, adults, and seniors) on their performance in transitions from automated driving to manual vehicle control in a laboratory driving simulator. Drivers were given three tasks to perform during the automated driving segments: to watch a movie on a tablet, to read a story on a tablet, or to supervise the car's driving. We did not find significant differences in people's driving performance following the different tasks. We also did not find significant differences in driving performance between the people in each age group who successfully completed the study; however, the rejection rate of the senior age group was over 30% because many of the people in this age group had difficulty hearing instructions, understanding tasks, or remembering what to do.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1441
Jonathan Frank Antin, Justin Owens, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe, Brian Wotring
Abstract This study presents a long-term examination of the effects of two types of perceptual-cognitive brain training programs on senior driver behavior and on-road driving performance. Seniors (70+) engaged in either a Toyota-designed in-vehicle training program based on implicit learning principles or a commercially available computer-based training program developed by Posit Science. Another group served as a no-contact control group; total enrollment was 55 participants. Participants completed a series of four experimental sessions: (1) baseline pre-training, (2) immediate post-training, (3) 6-9 months post-training, and (4) 12-16 months post-training. Experimental metrics taken at each session included measures of vehicle control and driver glance behavior on public roads.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1447
Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Chi-Chen Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract As part of active safety systems for reducing bicyclist fatalities and injuries, Bicyclist Pre-Collision System (BPCS), also known as Bicyclist Autonomous Emergency Braking System, is being studied currently by several vehicles manufactures. This paper describes the development of a surrogate bicyclist which includes a surrogate bicycle and a surrogate bicycle rider to support the development and evaluation of BPCS. The surrogate bicycle is designed to represent the visual and radar characteristics of real bicyclists in the United States. The size of bicycle surrogate mimics the 26 inch adult bicycle, which is the most popular adult bicycle sold in the US. The radar cross section (RCS) of the surrogate bicycle is designed based on RCS measurement of the real adult sized bicycles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1490
Hans W. Hauschild, Frank Pintar, Dale Halloway, Mark Meyer, Rodney Rudd
Abstract Oblique crashes to the vehicle front corner may not be characteristic of either frontal or side impacts. This research evaluated occupant response in oblique crashes for a driver, rear adult passenger, and a rear child passenger. Occupant responses and injury potential were evaluated for seating positions as either a far-or near-side occupant. Two crash tests were conducted with a subcompact car. The vehicle’s longitudinal axis was oriented 45 degrees to the direction of travel on a moving platform and pulled into a wall at 56 km/h. Dummies utilized for the seating positions were an adult dummy (50th-percentile-HIII and THOR-Alpha) for the front-left (driver) position, 5th-percentile-female-HIII for the right-rear position, and a 3-year-old HIII for the left-rear position.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1528
Peijun Ji, Qing Zhou
Abstract As the restraint technologies for front-seat occupant protection advance, such as seatbelt pre-tensioner, seatbelt load limiter and airbag, relative effectiveness of rear-seat occupant protection decreases, especially for the elderly. Some occupant protection systems for front-seat have been proved to be effective for rear-seat occupant protection as well, but they also have some drawbacks. Seatbelt could generate unwanted local penetrations to the chest and abdomen. And for rear-seat occupants, it might be difficult to install airbag and set deployment time. For crash protection, it is desirable that the restraint loads are spread to the sturdy parts of human body such as head, shoulders, rib cage, pelvis and femurs, as uniformly as possible. This paper explores a uniform restraint concept aiming at providing protection in wide range of impact severity for rear-seat occupants.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1529
Gunti R. Srinivas, Anindya Deb, Clifford C. Chou, Malhar Kumar
Abstract Periprosthetic fractures refer to the fractures that occur in the vicinity of the implants of joint replacement arthroplasty. Most of the fractures during an automotive frontal collision involve the long bones of the lower limbs (femur and tibia). Since the prevalence of persons living with lower limb joint prostheses is increasing, periprosthetic fractures that occur during vehicular accidents are likely to become a considerable burden on health care systems. It is estimated that approximately 4.0 million adults in the U.S. currently live with Total Knee Replacement (TKR) implants. Therefore, it is essential to study the injury patterns that occur in the long bone of a lower limb containing a total knee prosthesis. The aim of the present study is to develop an advanced finite element model that simulates the possible fracture patterns that are likely during vehicular accidents involving occupants who have knee joint prostheses in situ.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0110
Mohammad Huq, Douglas McConnell
Abstract Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) runs with a set of parameters that determine how the ACC performs. Some of these parameters are tunable to some degree through HMI and the rest are pre-determined. The proposed Behavior Trainable ACC (BTACC) is able to learn all these parameters from driving behavior of the driver. To develop BTACC adapted to the driver’s driving behavior, the ACC keeps collecting driving data such as set speed, acceleration, deceleration, headway settings, etc., of the vehicle over time and keeps updating the related parameters. After training is over, the driver is able to drive the vehicle in BTACC mode, when the vehicle would drive itself according to driving behavior of the driver, young or elderly, and thus, provide the drivers with a higher level of safety and comfort. BTACC can be embedded with an existing ACC module so that the drivers may choose either ACC or BTACC.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0246
Rupesh Sonu Kakade, Prashant Mer
Abstract Vehicle occupants, unlike building occupants, are exposed to continuously varying, non-uniform solar heat load. Automotive manufacturers use photovoltaic cells based solar sensor to measure intensity and direction of the direct-beam solar radiation. Use of the time of the day and the position - latitude and longitude - of a vehicle is also common to calculate direction of the direct-beam solar radiation. Two angles - azimuth and elevation - are used to completely define the direction of solar radiation with respect to the vehicle coordinate system. Although the use of solar sensor is common in today’s vehicles, the solar heat load on the occupants, because of their exposure to the direct-beam solar radiation remains the area of in-car subjective evaluation and tuning. Since the solar rays travel in parallel paths, application of the ray tracing method to determine solar insolation of the vehicle occupants is possible.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0164
Jamy Li, Xuan Zhao, Mu-Jung Cho, Wendy Ju, Bertram F. Malle
Abstract Autonomous vehicles represent a new class of transportation that may be qualitatively different from existing cars. Two online experiments assessed lay perceptions of moral norms and responsibility for traffic accidents involving autonomous vehicles. In Experiment 1, 120 US adults read a narrative describing a traffic incident between a pedestrian and a motorist. In different experimental conditions, the pedestrian, the motorist, or both parties were at fault. Participants assigned less responsibility to a self-driving car that was at fault than to a human driver who was at fault. Participants confronted with a self-driving car at fault allocated greater responsibility to the manufacturer and the government than participants who were confronted with a human driver at fault did.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1737
Thitsadee Ngernsukphaiboon, Sunhapos Chantranuwathana, Nuksit Noomwongs, Angkee Sripakagorn, Solaphat Hemrungrojn MD
Abstract The world is aging rapidly. Many countries can already be categorized as aging or aged societies while a few are becoming super-aged societies. In Thailand as well as in other countries, traffic accidents caused by elderly drivers will continue to rise as a significant percentage of elderly people still prefer to drive. Accidents may be prevented with driving tests and screening methods for elderly drivers. However, it is also necessary to understand the effect of aging on driving ability. With this understanding, driver training, driver assistant systems, and improvements on infrastructure may be designed accordingly. Among various physical changes, cognitive ability of the brain is one of the most significant factors affecting driving ability. In this paper, correlation between various cognitive functions of the brain and car following skill of drivers are considered.
2015-11-09
Technical Paper
2015-22-0006
Tony R. Laituri, Scott Henry, Raed El-Jawahri, Nirmal Muralidharan, Guosong Li, Marvin Nutt
A provisional, age-dependent thoracic risk equation (or, “risk curve”) was derived to estimate moderate-to-fatal injury potential (AIS2+), pertaining to men with responses gaged by the advanced mid-sized male test dummy (THOR50). The derivation involved two distinct data sources: cases from real-world crashes (e.g., the National Automotive Sampling System, NASS) and cases involving post-mortem human subjects (PMHS). The derivation was therefore more comprehensive, as NASS datasets generally skew towards younger occupants, and PMHS datasets generally skew towards older occupants. However, known deficiencies had to be addressed (e.g., the NASS cases had unknown stimuli, and the PMHS tests required transformation of known stimuli into THOR50 stimuli).
2015-11-09
Technical Paper
2015-22-0005
Anil Kalra, Tal Saif, Ming Shen, Xin Jin, Feng Zhu, Paul Begeman, King H., Scott Millis
In the elderly population, rib fracture is one of the most common injuries sustained in motor vehicle crashes. The current study was conducted to predict the biomechanical fracture responses of ribs with respect to age, gender, height, weight and percentage of ash content. Three-point bending experiments were conducted on 278 isolated rib samples extracted from 82 cadaver specimens (53 males and 29 females between the ages of 21 and 87 years) for 6th and 7th levels of ribs. Statistical analyses were carried out to identify differences based on age and gender. It was found that, in comparison to males, females had significantly lower values for maximum bending moments, slopes of bending moment-angle curves, and average cortical-bone thickness (p < 0.05). Samples of ribs taken from elderly specimens failed at lower values of fracture moments than those from younger specimens, and had lower slopes of bending moment-angle curves, both in males and females (p < 0.05).
2015-11-09
Technical Paper
2015-22-0014
Samantha L. Schoell, Ashley A. Weaver, Jillian E. Urban, Derek A. Jones, Joel D. Stitzel, Eunjoo Hwang, Matthew P. Reed, Jonathan D. Rupp
The aging population is a growing concern as the increased fragility and frailty of the elderly results in an elevated incidence of injury as well as an increased risk of mortality and morbidity. To assess elderly injury risk, age-specific computational models can be developed to directly calculate biomechanical metrics for injury. The first objective was to develop an older occupant Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) average male model (M50) representative of a 65 year old (YO) and to perform regional validation tests to investigate predicted fractures and injury severity with age. Development of the GHBMC M50 65 YO model involved implementing geometric, cortical thickness, and material property changes with age. Regional validation tests included a chest impact, a lateral impact, a shoulder impact, a thoracoabdominal impact, an abdominal bar impact, a pelvic impact, and a lateral sled test.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0578
Wei Li, Yi-Pen Cheng, Lisa Furton
Abstract Finite element dummy models have been more and more widely applied in virtual development of occupant protection systems across the automotive industry due to their predictive capabilities. H350 dyna dummy model [1] is a finite element representation of the Hybrid III male dummy [2], which is designed to represent the average of the United States adult male population. Lower extremity injuries continue to occur in front crash accidents despite increasing improvement of vehicle crashworthiness and occupant restraint system. It is therefore desirable to predict lower tibia injury numbers in front occupant simulations. Though lower tibia loading/index predictions are not studied as much as the FMVSS 208 regulated injury numbers, the tibia indices are injury criteria that need to be assessed during IIHS and Euro NCAP frontal offset occupant simulations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1399
Dee Kivett, Victor Gallas Cervo, Aparna Mantha, John Smith
Abstract A common result of aging is a decline in peripheral vision. This study provides a preliminary feasibility analysis of an improved method for alerting drivers of oncoming traffic in blind-spots. Luminescence with an intuitive color-scheme is used as the primary stimulus to permeate a wider field of useful vision than that of existing technology in use today. This method was developed based on concepts of affordance-based design through its adaptation to address specific cognitive and visual acuity challenges of the elderly. The result is an improved, intuitive technique for hazard alert that shows significant improvement over existing technology for all age groups, not just the elderly.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1415
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa
Abstract Fatal injuries suffered by cyclists in vehicle-versus-cyclist accidents are investigated to provide information for the introduction of safety countermeasures. We analyzed characteristics of cyclist injuries in real fatal accidents and compared them with severity levels of head injury in impact tests against a road surface. In the accident analyses, we investigated the main body regions whose injuries led to fatalities using a macro vehicle-cyclist accident database of the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis of Japan. Using data from 2009 to 2013, we investigated the frequency of cyclist fatalities by gender, age group, vehicle speed, and the source of fatal head injury (impact with the vehicle or road surface). Results indicated that head injuries are the most common cause of cyclist fatalities in car-cyclist accidents.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1460
Massoud Tavakoli, Janet Brelin-Fornari
Abstract This study was conducted to explore the effect of various combinations of seatbelt-related safety components (namely, retractor pretensioners and load limiting retractors) on the adult rear passenger involved in a frontal collision. The study was conducted on a 50th Male and a 5th Female Hybrid III ATD in the rear seat of a mid-sized sedan. Each ATD was seated in an outboard position with 3-point continuous lap-shoulder belts. On these belts were combinations of pretensioners and load limiters. Since the main objective of this test series was to cross-compare the seatbelt configurations, front seats were not included in the buck in order to avoid uncontrollable variables that would have affected the comparison study if the possibility of contact with the front seat were allowed. Nevertheless, there was a short barrier devised to act as a foot-stop for both ATDs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1467
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Munenori Shinada
Abstract Logistic regression analysis for accident cases of NASS-PCDS (National Automotive Sampling System-Pedestrian Crash Data Study) clearly shows that the extent and the degree of pedestrian's lower extremity injury depend on various factors such as the impact speed, the ratio of the pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle, bumper to knee ratio, bumper lead angle, age of the pedestrian, and posture of the pedestrian at the time of impact. The pedestrian population is divided in 3 groups, equivalent to small-shorter, medium-height and large-taller pedestrian with respect to the “pedestrian to BLE height-ratio” in order to quantify the degree of influence of lower leg injuries in each group. Large adult male finite element model (95th percentile male: 190 cm and 103 kg) was developed by morphing the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) 50th percentile male.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1437
Tony R. Laituri, Raed E. El-Jawahri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
Abstract In the present study, various risk curves for moderate-to-fatal head injury (AIS2+) were theoretically assessed by comparing model-based injury rates with field-based injury rates. This was accomplished by applying the risk curves in corresponding field models. The resulting injury rates were considered from two perspectives: aggregate (0-56 kph events) and point-estimate (higher-speed, barrier-like events). Four risk curves were studied: a HIC15-based curve from Mertz et al. (1997), a BRIC-based curve from Takhounts et al. (2011), a BrIC-based curve from Takhounts et al. (2013) and a Concussion-Correlate-based curve from Rowson et al. (2013). The field modeling pertained to adult drivers in 11-1 o'clock, towaway, full-engagement frontal crashes in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS, calendar years = 1993-2012), and the model-year range of the passenger vehicles was 1985-2010.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1443
Morteza Seidi, Marzieh Hajiaghamemar, James Ferguson, Vincent Caccese
Abstract Falls in the elderly population is an important concern to individuals and in the healthcare industry. When the head is left unprotected, head impact levels can reach upwards of 500 g (gravitational acceleration), which is a level that can cause serious injury or death. A protective system for a fall injury needs to be designed with specific criteria in mind including energy protection level, thickness, stiffness, and weight among others. The current study quantifies the performance of a protective head gear design for persons prone to falls. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the injury mitigation of head protection gear made from a patented system of polyurethane honeycomb and dilatant materials. To that end, a twin wire fall system equipped with a drop arm that includes a Hybrid-III head/neck assembly was used. The head was instrumented with an accelerometer array.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1453
Jingwen Hu, Kurt Fischer, Paul Lange, Angelo Adler
Abstract In this study, two sled series were conducted with a sled buck representing a compact vehicle. The first series of tests focused on the effects of crash pulse, impact angle, occupant size, and front seat location on rear seat occupant restraint with a generic rear-seat belt system without pre-tensioner or load limiter. The second series of tests focused on investigating the benefit of using advanced features for rear-seat occupant restraint in the most severe crash condition in the first sled series. The first series of tests include 16 test conditions with two impact angles (0° and 15°), two sled pulse (soft and severe), and four ATD sizes (HIII 6YO, HIII 5th female, HIII 95th male, and THOR-NT) with two ATDs in each test. The driver seat was located at the mid position, while the front passenger seat was positioned such that a constant distance between the ATD knee and the front seat is achieved.
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