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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3152
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2868
John Woodrooffe, Daniel Blower
This paper examines truck driver injury and loss of life in truck crashes related to cab crashworthiness and investigate regulations and industry trends in relation to truck occupant protection. The paper provides analysis of truck driver casualties in crashes to provide a better understanding of injury mechanisms and to review regulatory and industry initiatives concerned with reducing the number of truck occupant fatalities and the severity of injuries. The commercial vehicle focus is on truck-tractors and single unit vehicles in the NHTSA Class 7 & 8 weight range. The study used UMTRI's Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) survey file and NHTSA's General Estimates System (GES) file for categorical analysis and the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) for a supplemental clinical review of cab performance in frontal and rollover crash types.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2873
Sumit Sharma, Sandeep sharma, Sanjay Tiwari, Umashanker Gupta
Years ago the main purpose of heavy duty truck is to carrying the loads, in the current scenario cabin comfort and safety is also equally important. With the improved infrastructure quality the average speed of these types of vehicle has also been increased. With the higher average speed, the chances of getting crash have also been increased. In order to provide safety to the driver, all the safety parameters should be considered in advance at the time of design and development of cabin. Sufficient survival space must be present at the time of crash. In order to provide optimum ride comfort, fully suspended cab was designed. The main aim of this study is to develop detailed 3D finite element (FE) model of fully suspended heavy duty truck cabin with detailed suspensions system and simulate crash test scenario presented in regulation ECE-R29 using LS-Dyna explicit solver.
2015-04-14
Collection
Active Safety and Driver assistance systems are gaining importance as many passive safety systems have already been found to have yielded significant safety benefits that are possible from the deployment of those systems in the fleet. Similar success will much depend upon how fast these systems proliferate the entire passenger vehicle fleet. It will also depend on the deployment strategies used by the industry and the government as well as consumer acceptance and market demand for these systems. Additionally, opportunities exist to use the information gained from the various onboard sensors and vision systems in active safety systems for improving the effectiveness of today’s passive safety systems such as seat belts, airbags, and post-crash safety systems even further by the integration of active and passive safety systems.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1703
John D. Bullough
Abstract Assessing the safety impacts of vehicle forward lighting is a challenge because crash data do not always contain details necessary to ascertain the role, if any, of lighting in crashes. The present paper describes several approaches to evaluating the safety impacts of lighting using naturalistic driving data. Driving behavioral data and descriptive narratives of crashes and near-miss incidents might provide new opportunities to understand how forward lighting improves traffic safety.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1475
Alan F. Asay, Jarrod Carter, James Funk, Gregory Stephens
A follow-up case study on rollover testing with a single full-size sport utility vehicle (SUV) was conducted under controlled real-world conditions. The purpose of this study was to conduct a well-documented rollover event that could be utilized in evaluating various methods and techniques over the phases associated with rollover accidents. The phases documented and discussed, inherent to rollovers, are: pre-trip, trip, and rolling phases. With recent advances in technology, new devices and techniques have been designed which improve the ability to capture and document the unpredictable dynamic events surrounding vehicle rollovers. One such device is an inertial measurement unit (IMU), which utilizes GPS technology along with integrated sensors to report and record measured dynamic parameters real-time. The data obtained from a RT-4003 IMU device are presented and compared along with previous test data and methodology.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1479
Adria Ferrer, Eduard Infantes
Abstract The introduction of the new NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) oblique test configuration presents a new and critical load case that manufacturers are on the way to solving. Towards providing the best tools for passive safety development, this paper presents the work carried out to enable the analysis of the loads transmitted to the barrier in this kind of test. These data enable the identification of the elements of the vehicle that take part in the absorption of energy during the crash and are a valuable tool to improving the safety of vehicles by comparing the loads transmitted to the barrier in oblique tests. To record these data, a load cell wall system located between the deformable barrier and the trolley was installed. To assess the barrier design, one oblique test with the RMDB barrier was carried out. The deformable barrier for the oblique test is instrumented with 9 columns of 3 and 4 load cells with a total of 32 x-axial load cells.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1477
Robert Larson, Jeffrey Croteau, Cleve Bare, John Zolock, Daniel Peterson, Jason Skiera, Jason R. Kerrigan, Mark D. Clauser
Abstract Extensive testing has been conducted to evaluate both the dynamic response of vehicle structures and occupant protection systems in rollover collisions though the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs). Rollover test methods that utilize a fixture to initiate the rollover event include the SAE2114 dolly, inverted drop tests, accelerating vehicle body buck on a decelerating sled, ramp-induced rollovers, and Controlled Rollover Impact System (CRIS) Tests. More recently, programmable steering controllers have been used with sedans, vans, pickup trucks, and SUVs to induce a rollover, primarily for studying the vehicle kinematics for accident reconstruction applications. The goal of this study was to create a prototypical rollover crash test for the study of vehicle dynamics and occupant injury risk where the rollover is initiated by a steering input over realistic terrain without the constraints of previously used test methods.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1487
Andreas Teibinger, Harald Marbler-Gores, Harald Schluder, Veit Conrad, Hermann Steffan, Josef Schmidauer
Abstract Structural component testing is essential for the development process to have an early knowledge of the real world behaviour of critical structural components in crash load cases. The objective of this work is to show the development for a self-sufficient structural component test bench, which can be used for different side impact crash load cases and can reflect the dynamic behaviour, which current approaches are not able. An existing basic system is used, which includes pneumatic cylinders with a controlled hydraulic brake and was developed for non-structural deformable applications only (mainly occupant assessments). The system is extended with a force-distance control. The method contains the analysis of a whole vehicle FEM simulation to develop a methodology for controlled force transmission with the pneumatic cylinders for a structural component test bench.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1486
Craig A. Markusic, Ram Songade
Abstract Simplified Side Impact Finite Element Model (SSM) merged the complex side crash model parameters used in LS-DYNA4; the same sophisticated software employed by finite element (FE)2 analysts, and the user-friendly custom graphical user interface (GUI)1 to allow users having little to no simulation software knowledge the ability to conduct a full vehicle representative crash simulation. Prior to SSM development a literature search was carried to try and identify similar CAE tools for side impact. We did not find any tool that would cater specifically to side impact. During the testing phase, SSM demonstrated that one model analysis run can be completed in fewer than thirty (30) minutes, a radical efficiency increase because previous procedures require several days of effort from a highly skilled FE2 analyst to set up, execute, and analyze.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0575
SongAn Zhang, Qing Zhou, Yong Xia
Abstract Small lightweight electric vehicle (SLEV) is an approach for compensating low energy density of the current battery. However, small lightweight vehicle presents technical challenges to crash safety design. One issue is that mass of battery pack and occupants is a significant portion of vehicle's total weight, and therefore, the mass distribution has great influence on crash response. This paper presents a parametric analysis using finite element modeling. We first build LS-DYNA model of a two-seater SLEV with curb weight of 600 kg. The model has no complex components and can provide reasonable crash pulses under full frontal rigid barrier crash loading and offset deformable barrier (ODB) crash loading.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0564
Sung Wook Moon, Byunghyun Kang, Jaeyoung Lim, Byoung-Ho Choi
Abstract In a car accident which is involving pedestrians, head injuries occur very frequently as the head of the pedestrian hits the windshield. The head injury criterion (HIC) obtained through the windshield impact test is used to evaluate the pedestrian injury, and car manufacturers are trying to meet the criterion by changing the design and/or materials.. However, there are some difficulties in the windshield impact test, e.g. a large scatter of the test data or windshield shape-dependent property of the test. These problems make it very difficult to obtain the meaningful results from single test and thus, tests should be executed several times. In this study, a lab-scale windshield impact test was performed using a modified instrumented dart impact (IDI) tester. Tests were carried out by switching test conditions such as the impact speed, the size of the head form and the specimen thickness.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1595
Kristoffer Lundahl, Chih Feng Lee, Erik Frisk, Lars Nielsen
Abstract Rollover has for long been a major safety concern for trucks, and will be even more so as automated driving is envisaged to becoming a key element of future mobility. A natural way to address rollover is to extend the capabilities of current active-safety systems with a system that intervenes by steering or braking actuation when there is a risk of rollover. Assessing and predicting the rollover is usually performed using rollover indices calculated either from lateral acceleration or lateral load transfer. Since these indices are evaluated based on different physical observations it is not obvious how they can be compared or how well they reflect rollover events in different situations. In this paper we investigate the implication of the above mentioned rollover indices in different critical maneuvers for a heavy 8×4 twin-steer truck.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1490
Tony R. Laituri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
Abstract Injury distributions of belted drivers in 1998-2013 model-year light passenger cars/trucks in various types of real-world frontal crashes were studied. The basis of the analysis was field data from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). The studied variables were injury severity (n=2), occupant body region (n=8), and crash type (n=8). The two levels of injury were moderate-to-fatal (AIS2+) and serious-to-fatal (AIS3+). The eight body regions ranged from head/face to foot/ankle. The eight crash types were based on a previously-published Frontal Impact Taxonomy (FIT). The results of the study provided insights into the field data. For example, for the AIS2+ upper-body-injured drivers, (a) head and chest injury yield similar contributions, and (b) about 60% of all the upper-body injured drivers were from the combination of the Full-Engagement and Offset crashes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0130
Julio Rodriguez, Ken Rogich, Philip Pidgeon, Kim Alexander, John R. Wagner
Abstract Driving skills and driving experience develop differently between a civilian and a military service member. Since 2000, the Department of Defense reports that two-thirds of non-related to war fatalities among active duty service members were due to transportation-related incidents. In addition, vehicle crashes are the leading non-related to war cause of both fatalities and serious injuries among active duty Marines. A pilot safe driving program for Marines was jointly developed by the Richard Petty Driving Experience and Clemson University Automotive Safety Research Institute. The pilot program includes four modules based on leading causes of vehicle crashes, and uses classroom and behind the wheel components to improve and reinforce safe driving skills and knowledge. The assessment results of this pilot program conducted with 192 Marines in September 2011 at Camp LeJeune, NC are presented and discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1415
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa
Abstract Fatal injuries suffered by cyclists in vehicle-versus-cyclist accidents are investigated to provide information for the introduction of safety countermeasures. We analyzed characteristics of cyclist injuries in real fatal accidents and compared them with severity levels of head injury in impact tests against a road surface. In the accident analyses, we investigated the main body regions whose injuries led to fatalities using a macro vehicle-cyclist accident database of the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis of Japan. Using data from 2009 to 2013, we investigated the frequency of cyclist fatalities by gender, age group, vehicle speed, and the source of fatal head injury (impact with the vehicle or road surface). Results indicated that head injuries are the most common cause of cyclist fatalities in car-cyclist accidents.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1410
Shotaro Odate, Kazuhiro Daido, Yosuke Mizutani
Abstract According to the North American National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS), approximately one-half of all accidents during driving are of the secondary collision pattern in which the collision event involves the occurrence of secondary collision. Accidents involving impact to a stopped vehicle (chain-reaction collisions) have increased to approximately 3% of all accidents in North America, and although the rate of serious injury is low, cases have been reported of accidents in which cervical sprain occurs as an after-effect[1]. In order to mitigate these circumstances, research has been conducted on systems of automatic braking for collisions. These systems apply brakes automatically when a first collision has been detected in order to avoid or lessen a second collision. Research on automatic collision braking systems, however, has not examined the multiple collisions parked [1, 2].
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1408
Kristofer D. Kusano, Hampton C. Gabler
Abstract Intersection crashes are a frequent and dangerous crash mode in the U.S. Emerging Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) aim to assist the driver to mitigate the consequences of vehicle-to-vehicle crashes at intersections. In support of the design and evaluation of such intersection assistance systems, characterization of the road, environment, and drivers associated with intersection crashes is necessary. The objective of this study was to characterize intersection crashes using nationally representative crash databases that contained all severity, serious injury, and fatal crashes. This study utilized four national crash databases: the National Automotive Sampling System, General Estimates System (NASS/GES); the NASS Crashworthiness Data System (CDS); and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (EARS) and the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1405
Guanjun Zhang, Feng Yu, Zhigao OuYang, Huiqin Chen, Zhonghao Bai, Libo Cao
Abstract The combination of passive and active vehicle safety technologies can effectively improve vehicle safety. Most of them predict vehicle crashes using radar or video, but they can't be applied extensively currently due to the high cost. Another collision forecasting method is more economic which is based on the driver behavior and vehicle status, such as the acceleration, angular velocity of the brake pedal and so on. However, the acceleration and angular velocity of the brake pedal will change with the driver and the vehicle type. In order to study the effect of different drivers and vehicle types on the braking acceleration and angular velocity of the brake pedal, six volunteers were asked to drive five vehicles for simulating the working conditions of emergency braking, normal braking, inching braking and passing barricades under different velocities. All the tests were conducted on asphalt road, and comprehensive experimental design was used to arrange tests.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1416
Clay Coleman, Donald Tandy, Jason Colborn, Nicholas Ault
Abstract In the field of accident reconstruction, a reconstructionist will often inspect a crash scene months or years after a crash has occurred. With this passage of time important evidence is sometimes no longer present at the scene (i.e. the vehicles involved in the crash, debris on the roadway, tire marks, gouges, paint marks, etc.). When a scene has not been totally documented with a survey by MAIT or the investigating officers, the reconstructionist may need to rely on police, fire department, security camera, or witness photographs. These photos can be used to locate missing evidence by employing traditional photogrammetric techniques. However, traditional techniques require planar surfaces, matched discrete points, or camera matching at the scene.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1419
Raymond M. Brach
Abstract Numerous algebraic formulas and mathematical models exist for the reconstruction of vehicle speed of a vehicle-pedestrian collision using pedestrian throw distance. Unfortunately a common occurrence is that the throw distance is not known because no evidence exists to locate the point of impact. When this is the case almost all formulas and models lose their utility. The model developed by Han and Brach published by SAE in 2001 is an exception because it can reconstruct vehicle speed based on the distance between the rest positions of the vehicle and pedestrian. The Han-Brach model is comprehensive and contains crash parameters such as pedestrian launch angle, height of the center of gravity of the pedestrian at launch, pedestrian-road surface friction, vehicle-road surface friction, road grade angle, etc. Such an approach provides versatility and allows variations of these variables to be taken into account for investigation of uncertainty.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1420
John C. Steiner, John Olsen, Tom Walli, Tyler Kress, Christopher Armstrong, Ralph Gallagher, Stein Husher, John Kyes
Abstract Traditional accident reconstruction analysis methodologies include the study of the crush-energy relationship of vehicles. By analyzing the measured crush from a vehicle involved in a real world accident and comparing it to a test vehicle with a known energy, from a crash test, the real world vehicle's damage energy can be evaluated. In addition, the change-in-velocity (Delta-V) can be calculated. The largest source of publicly available crash tests is from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). NHTSA conducts numerous Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) compliance and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) testing for many passenger vehicles for sale in the United States.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1422
Neal Carter, Nathan A. Rose, David Pentecost
Abstract Several sources report simple equations for calculating the lean angle required for a motorcycle and rider to traverse a curved path at a particular speed. These equations utilize several assumptions that reconstructionists using them should consider. First, they assume that the motorcycle is traveling a steady speed. Second, they assume that the motorcycle and its rider lean to the same lean angle. Finally, they assume that the motorcycle tires have no width, such that the portion of the tires contacting the roadway does not change or move as the motorcycle and rider lean. This study reports physical testing that the authors conducted with motorcycles traversing curved paths to examine the net effect of these assumptions on the accuracy of the basic formulas for motorcycle lean angle. We concluded that the basic lean angle formulas consistently underestimate the lean angle of the motorcycle as it traverses a particular curved path.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1427
Jay Przybyla, Jason Jupe, Thomas Rush, Rachel Keller
Abstract Vehicles involved in rollover crashes can leave debris trails which can include glass from broken windows. The glass patterns can be useful to identify the vehicles path during the rollover and the location and orientation of the vehicle at various vehicle-to-ground impacts. The location of glass, which is often window specific, can be used to identify where the window fractured during the rollover sequence. The longevity of the glass debris fields, subject to various real-world conditions and disturbances (i.e. slope, weather, mowing, soil type, etc.), was tested over a period of two years. The glass debris fields were placed and mapped in multiple locations across the United States. Periodically during each year, the glass debris fields were examined and the new field extents were mapped. The comparison between the original debris field and the subsequent debris fields are presented.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1426
Drew A. Jurkofsky
Abstract Photogrammetry from images captured by terrestrial cameras and manned aircraft has been used for many years to model objects, create scale diagrams and measure distances for use in traffic accident investigation and reconstruction. Due to increasing capability and availability, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), including small UAS (SUAS), are becoming a valuable, cost effective tool for collecting aerial images for photogrammetric analysis. The metric accuracy of scale accident scene diagrams created from SUAS imagery has yet to be compared to conventional measurement methods, such as total station and laser measurement systems, which are widely used by public safety officials and private consultants. For this study, two different SUAS were used to collect aerial imagery for photogrammetric processing using PhotoModeler software.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1429
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Judson Welcher
Abstract Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108 has minimum performance requirements for retroreflective tape at different entrance and observation angles. In the author's preliminary research, all DOT-C2 retroreflective tape on the market is advertised as meeting and exceeding FMVSS No. 108 requirements. The authors' literature review revealed that there have been no publications quantifying the performance of commercially available DOT-C2 retroreflective tape across a wide range of entrance and observation angles. Therefore, without additional study, an accident reconstruction expert cannot know exactly how a specific type of compliant tape may perform, beyond the minimum federal requirements. In an attempt to solve this issue, the authors have quantified the performance of different types of retroreflective tape with a retroreflectometer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1430
Brian Gilbert, Joseph McCarthy, Ron Jadischke
Abstract The analysis and modeling of vehicle crush in accident reconstruction has traditionally been based upon the use of linear, crush-based, stiffness coefficients. Recent advances have allowed for the calculation and implementation of non-linear crush coefficients in the accident reconstruction software Human-Vehicle-Environment (HVE) by Engineering Dynamics Corporation (EDC). HVE contains the collision algorithm called DyMESH (DYnamic MEchanical SHell), which is capable of using the non-linear coefficients. These non-linear coefficients have shown to increase the accuracy of a predicted crash pulse. Published research on non-linear crush coefficients for the use in HVE has been limited to frontal impacts. Calculating side stiffness coefficients is more complex since most side impact crash tests involve two vehicles that can crush and absorb impact energy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1435
Jeffrey Wirth, Enrique Bonugli, Mark Freund
Abstract Google Earth is a map and geographical information application created and maintained by Google Corporation. The program displays maps of the Earth using images obtained from available satellite imagery, aerial photography and geographic information systems (GIS) 3D globe. Google Earth has become a tool often used by accident reconstructionists to create site drawings and obtain dimensional information. In some cases, a reconstructionist will not be able to inspect the site of the crash due to various circumstances. For example, a reconstruction may commence after the roadway on which the accident occurred has been modified. In other cases, the time and expense required to physically inspect the incident site is not justifiable. In these instances, a reconstructionist may have to rely on Google Earth imagery for dimensional information about the site. The accuracy of Google Earth is not officially documented.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1437
Tony R. Laituri, Raed E. El-Jawahri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
Abstract In the present study, various risk curves for moderate-to-fatal head injury (AIS2+) were theoretically assessed by comparing model-based injury rates with field-based injury rates. This was accomplished by applying the risk curves in corresponding field models. The resulting injury rates were considered from two perspectives: aggregate (0-56 kph events) and point-estimate (higher-speed, barrier-like events). Four risk curves were studied: a HIC15-based curve from Mertz et al. (1997), a BRIC-based curve from Takhounts et al. (2011), a BrIC-based curve from Takhounts et al. (2013) and a Concussion-Correlate-based curve from Rowson et al. (2013). The field modeling pertained to adult drivers in 11-1 o'clock, towaway, full-engagement frontal crashes in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS, calendar years = 1993-2012), and the model-year range of the passenger vehicles was 1985-2010.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1443
Morteza Seidi, Marzieh Hajiaghamemar, James Ferguson, Vincent Caccese
Abstract Falls in the elderly population is an important concern to individuals and in the healthcare industry. When the head is left unprotected, head impact levels can reach upwards of 500 g (gravitational acceleration), which is a level that can cause serious injury or death. A protective system for a fall injury needs to be designed with specific criteria in mind including energy protection level, thickness, stiffness, and weight among others. The current study quantifies the performance of a protective head gear design for persons prone to falls. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the injury mitigation of head protection gear made from a patented system of polyurethane honeycomb and dilatant materials. To that end, a twin wire fall system equipped with a drop arm that includes a Hybrid-III head/neck assembly was used. The head was instrumented with an accelerometer array.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1448
Lee Carr, Robert Rucoba, Dan Barnes, Steven Kent, Aaron Osterhout
Abstract With commercial availability of the Bosch Crash Data Retrieval Tool (CDR), the information stored in vehicle Event Data Recorders (EDRs) has increasingly been used to supplement traditional traffic crash data collection and reconstruction methods, allowing enhanced confidence levels in transportation safety research. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of EDR data images obtained with the Bosch CDR tool by comparing them to a known crash impulse. Multiple EDRs and necessary sensor arrays were mounted on a HYGE™ acceleration-type crash simulation sled system at various orientations representing different principal direction of force (PDOF) angles and subjected to controlled “crash” impulses, simulating a “deployment event” (DE) and triggering data to be saved in the EDRs. The data included in each EDR's CDR report was compared to the known conditions of the impulse.
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