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2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0022
Federico Giovannini, Niccolò Baldanzini, Marco Pierini
Abstract Powered Two-Wheelers (PTW) control is more complex than any other motorized vehicle control, in particular during emergency events, such as panic braking or last second swerving. For standard PTW, a common cause of accident in these situations is the loss of stability due to braking maneuvers. It is worth noting that for PTW the loss of stability means a high probability of fall, especially while cornering. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to propose a fall detection algorithm for PTW performing maneuvers leading to potential instability. The algorithm is composed of a number of parameters, named RISKi, able to detect potential fall events, critical for PTW safety. This fall detection methodology was developed to alert an advanced riding assistance system in order to produce proper counteractions against the imminent fall. The parameters designed for the fall detection process take into account the vehicle destabilization due to the braking intensity and due to heavy oscillations of the vehicle body and the steering bar.
2014-10-09
WIP Standard
J1698/3
This SAE Recommended Practice defines procedures that may be used to validate that relevant EDR output records conform with the reporting requirements specified in Part 563, Table 1 during the course of FMVSS-208, FMVSS-214 and other applicable vehicle level crash testing.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2420
James Chinni, Robert Butler, Shu Yang
Abstract Federal Motor Carrier Safety Requirement (FMCSR) 393.76(h) states that “a motor vehicle manufactured on or after July 1, 1971 and equipped with a sleeper berth must be equipped with a means of preventing ejection of the occupant of the sleeper berth during deceleration of the vehicle.” [1] Furthermore, this standard requires that “the restraint system must be designed, installed and maintained to withstand a minimum total force of 6,000 pounds applied toward the front of the vehicle and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.” [1] Today, sleeper berths are equipped with sleeper restraint systems that function to contain the sleeper occupant inside the sleeper berth during reasonably foreseeable crashes. To assess the effectiveness of sleeper restraint systems, computer simulation models of the sleeper cab environment and these restraint systems were developed, with a simulated supine occupant in the sleeper. The model was evaluated using two different rollover crash scenarios.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2384
Prashant Shinde, Pratik Gore
Abstract This paper is an attempt to address one of the causes of catastrophic failures attributed to incidents of fire and smoke in commercial vehicles during last few years in China and India which have resulted in a considerable number of casualties. Some of the accidents encountered happened because of a crash with fire originating from the fuel tank. This was attributed to fuel leakage and excessive heat produced due to friction of debris with the fuel tank which happened within a few seconds of the crash. A Fuel-Tank Safety ECU for preventing such fire-mishaps shall be designed for spotting this failure and activating prevention methods in order. This ECU shall process the data coming from temperature-sensor and fuel-pressure sensor placed on the fuel tank of the vehicle. This real-time data shall be compared with the previously computed values and then the delta-differentiated value shall be used to conclude the likelihood of a fire-occurrence. This ECU shall then timely activate the fire-preventive agents along with sounding an audio-visual alert to notify the vehicle driver and passengers.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2388
Jeffrey K. Ball, Mark Kittel, Trevor Buss, Greg Weiss
Abstract Trucking fleets are increasingly installing video event recorders in their vehicles. The video event recorder system is usually mounted near the vehicle's rear view mirror, and consists of two cameras: one looking forward and one looking towards the driver. The system also contains accelerometers that record lateral and longitudinal g-loading, and some may record vehicle speed (in mph) based on GPS positions. The unit constantly monitors vehicle acceleration and speed, and also records video. However, the recorded data is only stored when a preset acceleration threshold is met. The primary use of the system is to assist fleets with driver training and education, but the recorded data is also being used as a tool to reconstruct accidents. By integrating the accelerometer data, the vehicle speed and distance traveled during the event can be calculated. However, the calculated speeds and distances from video event recorder data may differ from reconstructions based on data taken from engine control modules (ECM's) or classic reconstruction techniques.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2423
James Chinni, Ryan Hoover
Abstract Full-scale vehicle crash testing is an accurate method to reproduce many real-world crash conditions in a controlled laboratory environment. However, the costs involved in performing full-scale crash tests can be prohibitive for some purposes. Dynamic sled testing is a lower cost and widely used method to obtain multiple, useful data sets for development of frontal crash mitigating technologies, systems and components. Wherever possible, dynamic sled tests should use vehicle-specific deceleration pulses determined from full-scale vehicle crash tests. This paper establishes a dynamic sled test protocol based on data collected from eight full-scale heavy vehicle frontal crash tests. The sled test protocol is intended to be utilized as a basis for building a body of knowledge needed to update heavy vehicle frontal impact test recommended practices. These recommended practices provide direction for the development of frontal crash mitigating technologies, systems and components. Additionally, the performance of some frontal crash occupant protection technologies found in heavy vehicles is evaluated.
2014-07-11
WIP Standard
J1674
The purpose of this SAE Standard is to offer simplified and prioritized guidelines for collecting and preserving on-scene data related to motor vehicle accidents. It is intended that these guidelines improve the effectiveness of data collection, which will assist subsequent analysis and reconstruction of a particular incident. The document is to guide early data collectors whose objectives include documenting information related to the incident. it may be used by law enforcement personnel, safety officials, insurance adjusters and other interested parties. The document identifies categories of scene physical features that deteriorate relatively quickly and recomends documentation task priorities. Detailed methods of collecting data are not part of this document. However, some widely used methods are described in the references in Seciton 2.
2014-07-02
WIP Standard
J2505
This SAE Recommended Practice provides guidelines for procedures and practices used to obtain and record measurements and to analyze and present results of frictional drag tests of a vehicle with its brakes fully applied at a given roadway location. It is for use at accident sites and test sites and is applicable to straight-line stopping of vehicles such as passenger cars, light trucks and vans under fully braked conditions including locked-wheel skids for vehicles with a conventional braking system and for vehicles with full or partial antilock braking systems (ABS). The average deceleration resulting from a given series of tests is intended to be representative of a frictional drag factor for the conditions under which the test was conducted such as the type of vehicle, type and condition of tires, roadway material and roadway surface conditions. The frictional drag factor is intended to conform to use with the stopping distance formula (Fricke, 1990) as stated in Equation 1. Two methods are included: Stopping Distance Method (measurement of the distance required to bring a vehicle to a complete stop from a known initial speed) and Average Acceleration Measurement (using acceleration measuring devices and data analysis to determine the average drag factor).
2014-06-26
Standard
J1828_201406
This SAE Recommended Practice defines, for vehicle manufacturers and collision information and equipment providers, the types of vehicle dimensional data needed by the collision repair industry and aftermarket equipment modifiers to properly perform high-quality repairs to damaged vehicles. Both bodyframe and unitized vehicles, including passenger cars and light trucks, are addressed.
2014-06-11
WIP Standard
J2969
This SAE Recommended Practice provides guidelines for procedures and practices used to obtain and record measurements and to analyze the results of the critical speed method. It is for use at accident sites using manual or electronic measurements. The method allows for many unique factors and the recommended procedure will permit a consistent use of the method in order to reduce errors and uncertainty in the results. The results from the critical speed formula should always, when possible, be compared to other accident reconstruction methodologies. When different accident reconstruction methods are used, the uncertainty of each method should be analyzed and presented.
2014-05-09
Technical Paper
2014-01-9127
Kazumoto Morita, Michiaki Sekine
The number of elderly drivers is increasing in Japan and ensuring the safety of elderly drivers is becoming an important issue. The authors previously conducted an analysis of the characteristics of accidents and traffic violations by elderly drivers based on the number of accidents in which they were rear-ended. This method was used in order to exclude the influence of driving frequency. As a result of that analysis, it was found that the likelihood of violations committed by elderly drivers was not particularly higher than in other age groups, while the likelihood of accidents caused by them was higher. The risk of causing an accident was judged to be about two times higher in elderly drivers than in the 35-44 year age group. However, the methodology presupposed that collisions in which a driver is rear-ended are accidents that occur randomly, and that they occur with the same probability in each age group. To verify the results of that study, we attempted a new analytical method that uses the number of stop sign violations, which are considered to occur with the same probability among age groups, as an indicator of driving frequency in place of accidents in which a driver is hit from behind (rear-end collisions).
2014-05-08
Standard
J1698_201405
This recommended practice describes common definitions and operational elements of Event Data Recorders. The SAE J1698 series of documents consists of the following: • SAE J1698-1 - Event Data Recorder - Output Data Definition; Provides common data output formats and definitions for a variety of data elements that may be useful for analyzing vehicle crash and crash-like events that meet specified trigger criteria. • SAE J1698-2 - Event Data Recorder - Retrieval Tool Protocol; Utilizes existing industry standards to identify a common physical interface and define the protocols necessary to retrieve records stored by light duty vehicle Event Data Recorders (EDRs). • SAE J1698-3 - Event Data Recorder - Compliance Assessment; Defines procedures that may be used to validate that relevant EDR output records conform with the reporting requirements specified in Part 563, Table 1 during the course of FMVSS-208, FMVSS-214 and other applicable vehicle level crash testing.
2014-05-07
Technical Paper
2014-36-0016
Marcos R. Gali, Renan R. M. Ozelo, Argemiro L. A. Costa, José Maria C. Dos Santos
Abstract This paper aims to discuss technically the global trend of labeling legislation and the reflections of governmental programs, such as Inovar Auto, on auto parts industry, in special, about ecolabel intended for tires, focusing advances on rolling resistance analyses and its influence on the fuel consumption of motor vehicles. It will be presented analytical models and theirs respective predicted results to support tire development and researches regarding fuel consumption.
2014-05-07
Technical Paper
2014-36-0025
Frederico A. A. Barbieri, Vinicius de Almeida Lima, Leandro Garbin, Joel Boaretto
Abstract Brazil presents a very diverse road and traffic conditions and due to several factors the number of truck accidents is very high. Inside truck accidents group, the one that causes the highest number of losses and fatalities is the rollover crash and understanding rollover dynamics is very important to prevent such events. The diversity of cargo vehicles arrangements requires a detailed study regarding the dynamic behavior these vehicle combinations in order to increase operation safety. The same tractor unit can be used with different types and numbers of trailers and/or semi-trailers, each one with different suspension configurations. These truck combinations have distinct dynamic performances that need evaluation. In this sense, this work presents a first phase study on the dynamic behavior of different types of cargo vehicle configuration. A 6×2 tractor is combined with a two distinct grain semi-trailer with different types of suspension: pneumatic and leaf spring. The study is conducted in order to verify the difference in dynamic behavior and the resulting stability of the two configurations in different conditions of speed and maneuvers.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0445
Flaura Winston, Catherine McDonald, Venk Kandadai, Zachary Winston, Thomas Seacrist
Abstract Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of performance. In addition, simulated drives allow for controlled manipulations of traffic situations producing a more consistent and objective assessment experience and outcome measure of crash risk. Yet, few simulator protocols have been validated for their ability to assess driving performance under conditions that result in actual collisions. This paper presents results from a new Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA), a 35- to-40-minute simulated assessment delivered on a Real-Time® simulator. The SDA was developed to represent typical scenarios in which teens crash, based on analyses from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). A new metric, failure to brake, was calculated for the 7 potential rear-end scenarios included in the SDA and examined according two constructs: experience and skill. The study included an inexperienced group (n=21): 16-17 year olds with 90 days or fewer of provisional licensure, and an experienced group (n=17): 25-50 year olds with at least 5 years of PA licensure, at least 100 miles driven per week and no self-reported collisions in the previous 3 years.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0149
Chi-Chun Yao, Jin-Yan Hsu, Yu-Sheng Liao, Ming Hung Li
Abstract Vehicle Rollover Prevention/Warning Systems have recently been an important topic in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) of automotive electronics field. This paper will propose a rollover-prevention system implementation with vehicle dynamic model, video-detection technique and rollover index to help the driver avoid accidents as driving into a curve. Due to the reason that vehicle rollover motion analysis needs complicated computation and accurate parameters of vehicle stability in real time, in the first stage a vehicle dynamic model based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm is built, which can estimate vehicle roll/yaw motion in the curve by vehicle sensors. And then the image-based technique will be employed in detecting the front road curvature, and combined in the system to predict vehicle steering status. The final stage is to apply the vehicle rollover index with estimated vehicle motion to predict the dangerous level to drivers for warning. In the system validation, a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) with Microcontroller Unit (MCU) hardware structure is equipped and implemented in our vehicle experimental platform.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0532
Simon B. Albrodt, Fadi Tahan, Kennerly Digges
Abstract Different roof strength methods are applied on the 2003 Ford Explorer finite element (FE) model to achieve the current Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 216 requirements. Two different modification approaches are utilized. Additionally, the best design of each approach is tested dynamically, in rollover and side impact simulations. In the first approach, several roll cage designs are integrated in all pillars, roof cross-members, and in the side roof rails. A roll cage design with a strength-to-weight ratio (SWR) of 3.58 and 3.40 for driver and passenger sides, respectively, with a weight penalty of 18.54 kg is selected for dynamic test assessments. The second approach investigates different localized reinforcements to achieve a more reasonable weight penalty. A localized reinforcement of the B-pillar alone with a tube meets the new FMVSS 216 requirements with a weight penalty of 4.52 kg and is selected for dynamic analyses. The two selected reinforcement designs are tested in a dynamic unconstrained rollover crash under different pitch angles while using common rollover initial conditions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0533
Mindy Heading, Douglas Stein, Jeff Dix
Abstract Ejection Mitigation testing is now required by the U.S. government through FMVSS 226 [1]. FMVSS 226 contains the requirement of using a linear guided headform in a horizontal impact test into the inflated curtain, or other ejection mitigation countermeasure that deploys in the event of a rollover. The specification provides dimensions for a featureless headform [2] but there are limited specifications for the headform skin surface condition. In the “Response to Petitions” of the 2011 Final Rule for FMVSS 226 [3], the NHTSA declined the option to include a headform cleaning procedure. This research presents a case study to quantify the effect of changes in the friction between the headform and curtain on the measured excursion. The study presented here shows that a change in friction between the headform and curtain can affect excursion values by up to 135 millimeters (mm).
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0540
Shai Cohen, Dhafer Marzougui, Cing-Dao Kan, Fadi Tahan
Abstract Many dynamic test systems currently exist to assess rollover. This paper introduces a new test device that combines features from a multitude of different tests. It also covers the concept development, a scaled prototype design and test results from both physical and virtual tests. The Guided Rollover Test (GRT) device subjects vehicles to repeatable initial conditions by having a cart follow a guided maneuver similar to a forward J-turn with an increasing curvature sufficient to roll most vehicles. A test vehicle is carried on the cart at constant longitudinal velocity until it rolls. The cart is fitted with a tripping edge to eliminate slipping and remove the influence of tire properties and road-surface friction. Vehicles are subjected to a rollover based on their own performance characteristics which define the dynamics and consequently the roof to ground contact. Vehicle mechanical systems (suspension), passive safety systems (roof) and occupant containment systems (airbags, seat-belts, etc.) would be assessed under dynamic rollover loading.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0543
Santosh Uttam Bhise, Meyyappan Valliappan
Abstract This paper highlights a simplified CAE model technique, which can simulate and predict door crush strength performance quickly. Such quick models can be used for DFSS and Design change studies. The proposed method suggests an equivalent sub model technique using only the door beam with tuned stiffness end springs to predict FMVSS214S full vehicle crush performance. Such models can be solved in minutes and hence very useful for DFSS studies during product design. The proposed method can be used to finalize door beam design for identical size of vehicle doors to meet required FMVSS214S crush performance. The paper highlights the door beam end springs tuning for identical size of cars and SUVs. Four vehicles were considered for the study. A single spring F-D (force -displacement) is tuned which correlated well for frond door of all the four vehicles. A separate unique spring F-D was needed which correlated well for rear door of all the 4 vehicles.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0529
Donald Parker, John Zolock, Richard Keefer
Studies of rollover accidents have reported crash attributes such as the number of rolls, rollout distance, initial over-the-ground speed, average roll rate, average over-the-ground deceleration, magnitude of roof deformation, cumulative damage, time and post-crash headroom. While these more general attributes are related to the repeated vehicle-to-ground impacts during a rollover, it has been previously shown [1] that a specific ground impact during a rollover and its consequences can be studied in more detail by using its acceleration time history (crash pulse or impulse) and energy loss. These two quantities are particularly meaningful to use when studying impact mechanics, however, they are limited to circumstances where the data exists, which means real-world on-road crashes cannot be used directly. Acceleration and energy data have been collected and previously published for three Subaru Forester dolly rollover tests, and have been studied in more detail in this writing. This same vehicle model has also been crash tested by the NHTSA.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0531
Madhav Khadilkar
Abstract The purpose of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 216 is to reduce fatalities and serious injuries when vehicle roof crushes into occupant compartment during rollover crash. Upgraded roof crush resistance standard (571.216a Standard No. 216a) requires vehicle to achieve maximum applied force of 3.0 times unloaded vehicle weight (UVW) on both driver and passenger sides of the roof. (For vehicles with gross vehicle weight rating ≤ 6,000 lb.) This paper provides an overview of current approach for dual side roof strength Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and its limitations. It also proposes a new approach based on powerful features available in virtual tools. In the current approach, passenger side loading follows driver side loading and requires two separate analyses before arriving at final assessment. In the proposed approach only one analysis suffices as driver and passenger side loadings are combined in a single analysis. This is achieved by using sensors to control loadings, resulting in reduced consumption of CPU time (for computer simulation) and disk space utilization without compromising accuracy of current approach.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0530
Taewung Kim, Jason Kerrigan, Varun Bollapragada, Jeff Crandall, Ravi Tangirala, Michael Guerrero
Abstract Some rollover test methods, which impose a touchdown condition on a test vehicle, have been developed to study vehicle crashworthiness and occupant protection in rollover crashes. In ground-tripped rollover crashes, speed, steering maneuver, braking, vehicle inertial and geometric properties, topographical and road design characteristics, and soil type can all affect vehicle touchdown conditions. It is presumed that while there may be numerous possible combinations of kinematic metrics (velocity components and orientation) at touchdown, there are also numerous combinations of metrics that are not likely to occur in rollover crashes. To determine a realistic set of touchdown conditions to be used in a vehicle rollover crash test, a lateral deceleration sled-based non-destructive rollover initiation test system (RITS) with a fully programmable deceleration pulse is in development. A full-size SUV vehicle dynamics model was developed and validated with static test data and curb-trip rollover test data.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0489
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Muthukumar Muthanandam, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Satheesh Narayanan
Abstract A comprehensive analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of BMI on different body region injuries for side impact. The accident data for this study was taken from the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS). It was found that the mean BMI values for driver and front passengers increases over the years in the US. To study the effect of BMI, the range was divided into three groups: Thin (BMI<21), Normal (BMI 24-27) and Obese (BMI>30). Other important variables considered for this study were model year (MY1995-99 for old vehicles & MY2000-08 for newer vehicles), impact location (side-front F, side-center P & side-distributed Y) and direction of force (8-10 o'clock for nearside & 2-4 o'clock for far-side). Accident cases involving older occupants above 60 years was omitted in order to minimize the bone strength depreciation effect. Results of the present study indicated that the Model Year has influence on lower extremity injuries. Occurrence of pelvis injury was found to be influenced by BMI and was validated with logistic regression analysis.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0491
Michael E. Zabala, Nicholas Yang, Stacy Imler, Ke Zhao, Rose Ray
Abstract Three years of data from the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) were analyzed to identify accidents involving heavy trucks (GVWR >10,000 lbs.). Risk of rollover and ejection was determined as well as belt usage rates. Risk of ejection was also analyzed based on rollover status and belt use. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was used as an injury rating system for the involved vehicle occupants. These data were further analyzed to determine injury distribution based on factors such as crash type, ejection, and restraint system use. The maximum AIS score (MAIS) was analyzed and each body region (head, face, spine, thorax, abdomen, upper extremity, and lower extremity) was considered for an AIS score of three or greater (AIS 3+). The majority of heavy truck occupants in this study were belted (71%), only 2.5% of occupants were completely or partially ejected, and 28% experienced a rollover event. In the analyzed data set, none of the belted occupants experienced a complete ejection while 4.4% of unbelted occupants did experience a complete ejection.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0492
Lisa P. Gwin, Herbert Guzman, Enrique Bonugli, William Scott, Mark Freund
Abstract There is a paucity of recent data quantifying the injury risk of forces and accelerations that act on the whole body in a back-to-front direction. The purpose of this study was to quantify the level of back-to-front accelerations that volunteers felt were tolerable and non-injurious. Instrumented volunteers were dropped supine onto a mattress, and their accelerations during the impact with the mattress were measured. Accelerometers were located on the head, upper thoracic and lower lumbar regions. Drop heights started at 0.6 m (2 ft) and progressed upward as high as 1.8 m (6 ft) based on the test subjects' consent. The test panel was comprised of male and female subjects whose ages ranged from 25 to 63 years of age and whose masses ranged from 62 to 130 kg (136 to 286 lb). Peak head, upper thoracic and lower lumbar accelerations of 25.9 g, 29.4 g and 39.6 g were measured. There was considerable restitution in the impacts with the mattress and the test subjects experienced changes in velocity (ΔVs) of 5.2-11.4 m/s (11.6-25.5 mph).
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0493
William R. Bussone, Michael Prange
Abstract Few studies have investigated pediatric head injury mechanics with subjects below the age of 8 years. This paper presents non-injurious head accelerations during various activities for young children (2 to 7 years old). Eight males and five females aged 2-7 years old were equipped with a head sensor package and head kinematics were measured while performing a series of playground-type activities. The maximum peak resultant accelerations were 29.5 G and 2745 rad/s2. The range of peak accelerations was 2.7 G to 29.5 G. The range of peak angular velocities was 4.2 rad/s to 22.4 rad/s. The range of peak angular accelerations was 174 rad/s2 to 2745 rad/s2. Mean peak resultant values across all participants and activities were 13.8 G (range 2.4 G to 13.8 G), 12.8 rad/s (range 4.0 rad/s to 12.8 rad/s), and 1375 rad/s2 (range 105 rad/s2 to 1375 rad/s2) for linear acceleration, angular velocity, and angular acceleration, respectively. The peak accelerations measured in this study were similar to older children performing similar tasks.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0499
Timothy P. Austin, Peter A. Chisholm, Roger W. Schreiber, P. Michael Neal
Abstract In the investigation of a collision involving recreational watercraft, analytical methods are generally limited when compared to incidents involving land-based vehicles. As is indicated in previous publications, investigators often rely on time/distance relationships, human factors, the matching of damage to determine vessel positioning at impact, and the recollections of witnesses. When applicable, speed estimates are generally based on the boat engine's revolutions. By considering the engine speed, the drive gear ratio, the propeller pitch, and the likely slip of the propeller, an estimation of the boat's travel speed can be made. In more recent publications, it has been recognized that Event Data Recorder (EDR) technology incorporated into various Electronic Control Units (ECUs) used in automotive applications can be beneficial to collision investigation and reconstruction. These devices record data surrounding diagnostic occurrences, airbag deployments, and, with respect to some heavy vehicles, “last stop” and/or “sudden deceleration” events.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0501
Roger Bortolin, Matthew Arbour, James Hrycay
Abstract Whether large or small, a truck fleet operator has to know the locations of its vehicles in order to best manage its business. On a day to day basis loads need to be delivered or picked up from customers, and other activities such as vehicle maintenance or repairs have to be routinely accommodated. Some fleets use aftermarket electronic systems for keeping track of vehicle locations, driver hours of service and for wirelessly text messaging drivers via cellular or satellite networks. Such aftermarket systems include GPS (Global Positioning System) technology, which in part uses a network of satellites in orbit. This makes it possible for the fleet manager to remotely view the location of a vehicle and view a map of its past route. These systems can obtain data directly from vehicle sensors or from the vehicle network, and therefore report other information such as fuel economy. The fleet manager can receive alerts when high-level brake applications occur, which could be an indication of tailgating or aggressive driving behavior.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0473
Anthony Dominic Cornetto, Jeffrey Suway, Ronny Wahba, Fawzi Bayan
Abstract Numerous studies have validated SIMON and DyMESH with respect to vehicle dynamics and crash analysis for accident reconstruction. The impetus for this paper is to develop an accessible methodology for calculating three-dimensional stiffness coefficients for HVE-SIMON and DyMESH. This method uses acceleration-time data (crash pulse) from a vehicle crash test, data that is widely available through the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The crash pulse, along with vehicle mass and impact speed, are used to calculate the force acting on the vehicle and the associated vehicle deflection time history. A technique for determining the area-deflection function is created from a computer model of the vehicle, HVE-SIMON, and basic photo-editing software. The calculated force divided by the associated area function (F/A) is plotted versus deflection and a third-order polynomial is then fit to the curve. The coefficients of this third-order polynomial are the A, B, C, and D stiffness coefficients.
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