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Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Jeffrey K. Ball, Mark Kittel, Trevor Buss, Greg Weiss
Abstract Trucking fleets are increasingly installing video event recorders in their vehicles. The video event recorder system is usually mounted near the vehicle's rear view mirror, and consists of two cameras: one looking forward and one looking towards the driver. The system also contains accelerometers that record lateral and longitudinal g-loading, and some may record vehicle speed (in mph) based on GPS positions. The unit constantly monitors vehicle acceleration and speed, and also records video. However, the recorded data is only stored when a preset acceleration threshold is met. The primary use of the system is to assist fleets with driver training and education, but the recorded data is also being used as a tool to reconstruct accidents. By integrating the accelerometer data, the vehicle speed and distance traveled during the event can be calculated. However, the calculated speeds and distances from video event recorder data may differ from reconstructions based on data taken from engine control modules (ECM's) or classic reconstruction techniques.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Prashant Shinde, Pratik Gore
Abstract This paper is an attempt to address one of the causes of catastrophic failures attributed to incidents of fire and smoke in commercial vehicles during last few years in China and India which have resulted in a considerable number of casualties. Some of the accidents encountered happened because of a crash with fire originating from the fuel tank. This was attributed to fuel leakage and excessive heat produced due to friction of debris with the fuel tank which happened within a few seconds of the crash. A Fuel-Tank Safety ECU for preventing such fire-mishaps shall be designed for spotting this failure and activating prevention methods in order. This ECU shall process the data coming from temperature-sensor and fuel-pressure sensor placed on the fuel tank of the vehicle. This real-time data shall be compared with the previously computed values and then the delta-differentiated value shall be used to conclude the likelihood of a fire-occurrence. This ECU shall then timely activate the fire-preventive agents along with sounding an audio-visual alert to notify the vehicle driver and passengers.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
James Chinni, Robert Butler, Shu Yang
Abstract Federal Motor Carrier Safety Requirement (FMCSR) 393.76(h) states that “a motor vehicle manufactured on or after July 1, 1971 and equipped with a sleeper berth must be equipped with a means of preventing ejection of the occupant of the sleeper berth during deceleration of the vehicle.” [1] Furthermore, this standard requires that “the restraint system must be designed, installed and maintained to withstand a minimum total force of 6,000 pounds applied toward the front of the vehicle and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.” [1] Today, sleeper berths are equipped with sleeper restraint systems that function to contain the sleeper occupant inside the sleeper berth during reasonably foreseeable crashes. To assess the effectiveness of sleeper restraint systems, computer simulation models of the sleeper cab environment and these restraint systems were developed, with a simulated supine occupant in the sleeper. The model was evaluated using two different rollover crash scenarios.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
James Chinni, Ryan Hoover
Abstract Full-scale vehicle crash testing is an accurate method to reproduce many real-world crash conditions in a controlled laboratory environment. However, the costs involved in performing full-scale crash tests can be prohibitive for some purposes. Dynamic sled testing is a lower cost and widely used method to obtain multiple, useful data sets for development of frontal crash mitigating technologies, systems and components. Wherever possible, dynamic sled tests should use vehicle-specific deceleration pulses determined from full-scale vehicle crash tests. This paper establishes a dynamic sled test protocol based on data collected from eight full-scale heavy vehicle frontal crash tests. The sled test protocol is intended to be utilized as a basis for building a body of knowledge needed to update heavy vehicle frontal impact test recommended practices. These recommended practices provide direction for the development of frontal crash mitigating technologies, systems and components. Additionally, the performance of some frontal crash occupant protection technologies found in heavy vehicles is evaluated.
WIP Standard
2014-07-11
The purpose of this SAE Standard is to offer simplified and prioritized guidelines for collecting and preserving on-scene data related to motor vehicle accidents. It is intended that these guidelines improve the effectiveness of data collection, which will assist subsequent analysis and reconstruction of a particular incident. The document is to guide early data collectors whose objectives include documenting information related to the incident. it may be used by law enforcement personnel, safety officials, insurance adjusters and other interested parties. The document identifies categories of scene physical features that deteriorate relatively quickly and recomends documentation task priorities. Detailed methods of collecting data are not part of this document. However, some widely used methods are described in the references in Seciton 2.
WIP Standard
2014-07-02
This SAE Recommended Practice provides guidelines for procedures and practices used to obtain and record measurements and to analyze and present results of frictional drag tests of a vehicle with its brakes fully applied at a given roadway location. It is for use at accident sites and test sites and is applicable to straight-line stopping of vehicles such as passenger cars, light trucks and vans under fully braked conditions including locked-wheel skids for vehicles with a conventional braking system and for vehicles with full or partial antilock braking systems (ABS). The average deceleration resulting from a given series of tests is intended to be representative of a frictional drag factor for the conditions under which the test was conducted such as the type of vehicle, type and condition of tires, roadway material and roadway surface conditions. The frictional drag factor is intended to conform to use with the stopping distance formula (Fricke, 1990) as stated in Equation 1. Two methods are included: Stopping Distance Method (measurement of the distance required to bring a vehicle to a complete stop from a known initial speed) and Average Acceleration Measurement (using acceleration measuring devices and data analysis to determine the average drag factor).
Standard
2014-06-26
This SAE Recommended Practice defines, for vehicle manufacturers and collision information and equipment providers, the types of vehicle dimensional data needed by the collision repair industry and aftermarket equipment modifiers to properly perform high-quality repairs to damaged vehicles. Both bodyframe and unitized vehicles, including passenger cars and light trucks, are addressed.
WIP Standard
2014-06-11
This SAE Recommended Practice provides guidelines for procedures and practices used to obtain and record measurements and to analyze the results of the critical speed method. It is for use at accident sites using manual or electronic measurements. The method allows for many unique factors and the recommended procedure will permit a consistent use of the method in order to reduce errors and uncertainty in the results. The results from the critical speed formula should always, when possible, be compared to other accident reconstruction methodologies. When different accident reconstruction methods are used, the uncertainty of each method should be analyzed and presented.
Technical Paper
2014-05-09
Kazumoto Morita, Michiaki Sekine
The number of elderly drivers is increasing in Japan and ensuring the safety of elderly drivers is becoming an important issue. The authors previously conducted an analysis of the characteristics of accidents and traffic violations by elderly drivers based on the number of accidents in which they were rear-ended. This method was used in order to exclude the influence of driving frequency. As a result of that analysis, it was found that the likelihood of violations committed by elderly drivers was not particularly higher than in other age groups, while the likelihood of accidents caused by them was higher. The risk of causing an accident was judged to be about two times higher in elderly drivers than in the 35-44 year age group. However, the methodology presupposed that collisions in which a driver is rear-ended are accidents that occur randomly, and that they occur with the same probability in each age group. To verify the results of that study, we attempted a new analytical method that uses the number of stop sign violations, which are considered to occur with the same probability among age groups, as an indicator of driving frequency in place of accidents in which a driver is hit from behind (rear-end collisions).
Standard
2014-05-08
This recommended practice describes common definitions and operational elements of Event Data Recorders. The SAE J1698 series of documents consists of the following: • SAE J1698-1 - Event Data Recorder - Output Data Definition; Provides common data output formats and definitions for a variety of data elements that may be useful for analyzing vehicle crash and crash-like events that meet specified trigger criteria. • SAE J1698-2 - Event Data Recorder - Retrieval Tool Protocol; Utilizes existing industry standards to identify a common physical interface and define the protocols necessary to retrieve records stored by light duty vehicle Event Data Recorders (EDRs). • SAE J1698-3 - Event Data Recorder - Compliance Assessment; Defines procedures that may be used to validate that relevant EDR output records conform with the reporting requirements specified in Part 563, Table 1 during the course of FMVSS-208, FMVSS-214 and other applicable vehicle level crash testing.
Technical Paper
2014-05-07
Frederico A. A. Barbieri, Vinicius de Almeida Lima, Leandro Garbin, Joel Boaretto
Abstract Brazil presents a very diverse road and traffic conditions and due to several factors the number of truck accidents is very high. Inside truck accidents group, the one that causes the highest number of losses and fatalities is the rollover crash and understanding rollover dynamics is very important to prevent such events. The diversity of cargo vehicles arrangements requires a detailed study regarding the dynamic behavior these vehicle combinations in order to increase operation safety. The same tractor unit can be used with different types and numbers of trailers and/or semi-trailers, each one with different suspension configurations. These truck combinations have distinct dynamic performances that need evaluation. In this sense, this work presents a first phase study on the dynamic behavior of different types of cargo vehicle configuration. A 6×2 tractor is combined with a two distinct grain semi-trailer with different types of suspension: pneumatic and leaf spring. The study is conducted in order to verify the difference in dynamic behavior and the resulting stability of the two configurations in different conditions of speed and maneuvers.
Technical Paper
2014-05-07
Marcos R. Gali, Renan R. M. Ozelo, Argemiro L. A. Costa, José Maria C. Dos Santos
Abstract This paper aims to discuss technically the global trend of labeling legislation and the reflections of governmental programs, such as Inovar Auto, on auto parts industry, in special, about ecolabel intended for tires, focusing advances on rolling resistance analyses and its influence on the fuel consumption of motor vehicles. It will be presented analytical models and theirs respective predicted results to support tire development and researches regarding fuel consumption.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Chi-Chun Yao, Jin-Yan Hsu, Yu-Sheng Liao, Ming Hung Li
Abstract Vehicle Rollover Prevention/Warning Systems have recently been an important topic in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) of automotive electronics field. This paper will propose a rollover-prevention system implementation with vehicle dynamic model, video-detection technique and rollover index to help the driver avoid accidents as driving into a curve. Due to the reason that vehicle rollover motion analysis needs complicated computation and accurate parameters of vehicle stability in real time, in the first stage a vehicle dynamic model based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm is built, which can estimate vehicle roll/yaw motion in the curve by vehicle sensors. And then the image-based technique will be employed in detecting the front road curvature, and combined in the system to predict vehicle steering status. The final stage is to apply the vehicle rollover index with estimated vehicle motion to predict the dangerous level to drivers for warning. In the system validation, a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) with Microcontroller Unit (MCU) hardware structure is equipped and implemented in our vehicle experimental platform.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
James K. Sprague, Peggy Shibata, Jack L. Auflick
Abstract A complete analysis of any vehicular collision needs to consider certain aspects of human factors. However, this is especially true of nighttime collisions, in which a more specialized approach is required. Classical collision investigation (frequently referred to as accident reconstruction) is comprised of kinetic and kinematic considerations including skid analysis, momentum techniques and other methods. While analysis based on these concepts is typically unaffected by low visibility conditions, the opposite is true of the perceptual and cognitive aspects of a “humans-in-the-loop” analysis, which can be enormously impacted by low visibility. Only by applying appropriate human factors techniques can the analyst make a defensible determination of how and why a nighttime collision occurred. Topics of special importance for nighttime analysis include perception-reaction time (PRT), sensation, attention, distraction, and expectation, all of which are strongly influenced by limited levels of lighting.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rudolf Mortimer, Errol Hoffmann, Aaron Kiefer
Abstract Relative velocity detection thresholds of drivers are one factor that determines their ability to avoid rear-end crashes. Laboratory, simulator and driving studies show that drivers could scale relative velocity when it exceeded the threshold of about 0.003 rad/sec. Studies using accident reconstruction have suggested that the threshold may be about ten times larger. This paper discusses this divergence and suggests reasons for it and concludes that the lower value should be used as a true measure of the psychological threshold for detection of relative velocity.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Shai Cohen, Dhafer Marzougui, Cing-Dao Kan, Fadi Tahan
Abstract Many dynamic test systems currently exist to assess rollover. This paper introduces a new test device that combines features from a multitude of different tests. It also covers the concept development, a scaled prototype design and test results from both physical and virtual tests. The Guided Rollover Test (GRT) device subjects vehicles to repeatable initial conditions by having a cart follow a guided maneuver similar to a forward J-turn with an increasing curvature sufficient to roll most vehicles. A test vehicle is carried on the cart at constant longitudinal velocity until it rolls. The cart is fitted with a tripping edge to eliminate slipping and remove the influence of tire properties and road-surface friction. Vehicles are subjected to a rollover based on their own performance characteristics which define the dynamics and consequently the roof to ground contact. Vehicle mechanical systems (suspension), passive safety systems (roof) and occupant containment systems (airbags, seat-belts, etc.) would be assessed under dynamic rollover loading.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Simon B. Albrodt, Fadi Tahan, Kennerly Digges
Abstract Different roof strength methods are applied on the 2003 Ford Explorer finite element (FE) model to achieve the current Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 216 requirements. Two different modification approaches are utilized. Additionally, the best design of each approach is tested dynamically, in rollover and side impact simulations. In the first approach, several roll cage designs are integrated in all pillars, roof cross-members, and in the side roof rails. A roll cage design with a strength-to-weight ratio (SWR) of 3.58 and 3.40 for driver and passenger sides, respectively, with a weight penalty of 18.54 kg is selected for dynamic test assessments. The second approach investigates different localized reinforcements to achieve a more reasonable weight penalty. A localized reinforcement of the B-pillar alone with a tube meets the new FMVSS 216 requirements with a weight penalty of 4.52 kg and is selected for dynamic analyses. The two selected reinforcement designs are tested in a dynamic unconstrained rollover crash under different pitch angles while using common rollover initial conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mindy Heading, Douglas Stein, Jeff Dix
Abstract Ejection Mitigation testing is now required by the U.S. government through FMVSS 226 [1]. FMVSS 226 contains the requirement of using a linear guided headform in a horizontal impact test into the inflated curtain, or other ejection mitigation countermeasure that deploys in the event of a rollover. The specification provides dimensions for a featureless headform [2] but there are limited specifications for the headform skin surface condition. In the “Response to Petitions” of the 2011 Final Rule for FMVSS 226 [3], the NHTSA declined the option to include a headform cleaning procedure. This research presents a case study to quantify the effect of changes in the friction between the headform and curtain on the measured excursion. The study presented here shows that a change in friction between the headform and curtain can affect excursion values by up to 135 millimeters (mm).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sheryl Janca, Kurt Shanks, Janet Brelin-Fornari, Ravi Tangirala, Massoud Tavakoli
Abstract A near-side, rear seat side impact component test, was conducted and validated utilizing a SIDIIs anthropomorphic test device (ATD). The test fixture consisted of the rear seat structure, side door, interior trim, and side airbag curtain module. Test parameters were determined from full scale tests including impact speed, angle of impact, and depth of door intrusion. A comparative assessment was conducted between the full scale test and the deceleration sled test including ATD contact with the vehicle interior, contact duration, sequential timing of ATD contact, and dummy injury measures. Validation was achieved so that the deceleration sled test procedure could be utilized for further evaluations.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Baeyoung Kim, Kangwook Lee, Jeong Keun Lee, June-Young Song
Abstract The role of CAB is protecting the passenger's head during rollover and side crash accidents. However, the performance of HIC and ejection mitigation has trade-off relation, so analytical method to satisfy the HIC and ejection mitigation performance are required. In this study, 3 types of CAB were used for ejection mitigation analysis, drop tower analysis and SINCAP MDB analysis. Impactor which has 18kg mass is impacting the CAB as 20KPH velocity at six impact positions for ejection mitigation analysis. In drop tower analysis, impactor which has 9kg mass is impacting the CAB as 17.7KPH velocity. Acceleration value was derived by drop tower analysis and the tendency of HIC was estimated. Motion data of a vehicle structure was inserted to substructure model and the SID-IIS 5%ile female dummy was used for SINCAP MDB analysis. As a result, HIC and acceleration values were derived by MDB analysis. As a result of ejection mitigation analysis, the impactor was ejected in type 1 of the CAB but the impactor was not ejected in type 2 and type 3.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Santosh Uttam Bhise, Meyyappan Valliappan
Abstract This paper highlights a simplified CAE model technique, which can simulate and predict door crush strength performance quickly. Such quick models can be used for DFSS and Design change studies. The proposed method suggests an equivalent sub model technique using only the door beam with tuned stiffness end springs to predict FMVSS214S full vehicle crush performance. Such models can be solved in minutes and hence very useful for DFSS studies during product design. The proposed method can be used to finalize door beam design for identical size of vehicle doors to meet required FMVSS214S crush performance. The paper highlights the door beam end springs tuning for identical size of cars and SUVs. Four vehicles were considered for the study. A single spring F-D (force -displacement) is tuned which correlated well for frond door of all the four vehicles. A separate unique spring F-D was needed which correlated well for rear door of all the 4 vehicles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sanjeev Kumar, Pinak Deb
Abstract The side impact accident is one of the very severe crash modes for the struck side occupants. According to NHTSA fatality reports, side impact accounts for over 25% of the fatalities in the US. Similar fatality estimates have been reported in the EU region. Side crash compliance of a compact car is more severe because of the less space available between the occupant and the vehicle structure, stringent fuel economy, weight and cost targets. The current work focuses on the development of Side body structure of a compact car through Computer Aided Tools (CAE), for meeting the Side crash requirements as per ECE R95 Regulation. A modified design philosophy has been adopted for controlling the intrusion of upper and lower portion of B-pillar in order to mitigate the injury to Euro SIDII dummy. At first, initial CAE evaluation of baseline vehicle was conducted. Further design iterations were carried out to optimize the stiffness of B-pillar for meeting the performance targets of B-pillar intrusion and velocity.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bryan Styles, Jeffrey Santrock, Curtis Vincent, Michael Leffert, Narasimha Putcha
An evaluation methodology has been developed for assessing the suitability of R-1234yf in vehicles. This relates primarily to evaluating the flammability of R-1234yf in the engine compartment during a frontal collision. This paper will discuss the process followed in the methodology, the technical rationale for this process, and the results of the analysis. The specific types of analysis included in the methodology are: exhaust-system thermal characterization, computer simulated crash tests, actual crash tests, teardown and examination of crashed parts, and releases of refrigerant onto hot exhaust manifolds. Each type of analysis was logically ordered and combined to produce a comprehensive evaluation methodology. This methodology has been applied and demonstrates that R-1234yf is difficult to ignite when factors that occur in frontal crashes are simultaneously considered. Factors considered in this analysis include: crush and deformation of the vehicle structure, airflow in the engine compartment, exhaust system temperatures during different driving scenarios, and coolant release due to damage of the engine coolant system.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yukou Takahashi, Miwako Ikeda
Abstract The validity of evaluating FlexPLI peak injury measures has been shown by the correlation of the peak measures between a human FE model and a FlexPLI FE model. However, comparisons of tibia bending moment time histories (BMTHs) between these models show that the FlexPLI model exhibits a higher degree of oscillatory behavior than the human model. The goal of this study was to identify potential improvements to the FlexPLI such that the legform provides more biofidelic tibia BMTHs at the normal standing height. Impact simulations using a human FE model and a FlexPLI FE model were conducted against simplified vehicle models to compare tibia BMTHs. The same series of impact simulations were conducted using the FlexPLI models that incorporated potential measures to identify measures effective for further enhancement of the biofidelity. An additional analysis was also conducted to investigate the key factor for minimizing the oscillation of the tibia BMTH. The results of this study showed that the change of the mass distribution between the bony and flesh parts, along with the addition of the mass compensating for the upper body, provide more biofidelic FlexPLI tibia BMTHs, when used at the normal standing height.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
William N. Newberry, Stacy Imler, Michael Carhart, Alan Dibb, Karen Balavich, Jeffrey Croteau, Eddie Cooper
Abstract It is well known from field accident studies and crash testing that seatbelts provide considerable benefit to occupants in rollover crashes; however, a small fraction of belted occupants still sustain serious and severe neck injuries. The mechanism of these neck injuries is generated by torso augmentation (diving), where the head becomes constrained while the torso continues to move toward the constrained head causing injurious compressive neck loading. This type of neck loading can occur in belted occupants when the head is in contact with, or in close proximity to, the roof interior when the inverted vehicle impacts the ground. Consequently, understanding the nature and extent of head excursion has long been an objective of researchers studying the behavior of occupants in rollovers. In evaluating rollover occupant protection system performance, various studies have recognized and demonstrated the upward and outward excursion of belted occupants that occurs during the airborne phase of a rollover, as well as excursion from vehicle-to-ground impacts.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mark William Arndt, John Wiechel
Abstract Assuming rigid body motion, recorded acceleration and recorded roll rates at the center of gravity, equations are used to calculate the local three-dimensional accelerations at hypothetical seating positions' Emergency Locking [seat belt] Retractors (ELR) during a steer induced rollover crash. For a threshold of 0.7 g, results demonstrated that intervals in the vehicle's response that may cause the ELR's inertial sensor to move into a neutral zone were limited to localized high magnitude negative vertical acceleration events during the rollover segment with a median duration of 4 ms, average duration of 4.8 ms and a maximum calculated duration of 31.7 ms. Changing the threshold to 0.35 g reduced the interval count by 70 percent and maximum duration by approximately 50 percent. Since a retractor in an interval when an inertial sensor may move into a neutral position will unlock only after belt retraction and at an acceleration ratio below its threshold, the duration that a retractor may be unlocked was probably less than the duration of an interval when a vehicle's response would allow an inertial sensor to move into a neutral zone.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Taewung Kim, Jason Kerrigan, Varun Bollapragada, Jeff Crandall, Ravi Tangirala, Michael Guerrero
Abstract Some rollover test methods, which impose a touchdown condition on a test vehicle, have been developed to study vehicle crashworthiness and occupant protection in rollover crashes. In ground-tripped rollover crashes, speed, steering maneuver, braking, vehicle inertial and geometric properties, topographical and road design characteristics, and soil type can all affect vehicle touchdown conditions. It is presumed that while there may be numerous possible combinations of kinematic metrics (velocity components and orientation) at touchdown, there are also numerous combinations of metrics that are not likely to occur in rollover crashes. To determine a realistic set of touchdown conditions to be used in a vehicle rollover crash test, a lateral deceleration sled-based non-destructive rollover initiation test system (RITS) with a fully programmable deceleration pulse is in development. A full-size SUV vehicle dynamics model was developed and validated with static test data and curb-trip rollover test data.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Dietmar Otte, Birgitt Wiese
This study deals with the risk of injury to the bicyclist's head and the benefits of wearing a bicycle helmet in terms of reduction of injury severity or even injury avoidance. The accident data of 4,245 injured bicyclists as a randomized sample, collected by a scientific research team within the GIDAS project (German In-Depth Accident Study) were analyzed. Given that head injuries result in approximately 40% of bicycle-related crashes, helmet usage provides a sensible first-level approach for improving incidence and severity of head injuries. The effectiveness of the bicycle helmet was examined using descriptive and multivariate analysis for 433 bicyclists with a helmet and 3,812 bicyclists without a helmet. Skull fractures, severe brain injuries and skull base fractures were up to 80% less frequent for bicyclists wearing a helmet. Among individuals 40 years of age and older, a significant increase of severe head injuries occurred if no helmet was used compared to younger persons with helmet.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bingbing Nie, Qing Zhou, Yong Xia, Jisi Tang
Vehicle hood styling has significant influence on headform kinematics in assessment tests of pedestrian impact protection performance. Pedestrian headform kinematics on vehicle front-end models with different hood styling characteristics is analyzed based on finite element modeling. More elevated feature lines near hood boundary and the following continuous hood surface towards fender will result in a different headform motion. It can lead to larger deformation space, more rotation and earlier rebound of the headform impactor, which will benefit the head impact protection performance. In addition, hood geometry characteristics such as hood angle and curvature have effects on structural stiffness. Therefore, inclusion of considerations on pedestrian head protection into the vehicle hood styling design stage may lead to a more effective and efficient engineering design process on headform impact analysis.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Timothy P. Austin, Peter A. Chisholm, Roger W. Schreiber, P. Michael Neal
Abstract In the investigation of a collision involving recreational watercraft, analytical methods are generally limited when compared to incidents involving land-based vehicles. As is indicated in previous publications, investigators often rely on time/distance relationships, human factors, the matching of damage to determine vessel positioning at impact, and the recollections of witnesses. When applicable, speed estimates are generally based on the boat engine's revolutions. By considering the engine speed, the drive gear ratio, the propeller pitch, and the likely slip of the propeller, an estimation of the boat's travel speed can be made. In more recent publications, it has been recognized that Event Data Recorder (EDR) technology incorporated into various Electronic Control Units (ECUs) used in automotive applications can be beneficial to collision investigation and reconstruction. These devices record data surrounding diagnostic occurrences, airbag deployments, and, with respect to some heavy vehicles, “last stop” and/or “sudden deceleration” events.
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