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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1448
Lee Carr, Robert Rucoba, Dan Barnes, Steven Kent, Aaron Osterhout
With commercial availability of the Bosch Crash Data Retrieval Tool (CDR), the information stored in vehicle Event Data Recorders (EDRs) has increasingly been used to supplement traditional traffic crash data collection and reconstruction methods, allowing enhanced confidence levels in transportation safety research. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of EDR data images obtained with the Bosch CDR tool by comparing them to a known crash impulse. Multiple EDRs and necessary sensor arrays were mounted on a HYGE™ acceleration-type crash simulation sled system at various orientations representing different principal direction of force (PDOF) angles and subjected to controlled “crash” impulses, simulating a “deployment event” (DE) and triggering data to be saved in the EDRs. The data included in each EDR’s CDR report was compared to the known conditions of the impulse.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1449
Ada H. Tsoi, John Hinch, Michael Winterhalter, H. Gabler
As specified in 49 CFR 563 (Part 563), event data recorder (EDR) data are required to survive crash tests as specified by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 208 and FMVSS 214. EDR data have been shown to survive these crash tests, which represent most U.S. highway crashes. However, some have argued the need for greater survivability, including supporters of the not enacted U.S. Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 2010. Similar devices, such as flight data recorders (FDRs), have considerably more demanding data survivability requirements. Minimum standards for FDR survivability include 30 days of sea water immersion, 5 hours exposure to a 260°C fire, and 5 minutes of 1,000lb static crush. In some cases EDRs are exposed to more severe crashes, fire, and immersion; however, little is known about whether current EDR data are capable of surviving these events and whether such improvements are cost-effective.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1444
Ada H. Tsoi, John Hinch, H. Gabler
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) established survivability requirements on Event Data Recorder (EDR) data for the first time in 49 CFR 563 (Part 563) in September 2012. This regulation requires EDRs to remain functional during and after compliance crash tests as specified in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 208 and FMVSS 214. These tests are representative of a major proportion of the crashes that occur on the nation’s highways; however, there are always crashes that are outside the typical distributions. Recent legislative bills have suggested that these survivability requirements should exceed Part 563 in delta-v, and include fire and immersion specifications. Little is known about whether EDRs are capable of surviving these events or whether the data received by the EDRs can be recovered after these events.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1475
Alan F. Asay, Jarrod Carter, James Funk, Gregory Stephens
A follow-up case study on rollover testing was conducted with an instrumented single full-size SUV under real-world conditions. The purpose of this study was to conduct a well-documented rollover event that could be utilized in evaluating various reconstruction methods and techniques over the phases associated with rollover accidents. The phases documented and discussed inherent to rollovers are: loss-of-control, trip, and rolling phases. With recent advances in technology, new devices and techniques were implemented to capture and document the events surrounding a vehicle rollover. These devices and techniques are presented and compared with previous test methodology. In this case study, an instrumented 1996 GMC Jimmy SUV was towed to speed and then released. A steering controller steered the vehicle through maneuvers intended to result in rollover. The SUV experienced two non-rollover events before the vehicle finally rolled 1-1½ times.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1446
Timothy P. Austin, David P. Plant, Joseph E. LeFevre
The use of Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders (HVEDRs) in collision analysis has been recognized in past research. Numerous publications have been presented illustrating data accuracy both in normal operating conditions as well as under emergency braking conditions. These data recording devices are generally incorporated into Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) for engines or Electronic Control Units (ECUs) for other vehicular components such as the Anti-Lock Brake System. Other research has looked at after-market recorders, including publically-available Global Positioning System (GPS) devices and fleet management tools such as Qualcomm. In 2009, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) incorporated a Vehicle Data Recorder (VDR) component into their Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus. The purpose of this was to “…capture data that can be used to promote safe driving and riding practices.” The Standard requires minimum data elements, recording times, and sample rates.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1447
Hirotoshi Ishikawa, Kunihiro Mashiko, Tetsuyuki Matsuda, Koichi Fujita, Asuka Sugano, Toru Kiuchi, Hirotsugu Tajima, Masaaki Yoshida, Isao Endou
Automatic Collision Notification (ACN) is spreading in many countries.ACN provides notification in the event of a traffic accident automatically when an automobile's air bags are deployed or when the occupant restraint system is activated. ACN also serves as a diagnostic tool to determine the potential extent of injuries to those involved in motor vehicle incidents. Emergency medical service (EMS) personnel can utilize this information to determine how quickly their services are needed and it can minimize the number of victims who might be transferred to medical facilities mistakenly by the initial triage group. Various Electronic Control Units (ECUs) are equipped in vehicles. Air bag ECUs control the deployment of the air bag system and record various information on an event data recorder (EDR) during collisions. Data on the occupants, vehicles, and collisions recorded in EDR could be used as a parameter for estimating the occupant injury severity in an accident.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1439
Toshiyuki Yanaoka, Yasuhiro Dokko, Yukou Takahashi
To evaluate vehicle safety performance for Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) in crashes, comprehensive injury criteria is required. Few research results for injury criteria focused on Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI) in crashes or pedestrian impacts exist. We developed injury criteria based on the rotational rigid body motion of the head for occupant and pedestrian crashes. We used the mid-sized male human head/brain FE model to investigate correlation between injury criteria based on the rotational rigid body motion of the head and intracranial responses related to DAI. The input pulses applied to the skull of the head/brain model were determined from the head acceleration data, and articulated rigid body simulation results of frontal occupant and pedestrian crashes. Results showed low applicability of the injury criteria to pedestrian impacts, presumably due to the maximum rotational velocity occurring before head contact to the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1437
Tony R. Laituri, Raed E. El-Jawahri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
Various risk curves for head injury potential were assessed theoretically relative to field data. Specifically, two AIS2+ risk curves were studied: the HIC15-based risk curve from Mertz (1997) and the provisional, BRIC-based risk curve from Takhounts et al. (2013). These two risk curves were used to estimate attendant injury potential for belted drivers in full-engagement frontal crashes in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). The occupant responses pertaining to those crashes were estimated from representative math models, and the risk curves were used to convert event responses into event risks. The assessment was conducted from two perspectives: aggregate (0-56 kph) and a point-estimate (56 kph, barrier-like). Finally, the point-estimate assessment was supplemented by considering corresponding laboratory tests. The results from HIC15-based risk curve were understated, whereas the results from the BRIC-based risk curve were overstated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1490
Tony R. Laituri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
A study of belted driver injury in various types of frontal impacts in the US field data was conducted. Specifically, subject to the Frontal Impact Taxonomy of Sullivan et al. (2008), injury potential of belted drivers in non-rollover, frontal impacts in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) was assessed. The field data pertained to 1985 - 2013 model-year light passenger vehicles in 1995 - 2012 calendar years of NASS. Two levels of injury were considered: AIS2+ and AIS3+. For ease of presentation, we grouped the injury data into lower- or upper-body regions. Frontal impacts were binned into eight taxonomic groups: Full-engagement, Offset, Narrow, Oblique, Side-swipe corner, High/low vert (i.e., over- and under-ride crashes), DZY-No rail (i.e., distributed crashes, but with negligible frame rail involvement), and Other. The results of the survey yielded insights into the distribution of belted-driver injury in NASS.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1427
Jay Przybyla, Jason Jupe, Thomas Rush, Rachel Keller
Vehicles involved in rollover accidents can leave debris trails which can include glass from broken windows. The glass patterns can be useful in identifying the vehicle path during the rollover and the location and orientation of the vehicle at various vehicle-to-ground impacts. The location of glass, which is often window specific, can be used to identify where the window fractured during the rollover sequence. The longevity of the glass debris fields, subject to various real-world conditions and disturbances (i.e. slope, weather, mowing, soil type, etc.), was tested over a period of two years. The glass debris fields were placed and mapped in multiple locations across the United States. Periodically during each year, the glass debris fields were examined and the new field extents were mapped. The comparison between the original debris field and the subsequent debris fields are presented.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1416
Clay Coleman, Donald Tandy, Jason Colborn, Nicholas Ault
In the field of accident reconstruction, a reconstructionist will often inspect a crash scene months or years after a wreck has occurred. With this passage of time important evidence is sometimes no longer present at the scene (i.e. the vehicles involved in the crash, debris on the roadway, tire marks, gouges, paint marks, etc.). When a scene has not been totally documented with a survey by MAIT or the investigating officers, the only hope for the reconstructionist is to rely on police, fire department, security camera, or witness photographs. Traditionally, these photos can be used to locate missing evidence by employing photogrammetric techniques. However, these techniques are limited to planar surfaces and/or the pairing of discrete points between the original photographs and the scene.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1417
Jeffrey Muttart
An analysis was performed utilizing the results from seven emergency steering studies and four routine lane change studies. Closed course and naturalistic research were included. These studies showed that in a routine lane change, Drivers reached peak lateral acceleration approximately one-second after steering after which lateral acceleration decreases linearly. These results were consistent with those from forward and backing acceleration research published elsewhere. Though, when drivers steered in response to an emergency situation, again, peak lateral acceleration occurred near one-second after steering onset, but average lateral acceleration decreased non-linearly. This non-linear decrease between onset of steering and completion of the maneuver was indicative of counter-steering, or reduced subsequent steering (straightening). The results show that the average lateral acceleration could be modeled with a power function.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1420
John C. Steiner, John Olsen, Tom Walli, Tyler Kress, Christopher Armstrong, Ralph Gallagher, Stein Husher, John Kyes
Traditional accident reconstruction analysis methodologies include the study of the crush-energy relationship of vehicles. By analyzing the measured crush from a vehicle involved in a real world accident, to crush measured at a known energy in a crash test, the real world vehicle’s damage energy, the forces of the impact, and change-in-velocity (or Delta-V) can be evaluated. The largest source of publically available crash tests is from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), which conducts and reports on numerous Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) compliance and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) testing for many passenger vehicles for sale in the United States.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1421
Dennis Turriff, David J. King, James Bertoch
Vehicle rollovers generate complicated damage patterns as a result of multiple vehicle-to-ground contacts. The goal of this work was to isolate and characterize specific directional features in coarse- and fine-scale scratch damage generated during a rollover crash. Four rollover tests were completed using stock 2001 Chevrolet Trackers. Vehicles were decelerated and launched from a rollover test device to initiate driver’s side leading rolls onto concrete and dirt surfaces. Gross vehicle damage and both macroscopic and microscopic features of the scratch damage were documented using standard and macro lenses, a stereomicroscope, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The most evident indicators of scratch direction, and thus roll direction, were accumulations of abraded material found at the termination points of scratch-damaged areas.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1434
Gary A. Davis
Martinez and Schlueter (1996) described a method for reconstructing tripped rollover crashes, where the vehicle’s path is divided into pre-trip, trip, and post-trip phases. Brach and Brach (2011) also describe this method and noted that the trajectory segmentation method for the pre-trip phase needs further validation. When the rolling vehicle leaves a measurable yaw mark at the start of its pre-trip phase it might be possible to partially validate the roll model by comparing its initial speed estimates to those obtained from the critical speed method. This paper describes a Bayesian reconstruction of two such cases. For the first, the 95 percent confidence interval via the critical rate method was (64 mph, 73 mph) while the 95 percent confidence interval via the rollover model was (65 mph, 80 mph). For the second case the confidence intervals were (78 mph, 85 mh) and (79 mph, 92 mph), respectively.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1460
Massoud Tavakoli, Janet Brelin-Fornari
This study was conducted to explore the effect of various combinations of seatbelt-related safety components on the adult rear passenger involved in a frontal collision. The study was conducted on a 50th male and a 5th female Hybrid III ATD in the rear seat of a mid-sized sedan. Each ATD was seated in an outboard position with 3-point continuous lap-shoulder belts. On these belts were combinations of pretensioners and load limiters. Since the main objective of the test series was to cross-compare the seatbelt configurations, front seats were not included in the buck to avoid the possibility of contact with the front seat, hence avoiding such uncontrollable variables. Nevertheless, there was a short barrier devised to act as a foot-stop for both ATDs. A design of experiment (DOE) was constructed as a full factorial with and without a pretensioner and three types of load limiters. Each ATD was tested with a progressive load limiter (PLL1).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1458
Jia Hu
The driver and front row occupant safety is always the focus in the development of crash regulations and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). However in recent years, rear row occupant safety is also being paid attention to widely. The rear row occupant safety is being included in the NCAP of different countries. JNCAP began to assess the rear row occupant safety in 2009. C-NCAP started to assess the rear row occupant safety from July, 2012. Euro NCAP is also being updated. The frontal 50-kph full rigid barrier impact test will be included in Euro NCAP from 2015 and two Hybrid III 5th percentile dummies will be positioned in both the driver seat and the rear seat. For the rear row occupants wearing seatbelts, thoracic injuries from the seatbelt are by far the dominant injury type. For unbelted rear row occupants, the extremities and head are frequently injured by the B pillar, the front seat and other interior components.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1462
Seung Jun Yang
Euro-Ncap committee has been adopted overall impact star-grade system after 2009 and strengthening pedestrian protection cut-off score to obtain best impact-star grade until 2016. It is very difficult target to pass enhanced pedestrian cut-off score due to previous method. In this paper, I studied where is pedestrian weak area and why pedestrian injury is so high at that area based on our test result. I compared long-hood, 3 corner pop-up hood and pedestrian air-bag system. Finlly I suggest 3-corner rear-ward hood pop-up system is best method to meet our Impact new target in considering pedestrian protection ability, cost &weight.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1461
Dietmar Otte
During most pedestrian-vehicle crashes the car front impacts the pedestrian and the whole body wraps around the front shape of the car. Meanwhile the windscreen is tested in NCAP conditions. The severity of injuries is influenced by car impact speed; type of vehicle; stiffness and shape of the vehicle; nature of the front (such as the bumper height, bonnet height and length, windscreen frame); age and height of the pedestrian; and standing position of the pedestrian relative to the vehicle front. The socalled Wrap Around Distance WAD is one of important measurement for the assessment of protection. For the study accidents with pedestrians and bicyclists are used for the analysis, how good is the WAD for injury prediction. GIDAS (German In-Depth-Accident-Study) collects accidents as representative sample of the German accident situation based on in-depth-investigation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1469
Yan Wang, Taewung Kim, Yibing Li, Jeff Crandall
The characteristic of neck plays an important role on the kinematics and injury of pedestrian’s neck and head during the impact with vehicle, and the accuracy of the mathematical model affects the analysis results directly. A new mathematical pedestrian model has been developed in University of Virginia (UVA), which combines the advantages of both TNO facet occupant model and the lower extremity with more accuracy of biomechanical characteristics. So in this new pedestrian model, the occupant’s facet neck model developed by TNO is used to evaluate the pedestrian’s kinematics and dynamic response. Since the neck is special developed for occupants, the mechanical characteristics for lateral impact may not as good as that of frontal impact.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1471
Hiroyuki Asanuma, Yukou Takahashi
Investigation with a pedestrian dummy develops further understanding of real-world pedestrian accidents. Investigating injuries to the pedestrian lower body, biofidelity of the thigh, leg, and pelvis of a pedestrian dummy were improved. Plastic solid shafts, covered by flesh jackets were the thigh and the leg from earlier studies. Biofidelity has been evaluated by means of 3-point bending; however, the inertial properties of these parts were adjusted to mimic a human. Biofidelity of the dummy’s pelvis was evaluated in lateral compression of an isolated pelvis. The dummy tests were performed in only quasi-static condition. This study improves and validates the lower limb and the pelvis of the pedestrian dummy, enhancing injury assessment. These parts were subjected to latero-medial 3-point bending at the deflection rate of 1.5 m/s.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1466
Dietmar Otte, Thorsten Facius, Birgit Wiese
The overall number of severely injured participants and fatalities in road traffic accidents has decreased enormously in the last decades. These casualties in the group of riders of motorcycles in traffic accidents have only decreased in a smaller percentage. The aim of this study is to analyze the accident situation of motorcycles with severely injured and killed riders of motorcycles with cubic capacity > 125 cm³ in Germany, to identify the characteristics in injury mechanisms and accident constellations and to find countermeasures to be suggested. The accident data of 1,498 drivers of motorcycles involved in traffic accidents were analyzed, collected by a scientific research team of GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study) in the area of Hannover and Dresden within the years 2000 up to 2013. For finding such characteristic, two samples are selected and compared, first the group of MAIS 3+ injured cyclists (n= 245) and second the group of MAIS 1 and 2 injured cyclists (n= 1253).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1467
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Munenori Shinada
Logistic regression analysis for accident cases of NASS-PCDS (National Automotive Sampling System-Pedestrian Crash Data Study) database clearly shows that pedestrians’ lower extremity injury depends on various factors such as the impact speed, the ratio of the pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle, age of the pedestrian, and posture of impact. The head injury of a pedestrian is also influenced by the ratio of pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle. The pedestrian population is divided in 3 groups, equivalent to small, medium and large pedestrian w.r.t the pedestrian to BLE height-ratio in order to quantify the degree of influence of different parameters (leg orientation, direction of impact, and running/walking state before crash) on pedestrian injuries. Large adult male FE model (95th %ile male AM95:190 cm and 103 kg) is developed by morphing the JAMA 50th %ile male AM50.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0130
Julio Rodriguez, Ken Rogich, Philip Pidgeon, Kim Alexander, John R. Wagner
Abstract Driving skills and driving experience develop differently between a civilian and a military service member. Since 2000, the Department of Defense reports that two-thirds of non-related to war fatalities among active duty service members were due to transportation-related incidents. In addition, vehicle crashes are the leading non-related to war cause of both fatalities and serious injuries among active duty Marines. A pilot safe driving program for Marines was jointly developed by the Richard Petty Driving Experience and Clemson University Automotive Safety Research Institute. The pilot program includes four modules based on leading causes of vehicle crashes, and uses classroom and behind the wheel components to improve and reinforce safe driving skills and knowledge. The assessment results of this pilot program conducted with 192 Marines in September 2011 at Camp LeJeune, NC are presented and discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1415
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa
Abstract Fatal injuries suffered by cyclists in vehicle-versus-cyclist accidents are investigated to provide information for the introduction of safety countermeasures. We analyzed characteristics of cyclist injuries in real fatal accidents and compared them with severity levels of head injury in impact tests against a road surface. In the accident analyses, we investigated the main body regions whose injuries led to fatalities using a macro vehicle-cyclist accident database of the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis of Japan. Using data from 2009 to 2013, we investigated the frequency of cyclist fatalities by gender, age group, vehicle speed, and the source of fatal head injury (impact with the vehicle or road surface). Results indicated that head injuries are the most common cause of cyclist fatalities in car-cyclist accidents.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1419
Raymond M. Brach
Abstract Numerous algebraic formulas and mathematical models exist for the reconstruction of vehicle speed of a vehicle-pedestrian collision using pedestrian throw distance. Unfortunately a common occurrence is that the throw distance is not known because no evidence exists to locate the point of impact. When this is the case almost all formulas and models lose their utility. The model developed by Han and Brach published by SAE in 2001 is an exception because it can reconstruct vehicle speed based on the distance between the rest positions of the vehicle and pedestrian. The Han-Brach model is comprehensive and contains crash parameters such as pedestrian launch angle, height of the center of gravity of the pedestrian at launch, pedestrian-road surface friction, vehicle-road surface friction, road grade angle, etc. Such an approach provides versatility and allows variations of these variables to be taken into account for investigation of uncertainty.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0264
Jeya Padmanaban
Abstract This study examined the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) Death Certificate file to identify frequency and rate of accidental CO poisoning deaths associated with exhaust gases of stationary vehicles in enclosed areas. A comprehensive search was then made to determine whether or not there was an increase in such deaths with the introduction of “smart keys” (available as standard equipment beginning in 2004). For 2000-2011 CY, the CPSC file contained 4,760 death certificate records for ICD-10 code X47 (accidental poisoning by exposure to other gases and vapors). The manual review of narratives for these records covered 2004-2011 and found 1,553 CO poisoning deaths associated with vehicle exhaust, including 748 for enclosed areas. For these 748 incidents, information on victim and location was then identified, and an exhaustive effort was undertaken to determine whether the vehicles involved were equipped with rotary or smart keys.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0564
Sung Wook Moon, Byunghyun Kang, Jaeyoung Lim, Byoung-Ho Choi
Abstract In a car accident which is involving pedestrians, head injuries occur very frequently as the head of the pedestrian hits the windshield. The head injury criterion (HIC) obtained through the windshield impact test is used to evaluate the pedestrian injury, and car manufacturers are trying to meet the criterion by changing the design and/or materials.. However, there are some difficulties in the windshield impact test, e.g. a large scatter of the test data or windshield shape-dependent property of the test. These problems make it very difficult to obtain the meaningful results from single test and thus, tests should be executed several times. In this study, a lab-scale windshield impact test was performed using a modified instrumented dart impact (IDI) tester. Tests were carried out by switching test conditions such as the impact speed, the size of the head form and the specimen thickness.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1405
Guanjun Zhang, Feng Yu, Zhigao OuYang, Huiqin Chen, Zhonghao Bai, Libo Cao
Abstract The combination of passive and active vehicle safety technologies can effectively improve vehicle safety. Most of them predict vehicle crashes using radar or video, but they can't be applied extensively currently due to the high cost. Another collision forecasting method is more economic which is based on the driver behavior and vehicle status, such as the acceleration, angular velocity of the brake pedal and so on. However, the acceleration and angular velocity of the brake pedal will change with the driver and the vehicle type. In order to study the effect of different drivers and vehicle types on the braking acceleration and angular velocity of the brake pedal, six volunteers were asked to drive five vehicles for simulating the working conditions of emergency braking, normal braking, inching braking and passing barricades under different velocities. All the tests were conducted on asphalt road, and comprehensive experimental design was used to arrange tests.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1410
Shotaro Odate, Kazuhiro Daido, Yosuke Mizutani
According to the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS), which is a North American automobile accident database, collision events referred to as multiple-collision accidents, in which multiple collisions occur during travel, account for 55% of all accidents. In addition, multiple-collision accidents in which collision events following the first collision event are more severe than the first event account for 20% of all accidents. In a first collision, the system had simultaneously operated to restrain and protect the vehicle occupant. If the multiple-collision accidents occurs, because the system for restraining and protecting vehicle occupants will have already deployed, the performance of the system can be limited from subsequent collisions.
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