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2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0057
Yuji Arai, Makoto Hasegawa, Takeshi Harigae
ISO 26262 was established in 2011 as a functional safety standard for road vehicles. This standard provides safety requirements according to ASIL (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) in order to avoid unreasonable residual risk caused by malfunctioning behavior of safety-related electrical and/or electronic systems. The ASIL is determined by considering the estimate of three factors including injury severity. While applicable only to passenger cars at present, motorcycles will be included in the scope of application of ISO 26262 in the next revision. Therefore, our previous study focused on severity class evaluation for motorcycles. A method of classifying injury severity according to vehicle speed was developed on the basis of accident data. In addition, a severity table for motorcycles was created using accident data in representative collision configurations involved with motorcycles in Japan.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8049
Keith Friedman, Khanh Bui, John Hutchinson, Matthew Stephens, Francisco Gonzalez
Frame rail design advances for the heavy truck industry provide numerous opportunities for enhanced protection of fuel storage systems. One aspect of the advanced frame technology now available is the ability to vary the frame rail separation along the length of the truck, as well as the depth of the frame. The frame technology opens opportunities that are likely to improve crash compatibility, fuel economy, fuel storage system protection. While examples of integrated front, side and rear underride protection systems enabled with this frame design technology, in this study, the effect of incorporating the fuel storage system within the available curved frame rails was evaluated using virtual testing. Fuel system storage for diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) were evaluated under impact conditions. The impact performance was evaluated under a range of horizontal impacts and rollover conditions.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8098
Satish Jaju, Sahil Pandare
Abstract The regulatory requirement in Economic Commission for Europe (ECE R58) regulation applies to the Rear underrun protection devices which are intended to be fitted to commercial vehicles of N categories. The purpose of this regulation is to offer effective protection against underrunning of vehicles. This paper describes Computer aided engineering (CAE) methodology for testing rear underrun protection devices with loading sequences to be decided by Original equipment manufacturer. A sample model is prepared and analyzed to represent actual test conditions. Constraints and boundary conditions are applied as per test of vehicle. Finite element simulation is carried out using LS DYNA solver. Structural strength and integrity of Rear under protection device assembly is observed for different regulatory load requirement.
2016-08-23
Standard
J2956_201608
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the test procedures for conducting side impact occupant restraint and equipment mounting integrity tests for ambulance patient compartment applications. Its purpose is to describe crash pulse characteristics and establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system and equipment mounting testing for ambulances. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, and the test fixtures are included.
2016-08-17
Standard
J2917_201608
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the test procedures for conducting frontal impact occupant restraint and equipment mounting integrity tests for ambulance patient compartment applications. Its purpose is to describe crash pulse characteristics and establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system and equipment mounting testing for ambulances. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, and the test fixtures are included.
2016-08-17
Standard
J3044_201608
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the test procedures for conducting rear impact occupant restraint and equipment mounting integrity tests for ambulance patient compartment applications. Its purpose is to describe crash pulse characteristics and establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system and equipment mount testing for ambulances. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, and the test fixtures are included.
2016-07-12
Standard
AIR6237
The scope of this document is to provide review of recent history of loss-of-control accidents during airline revenue operations.
2016-07-12
Standard
J2052_201607
This methodology can be used for all calculations of HIC, with all test devices having an upper neck triaxial load cell mounted rigidly to the head, and head triaxial accelerometers.
2016-07-06
WIP Standard
J224
The purpose and scope of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide a basis for classification of the extent of vehicle deformation caused by vehicle accidents on the highway. It is necessary to classify collision contact deformation (as opposed to induced deformation) so that the accident deformation may be segregated into rather narrow limits. Studies of collision deformation can then be performed on one or many data banks with assurance that the data under study are of essentially the same type. The seven-character code is also an expression useful to persons engaged in automobile safety, to describe appropriately a field-damaged vehicle with conciseness in their oral and written communications. Although this classification system was established primarily for use by professional teams investigating accidents in depth, other groups may also find it useful.
2016-07-06
WIP Standard
J1674
The purpose of this SAE Standard is to offer simplified and prioritized guidelines for collecting and preserving on-scene data related to motor vehicle accidents. It is intended that these guidelines improve the effectiveness of data collection, which will assist subsequent analysis and reconstruction of a particular incident. The document is to guide early data collectors whose objectives include documenting information related to the incident. it may be used by law enforcement personnel, safety officials, insurance adjusters and other interested parties. The document identifies categories of scene physical features that deteriorate relatively quickly and recomends documentation task priorities. Detailed methods of collecting data are not part of this document. However, some widely used methods are described in the references in Seciton 2.
2016-06-28
Standard
J2878_201606
This procedure establishes a recommended practice for performing a Low Speed Thorax Impact Test to the Hybrid III Small Female Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD or crash dummy). This test was created to satisfy the demand by the industry to have a certification test which results in peak chest deflection similar to current full vehicle, frontal impact tests. An inherent problem exists with the current certification procedure because the normal (6.7 m/s) thorax impact test has test results for peak chest deflection that are greater than those currently seen in full vehicle, frontal tests. The intent of this document is to develop a low speed thorax certification procedure for the H-III5F dummy with a 3.0 m/s impact similar to the SAE J2779 procedure for the H-III50M dummy.
2016-05-10
WIP Standard
J2926
Rollover test methods that have been used is provided. Published papers discussing methods used to develop, evaluate, or test components, subsystems, or full vehicles under rollover conditions were reviewed and are described.
2016-04-15
Journal Article
2015-01-9020
Emre Sert, Pinar Boyraz
Abstract Studies have shown that the number of road accidents caused by rollover both in Europe and in Turkey is increasing [1]. Therefore, rollover related accidents became the new target of the studies in the field of vehicle dynamics research aiming for both active and passive safety systems. This paper presents a method for optimizing the rear suspension geometry using design of experiment and multibody simulation in order to reduce the risk of rollover. One of the major differences of this study from previous work is that it includes statistical Taguchi method in order to increase the safety margin. Other difference of this study from literature is that it includes all design tools such as model validation, optimization and full vehicle handling and ride comfort tests. Rollover angle of the vehicle was selected as the cost function in the optimization algorithm that also contains roll stiffness and height of the roll center.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1370
Vali Farahani, Salamah Maaita, Aditya Jayanthi
Abstract During the course of automobile Instrument Panel (IP) design development, the occupant head impact CAE simulation on IP are routinely performed to validate FMVSS201 requirements. Based on FMVSS201 requirements, the potential head impact zones on the IP are first identified. Then, the head impact zones are used to locate the various target points that must be impacted on IP. Once the critical target locations on IP are chosen, there are several computational steps that are required to calculate impact angles and head form (HF) center of rotation in reference to target points. Then, CAE engineer performs a repetitive process that involves positioning each individual HF with proper impact angle, assigning initial velocity to HF, and defining surface contacts within the finite element model (FEM). To simplify these lengthy manual steps, a commercially available software HyperMesh® CAE software tool is used to automate these steps.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1529
Gunti R. Srinivas, Anindya Deb, Clifford C. Chou, Malhar Kumar
Abstract Periprosthetic fractures refer to the fractures that occur in the vicinity of the implants of joint replacement arthroplasty. Most of the fractures during an automotive frontal collision involve the long bones of the lower limbs (femur and tibia). Since the prevalence of persons living with lower limb joint prostheses is increasing, periprosthetic fractures that occur during vehicular accidents are likely to become a considerable burden on health care systems. It is estimated that approximately 4.0 million adults in the U.S. currently live with Total Knee Replacement (TKR) implants. Therefore, it is essential to study the injury patterns that occur in the long bone of a lower limb containing a total knee prosthesis. The aim of the present study is to develop an advanced finite element model that simulates the possible fracture patterns that are likely during vehicular accidents involving occupants who have knee joint prostheses in situ.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1530
Yury Chudnovsky, Justin Stocks-Smith, Jeya Padmanaban, Joe Marsh
Abstract NASS/CDS data (1993-2013) was used to examine serious injury rates and injury sources for belted drivers in near- and far-side impacts. Frequency and severity of near- and far-side impacts by crash severity (delta-V) were compared for older (1994-2007 MY) and newer (2008-2013 MY) vehicles. For 2008-2013 MY, individual cases were examined for serious thorax injury in far-side impacts. Results show that, for newer passenger cars, about 92% of side impacts have a delta-V under 15 mph and, for older cars, the percentage is about 86%. The rate of serious injury is higher for nearside compared to far-side crashes for both older and newer models, and the near-side injury rate is much lower for newer models. Safety features, including side airbags, are effective in reducing injuries to near-side belted drivers in newer models. The serious injury rate for near-side belted drivers in older cars is 5.5% for near-side crashes and 1.2% for far-side crashes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1539
Do Hoi KIm
Abstract Given the importance of vehicle safety, OEMs are focused on ensuring the safety of passengers during car accidents. Injury is related to the passenger’s kinematics and interaction with airbag, seatbelt, and vehicle drop. However, the correlation between vehicle drop (vehicle pitch) and passengers’ injury is the main issue recently being discussed. This paper presents the definition of vehicle drop and analyzes the relationship through a dynamic sled test. This study defines the relationship between individual vehicle systems (body, chassis, tire, etc.) and vehicle drop, and how to control the amount of vehicle drop to minimize the injury of passengers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1485
Noritoshi Atsumi, Yuko Nakahira, Masami Iwamoto, Satoko Hirabayashi, Eiichi Tanaka
Abstract A reduction in brain disorders owing to traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by head impacts in traffic accidents is needed. However, the details of the injury mechanism still remain unclear. In past analyses, brain parenchyma of a head finite element (FE) model has generally been modeled using simple isotropic viscoelastic materials. For further understanding of TBI mechanism, in this study we developed a new constitutive model that describes most of the mechanical properties in brain parenchyma such as anisotropy, strain rate dependency, and the characteristic features of the unloading process. Validation of the model was performed against several material test data from the literature with a simple one-element model. The model was also introduced into the human head FE model of THUMS v4.02 and validated against post-mortem human subject (PMHS) test data about brain displacements and intracranial pressures during head impacts.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1481
Gary A. Davis, Abhisek Mudgal
Abstract A continuing topic of interest is how to best use information from Event Data Recorders (EDR) to reconstruct crashes. If one has a model which can predict EDR data from values of the target variables of interest, such as vehicle speeds at impact, then in principle one can invert this model to estimate the target values from EDR measurements. In practice though this can require solving a system of nonlinear equations and a reasonably flexible method for carrying this out involves replacing the inverse problem with nonlinear least-squares (NLS) minimization. NLS has been successfully applied to two-vehicle planar impact crashes in order to estimate impact speeds from different combinations of EDR, crush, and exit angle measurements, but an open question is how to assess the uncertainty associated with these estimates. This paper describes how Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation can be used to quantify uncertainty in planar impact crashes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1480
Jakub Zebala, Wojciech Wach, Piotr Ciępka, Robert Janczur
Abstract This article presents the results of an analysis of the yaw marks left by a car with normal pressure in all tires and then normal pressure in three tires and zero in one rear tire. The analysis is a continuation of research on influence of reduced tire pressure on car lateral dynamics in a passing maneuver, discussed in the SAE paper No. 2014-01-0466. Preliminary analysis of yaw marks has shown, that a wheel with zero pressure deposits a yaw mark whose geometry differs from the yaw mark made by a wheel with normal pressure based on which we could calculate: critical speed, slip angle and longitudinal wheel slip. The aim of the presented research was to analyze the yaw marks left by car with zero pressure in one rear wheel in order to check the possibility of determining the vehicle critical speed, slip angle and longitudinal wheel slip. It was reached by performing bench and road tests during which the vehicle motion parameters were recorded using GPS Data Logging System.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1472
Dietmar Otte, Martin Urban, Heiko Johannsen
Abstract Estimating the potential benefit of advanced safety systems by simulation has become increasingly important during the last years. All over the world OEMs and suppliers carry out benefit estimations by simulations via computer models. Such simulations should, of course, be based on real world scenario such as the pre-crash phase of real world accidents. Several methodologies for building up accident scenarios have been developed in the past. This paper shows a new method for generating pre-crash scenarios directly from the reconstruction of the accident by using the software PC-Crash1. The new method was developed by the Medical University Hannover (MHH) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Transportation Dresden (Fraunhofer IVI). It is based on transferring all information (participant-, vehicle-, environment- and motion-data) from the reconstruction file into a scenario-database.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1465
John Zolock, Carmine Senatore, Ryan Yee, Robert Larson, Brian Curry
Abstract As a result of the development of Event Data Recorders (EDR) and the recent FMVSS regulation 49 CFR 563, today’s automobiles provide a limited subset of electronic data measurements of a vehicle’s state before and during a crash. Prior to this data, the only information available about the vehicle movements before or during a collision had come from physical evidence (e.g. tire marks), witnesses, aftermarket camera systems on vehicles, and ground-based cameras that were monitoring vehicle traffic or used for security surveillance. Today’s vehicles equipped with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) have vehicle-based sensors that measure information about the environment around a vehicle including other vehicles, pedestrians, and fixed wayside objects.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1458
Ryuta Ono, Wataru Ike, Yuki Fukaya
Abstract Toyota Safety Sense is a safety system package developed to help drivers avoid accident types with a high frequency of occurrence. This paper deals with pre-collision system which forms the core of Toyota Safety Sense, especially Toyota Safety Sense P which uses a combined sensor configuration consisting of a monocular camera paired with millimeter wave radar, in order to achieve both high recognition performance and reliability. The use of a wide-angle monocular camera, millimeter wave radar integrated in the front grill emblem, and a collision determination algorithm for pedestrian targets enabled the development of a pre-collision system comprising detection capability of crossing pedestrians. Toyota has developed warning and pre-collision brake assist for driver to assist in avoiding a collision effectively; In addition, Pre-collision brake has achieved high level of performance for the drivers who cannot avoid a collision.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1461
William T. Neale, David Danaher, Sean McDonough, Tomas Owens
Abstract There are numerous publically available smart phone applications designed to track the speed and position of the user. By accessing the phones built in GPS receivers, these applications record the position over time of the phone and report the record on the phone itself, and typically on the application’s website. These applications range in cost from free to a few dollars, with some, that advertise greater functionality, costing significantly higher. This paper examines the reliability of the data reported through these applications, and the potential for these applications to be useful in certain conditions where monitoring and recording vehicle or pedestrian movement is needed. To analyze the reliability of the applications, three of the more popular and widely used tracking programs were downloaded to three different smart phones to represent a good spectrum of operating platforms.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1518
Carolyn W. Roberts, Jacek Toczyski, Jack Cochran, Qi Zhang, Patrick Foltz, Bronislaw Gepner, Jason Kerrigan, Mark Clauser
Abstract Multiple laboratory dynamic test methods have been developed to evaluate vehicle crashworthiness in rollover crashes. However, dynamic test methods remove some of the characteristics of actual crashes in order to control testing variables. These simplifications to the test make it difficult to compare laboratory tests to crashes. One dynamic method for evaluating vehicle rollover crashworthiness is the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS), which simulates translational motion with a moving road surface and constrains the vehicle roll axis to a fixed plane within the laboratory. In this study, five DRoTS vehicle tests were performed and compared to a pair of unconstrained steering-induced rollover tests. The kinematic state of the unconstrained vehicles at the initiation of vehicle-to-ground contact was determined using instrumentation and touchdown parameters were matched in the DRoTS tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1517
Cole R. Young, David J. King, James V. Bertoch
Abstract The purpose of this study was to characterize the kinematics of four Chevrolet Tracker rollover tests and to determine their average and intermediate deceleration rates while traveling on concrete and dirt. Single vehicle rollover tests were performed using four 2001 Chevrolet Trackers fitted with six degree of freedom kinematic sensors. Tests were conducted using a rollover test device (RTD) in accordance with SAE J2114. The test dolly was modified (resting height of the vehicle wheels was raised) between tests 1, 2, and 3. The RTD was accelerated to 15.6 m/s (35 mph) and then decelerated rapidly by an energy absorbing crash cushion (EA) to cause the vehicle to launch and roll. The vehicles initially rolled on a smooth concrete surface and continued into loose dirt. This paper adds to the body of work identifying phases of constant deceleration during staged RTD tests and compares these phases to the overall deceleration rate.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1512
Jeya Padmanaban, Roger Burnett, Andrew Levitt
Abstract This paper updates the findings of prior research addressing the relationship between seatback strength and likelihood of serious injury/fatality to belted drivers and rear seat occupants in rear-impact crashes. Statistical analyses were performed using 1995-2014 CY police-reported crash data from seventeen states. Seatback strength for over 100 vehicle model groupings (model years 1996-2013) was included in the analysis. Seatback strength is measured in terms of the maximum moment that results in 10 inches of seat displacement. These measurements range from 5,989 in-lbs to 39,918 in-lbs, resulting in a wide range of seatback strengths. Additional analysis was done to see whether Seat Integrated Restraint Systems (SIRS) perform better than conventional belts in reducing driver and rear seat occupant injury in rear impacts. Field data shows the severe injury rate for belted drivers in rear-impact crashes is less than 1%.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1516
Takahiro Suzaki, Noritaka Takagi, Kosho Kawahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
Abstract Approximately 20% of traffic fatalities in United States 2012 were caused by rollover accidents. Mostly injured parts were head, chest, backbone and arms. In order to clarify the injury mechanism of rollover accidents, kinematics of six kinds of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in the rolling compartment, whose body size is 50th percentile male (AM50), were researched by Zhang et al.(2014) using rollover buck testing system. It was clarified from the research that flexibility of the backbone and thoracic vertebra affected to occupant’s kinematics. On the other hand, the kinematics research of body size except AM50 will be needed in order to decrease traffic fatalities. There were few reports about the researches of occupant kinematics using FE models of body sizes except AM50.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1514
Varun Bollapragada, Taewung Kim, Mark Clauser, Jeff Crandall, Jason Kerrigan
Abstract Some rollover testing methodologies require specification of vehicle kinematic parameters including travel speed, vertical velocity, roll rate, and pitch angle, etc. at the initiation of vehicle to ground contact, which have been referred to as touchdown conditions. The complexity of the vehicle, as well as environmental and driving input characteristics make prediction of realistic touchdown conditions for rollover crashes, and moreover, identification of parameter sensitivities of these characteristics, is difficult and expensive without simulation tools. The goal of this study was to study the sensitivity of driver input on touchdown parameters and the risk of rollover in cases of steering-induced soil-tripped rollovers, which are the most prevalent type of rollover crashes. Knowing the range and variation of touchdown parameters and their sensitivities would help in picking realistic parameters for simulating controlled rollover tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1511
Jan Vychytil, Ludek Hyncik, Jaroslav Manas, Petr Pavlata, Radim Striegler, Tomas Moser, Radek Valasek
Abstract In this work we present the VIRTHUMAN model as a tool for injury risk assessment in pedestrian crash scenarios. It is a virtual human body model formed of a multibody structure and deformable segments to account for the mechanical response of soft tissues. Extensive validation has been performed to ensure its biofidelity. Due to the scaling algorithm implemented, variations in the human population in terms of height, weight, gender and age can be considered. Assessment of the injury risk is done via automatic evaluation software developed. Injury criteria for individual body parts are evaluated using accelerations, forces and displacements of certain points. Injury risk is indicated by the colour of particular body parts in accordance with NCAP rating. A real accident is investigated in this work. A 60-year-old female was hit laterally by a passenger vehicle with the impact velocity of 40 km/h. The accident is reconstructed using VIRTHUMAN as pedestrian representative.
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